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Full text of "Electric railway journal"

Electric Railway 
Journal 



19U 



Qfer ores? 



Index to Volume XLIII 

January to June, 1914 



McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

239 West 39th St., New York City 



q o * 

-T7-T 

» 



Instructions for Use of Index 



This index is essentially a subject index, 
not an index of titles, and articles treating a 
number of different subjects are indexed un- 
der each subject. In addition, a geographical 
reference is published wherever the article 
relates to any particular railway company. 
The geographical method of grouping serves 
to locate in the index any article descriptive 
of practices, conditions, events, etc., when the 
searcher knows the name of the electric 
railway to which the article refers. Group- 
ings are made under the names of the city 
in which the main office of the company is 
located, and cross references are given for 
the names of the railways, which appear in 
alphabetical order. An exception is made in 
the case of electrified sections of steam rail- 
roads, such entries being made direct under 
the name of the railroad. 



In the subject index, the alphabetical 
method is followed, and if there is a choice 
of two or three keywords the one most gen- 
erally used has been selected, and cross refer- 
ences are supplied. Below will be found a 
list of the more common keywords used in 
the index. This list has been subdivided for 
convenience into sixteen general subjects, but 
the general subject headings, shown in capi- 
tal letters, do not appear in the body of the 
index. As an example, if a reader wished to 
locate an article on power-driven motor 
trucks he would obviously look in the list 
under the general subject "vehicles," and of 
the four keywords that appear under this 
only "Commercial Vehicles" could apply to 
the article in question. The reader would 
therefore refer to this keyword under "C" in 
the body of the index. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF KEYWORDS 



ACCIDENTS AND LEGAL 
Accidents (including wrecks) 
Accident claim department 
Legislation 
I jenal 

Public service commissions 
Public service corporations 

CARS 

Car design 
Cars (descriptive) 
Cleaning of cars 
Gasoline cars 
Lubrication 
Heating of cars 
Lighting of cars 
Storage battery cars 
Tower cars 
Ventilation of cars 
Work cars 
Wrecking cars 



CAR EQUIPMENT 

Axles 
Bearings 
Brakes, air 

Controllers and wiring 
Couplers 

Current-collection 

Fenders and wheel guards 

Gears 

Headlights 

Journals 

Motors 

Trucks, car 

Wheels 

EMPLOYEES 
Employees 
Strikes 

PARES 

Pare collection (including ap- 
paratus) 
Fares 

Freight rates 

Through routes and joint rates 

Tickets 

Transfers 

FINANCIAL AND STATISTICS 
Accounting 

Appraisal of railway property 
Financial 



Franchises 
Maps 

Operating records and costs 
Statistics 

Traffic investigations, cities 

HEAVY ELECTRIC TRACTION 
Heavy electric traction 
High tension d.c. railways 
Interurban railways 
Locomotives 
Single-phase railways 

MAINTENANCE OF EQUIP- 
MENT 
Cleaning of cars 
Inspection of cars 
Maintenance records and costs 
Paints and painting 
Repair shop equipment 
Repair shop practice 
Repair shops 
Tests of equipment 
Washing of cars 
Welding, special methods 

OPERATION 
Dispatching trains 
Multiple-unit trains 
Operating records and costs 
Passenger handling records 
Rules 

Schedules and time tables 
Signals ; , , 
Stoprjfjljg pf cars 
TelfepkoncG 
Tra'ilev 'operation 
Yarc-s' ; ' 

POWER 
Boilers and equipment 
Cables 

Catenary construction 
Converters 

Overhead construction 
Poles 

Power distribution 
Power generation 
Power stations 
Purchased power 
Storage batteries 
Substations 



Transmission lines 
Trolley wire 

Turbo-generators and equipment 

RECORDS 
Maintenance records and costs 
Operating records and costs 
Passenger handling records 
Record forms 

STRUCTURES 

Bridges 
Carhouses 
Freight stations 
Power stations 
Repair shops 

Terminal stations and terminals 
Waiting stations 

TRACK 

Pavement 

Rail joints and bonds 

Rails 

Ties 

Track construction 
Track maintenance 

TRAFFIC 

Advertising 

Freight and express 

Parks and pleasure resorts 

Public, relations with 

Publicity 

Routing of cars 

Signs on cars 

Traffic investigations, cities 

VEHICLES (not on tracks) 
Commercial vehicles 
Motor buses 

Service and tower wagons 
Trackless trolleys 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Fire protection and insurance 
Lightning 

Municipal ownership 

Organization charts 

Public, relations with 

Standardization 

Storerooms 

Timber preservation 



In addition to the groups of articles cov- 
ered by these headings the papers and re- 
ports from electric railway and steam railroad 
associations are grouped under the names 
of the various societies. Proceedings of other 
associations are indexed only in accordance 
with the subject discussed. The heading 
"Cars" includes all extended descriptions of 
individual types of cars, but short accounts 
of cars displaying no important innovations 
appear only under the name of the railway to 



which they apply. Under the headings 
"Financial" and "Statistics" appear all ar- 
ticles relating generally to capitalization, 
earnings and operating costs, as distin- 
guished from the detailed and highly sub- 
divided figures that are entered under "Oper- 
ating Records and Costs." Short descriptions 
of machine tools appear only under the head- 
ing "Repair Shop Equipment" and are not 
indexed alphabetically, because of the wide 
choice in most cases of the proper key word 



January-June, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



Ill 



INDEX TO VOLUME XLIII 



PAGES BY WEEKS. 



Jan 3 pages 1 to 64 

Jan. 10 " 65 to 108 

Jan. 17 " 109 to 162 

Jan. 24 " 163 to 216 

Jan. 31 " 217 to 288 

Feb. 7 " 289 to 342 

Feb. 14 " 343 to 390 

Feb. 21 " 391 to 440 

Feb. 28 " 441 to 504 

March 7 " 505 to 568 

March 14 " 569 to 618 

March 21 " 619 to 698 

March 28 " 699 to 752 

April 4 " 753 to 804 

April 11 " 805 to 856 

April 18 " 857 to 906 

April 25 " 907 to 954 

May 2 " 955 to 1018 

May 9 " 1019 to 1066 

May 16 " 1067 to 1126 

May 23 " 1127 to 1182 

May 30 " 1183 to 1238 

June 6 " 1239 to 1310 

June 13 " 1311 to 1370 

June 30 " 1371 to 1426 

June 27 " 1427 to 1486 



A 

Accident claim department: 

Accident-saving value of old employees, 

Scranton Ry. [Reillv], 1083 

Ambulance chasing denounced by ex- 
President Taft, 486 

Analysis of damage claims [Rice], 1084 

Board of Accident Prevention, Meeting. 

1462 

Fakirs in New Jersey, 334, 1175 

Index bureau. Neglect of railways to use 

Hooper-Holmes Bureau [Weh], c778; 
Comment, 756 

Platform accidents in Moscow [Shere- 

metewsky], c675 " 

Prevention: 

Accident prevention engineer, Work 

of [Fuller], 934 
Akron, Ohio, Letters to team and 

automobile owners, 561, 610 
Anthony N. Brady gold medal, Condi- 
tions of competition, 1037 
Beaver Valley Traction Co., Cam- 
paign details, * 1 390 ; Comment, 
1373 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. [Bul- 
lock], 711 

Safety cards in school language 
study, 612 
Buffalo International Ry., 1090 
Chicago : 

Public co-operation requested, 434 
Use of moving pictures, 949 
Dallas, Tex., Safety campaign, 1111 
Denver Safety League, 746 
Detroit United Ry. : 
Campaign, 1060 

"Safety First" instruction car, 
562; [Sarvis], *59S 

El Paso Electric Ry., Competition be- 
tween train crews, 498, 745 

Folding steps in Kansas City, 815 

Kansas City : 

Metropolitan Street Ry., *1270 
Removing possible footholds from 

cars, 914 
Safety primer for schools, 102 
Smallpox campaign, 385 

Louisville Ry., "Safety First" League, 
1364. 

Memphis, Tenn., Safety work, 1010 
Menace of the motorist, 948 
Montreal Tramways, Campaign meth- 
ods, 988; Comment, 955 
Moving pictures. (See Moving pic- 
tures) 

New Albany, Ind., Safety first re- 
sults, 384 

New Midland, Ohio, Safety first ideas 

in timetables, 157 
New York: 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co. 

[Doyle], 709; Comment, 707 
Third Avenue Ry. [Maher), 708: 
805 

Organization for a safety campaign 

[Bullock], 711 
Portland, Ore., Safety first signs in, 

*316 

Public Service Ry. [Van Brunt], 712; 

Comment, 707 
Publicity about car design to prevent 

serious accidents, 805 
Records, Value of classified, 805 
Repair shop safeguards, 66 



Accident claim department: 

Prevention: (Continued) 

"Safety first" plates for cars 

(Grammes), * 1 3 5 
Safety work and personal efficiency 

[Schneider], 348 
Symposium on safety first movement 

at convention of Southwestern 

Electric and Gas Association, 

1139 

Trenton and Mercer County Traction 

Corp., 384 
Union Traction Co. of Indiana, 851, 

1362 

Vienna, Moving pictures and posters, 
♦188 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern 
Ry., Results [Welsh, Jr.], 984 

Relations with the public, 294 

"Safety agent" instead of "claim agent" 

in Louisville, Ky., 291 
Accidents : 

Cleveland, Increase, 53 

— i — Detroit, Decrease, 104 

Interstate Commerce Commission report 

for 1913, 383, 1233 

London, 1347 

New Jersey, 497 

Maine railways, 900 

New York City, 1913, 103, 334, 497 

-New York State, 497 

Ohio, 1176 

San Francisco, Observations at railway 

crossing, 50 
Accountants' Association: 

Committees : 

Life of railway physical property, 

Members, 45; Report, 932 
Members, 416 

Transportation-accounting, 727 
— — Conference with Interstate Commerce 
Commission on accounting system, 
727 

Educational course in accounting, Outline 

of, 1214; [Tingley], c!401; Comment, 
1372 

(See also Central Electric Railway Ac- 
countants' Association) 
Accounting : 

Abandoned property, Accounting treat- 
ment of U. S. Supreme Court deci- '■■ 
sion, Kansas City Southern R. R., 392 

Charging off obsolescence, Cleveland Ry., 

424 

Cost of progress an operating charge, 

Kansas I ity Southern R.R., 392 

• Course in accounting offered by Account- 
ants' Association, 1214 

Depreciation: 

Charges on equipment, Pennsylvania 
R.R., 981 

Discussions [Alvord], 370; [Black], 
235; [Byllesby], 791; [Campbell], 

736 

Hearing by Massachusetts Public 
Service Commission, 1054, 1152 

Lack of provision for, by electric rail- 
ways, 507 

Need of explicit directions from pub- 
lic service commissions [Erick- 
son], 306; Comment, 293 

Ohio charges, 1472- _ 

Work of joint committee of Engineer- 
ing and Accountants' Associa- 
tions, 932 

Engineers' accounting knowledge [Hum- 
phreys], 366 
— i — Factors determining a reasonable charge 
for public utility service [Cooley], 124 

Fares, Improved methods [Forse], c884 

"Going value," Recognition of, for rate 

making, Case of Kings County 
Lighting Company, 821 
-Intangible values in settlement cases, To- 
ronto Ry., 5 

Interstate Commerce Commission system: 

Conference with Accountants' Asso- 
ciation, 727 
Criticism by Central Electric Railway 

Accountants' Association, 723 
Discussion by committee of Account- 
ants' Association [Wilson], c674 
Discussion by various railways 

[Weeks, Young, Tingley], c720 
Letter to accounting officers of elec- 
tric railways, 588 
Opinions [Davies, Bramble, Stivers, 
Elkins, Bigelow], c777; [Glover, 
Cade, Forsel, c828; [Bridges], 
c883; [Brion], c980 
Titles of accounts. Condensed classi- 
fication for small carriers, 1321; 
Comment, 1311 

Invoice sticker, Public Service Ry., 454 

Maintenance and depreciation [Cole, 

Rifenberick, Connette], c881; 
[Wildman], c8S2 
Lack of concerted action on part of 
public service commissions, 620; 
[Williams], c720: [Boggs], c828 
New York Public Service Commis- 
sion [Weber], c827 

— Missouri, Uniform system, 328 

National Electric Light Association Re- 
ports, 1273 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Accounting: (Continued) 

Operating expenses, Compiling [Kase- 

meier], 1445 

Overhead charges in valuations [Abend- 
roth], 1434 

Power in Chicago, Chicago City Ry. [Ar- 
nold], 1152, 1249; Comment, 1127 
Repair shop, Third Avenue Ry. [John- 
son], *780 

— ■ — Uniformity of financial statements, Need 

for, 859 
Advertising : 

— i — Billboard, Illinois Traction System, *1396 

Methods [Barron and Williams], 54 

Newspaper : 

Notes, 1254 

Toledo criticisms requested and an- 
swered, 1250 

Posters of London Electric Ry., *1 144 

Agriculture: 

Development furthered by Shore Line 

Electric Ry., 561 

Relation of the street railway to, Discus- 
sion at Massachusetts Street Railway 
Association, 191 

Air brakes. (See Brakes, Air) 

Akron, Ohio, Northern Ohio Traction & Light 
Co.: 

Agreement between the city and the com- 
pany, 843 

Annual report, 331 

Appraisal of property, 426 

Extension agreement terms, 601 

— i — Franchise ordinance, Changes, 93, 146 

"Safety First" movement, Letters to team 

and automobile owners, 561, 610 

Terminal proposed, 940 

Wage increase, 1060 

Albany, N. Y., United Traction Co.: 
^ars, Semi-steel pay-within, without bulk- 
heads, *1030 

Conduit cutting apparatus, *89 

■ Express service, 611 

Service recommendations, 283; [Barnes], 

1478 

Trucks lengthened to stop nosing, 143 

Alberta, Can., Calgary Municipal Ry., Annual 

report, 1360 
Albia, la., Southern Iowa Railway & Light 

Co., Incorporation, 898 
Allentown, Pa,: 

Easton Consolidated Electric Co., Annual 

report, 1056 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. : 

Annual report, 279 
Wage increase, 335 

Alliance, Ohio, Stark Electric Ry., Fare col- 
lection methods, 144 

Alton, 111., Jacksonville & Peoria Ry., Sale, 
1301 

American Association for Labor, Legislation, 
Annual meeting, 27 

American Economic Association, Annual meet- 
ing in Minneapolis, 36, 75; Com- 
ment, 4 

American Electric Railway Accountants' As- 
sociation. (See Accountants' Asso- 
ciation,) 

American Electric kailway Association: 
Anthony N. Brady gold medal, Condi- 
tions of competition for, 1037 

Attorneys' affiliated association proposed, 

263 

— —Board of Accident Prevention Meeting, 
1462 

Code of principles, 218, 237 

Committees: 

Car equipment sub-committees, Meet- 
ings, 1214 
Cost of passenger transportation serv- 
ice, Report of, 1383 
Education, Meetings, 1340, 1400 
Federal relations, 248, 487, 533 
Joint use of poles, Report, 249; Meet- 
ing, 414 

Power distribution, Meetings, 1269, 
1340 

Public relations. Meeting, 1268 
Standard classification of accounts, 
1400 

Company sections: 

Denver [Casey], 826, 1215 
Milwaukee, 401, 541, 1134 
Plea for [Schreiber], 250; Discussion 

[Stearns], 417 
Public Service Rys., 139, 459, 541, 
1190 

Washington Railway & Electric Co., 
529, 1215 
Convention : 

Atlantic City, Plans, 1019, 1037, *1268 

"Boost the convention," 1312 

Location committee, 478 
Convention of 1915, Location committee, 

480 

Data sheets, Value of, 391 

Fare Research Bureau organized, 1037, 

1080 

Report on cost of passenger transpor- 
tation service, 1383 

-Membership. Opportunity of the small 

company, 956 
— Midyear meeting, 45, 86, 135, 187; Com- 
ment, 109 



IV 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLIII. 



American Electric Railway Association: 

-Midyear meeting: (.Continued) 

iianquet, 234 

President's address [Black], 234 
Iroceedings, 245 

Opportunities before the Association 

L Black J, 6 

Protest of representatives against Ray- 
burn bill. Hearing before Senate Com- 
mittee, 1399; Comment, 1372 

Testimony of representatives, at hearing 

on public ownership for Washington, 
D. C. [Kerr], 1145; Comment, 1183; 
[Harries], 1193; [Rosecrantz], 1195; 
IClark], 1198; [Hendershott], 1203; 
[Nicholas], 1204; Comment, 1184, 
1242; Other testimony, 1275 

American Electric Railway Claim Agents' As- 
sociation. (See Claims Association) 

American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 
iation : 

Committees : 

Block signals, Meetings, 663, 671, 1462 
Equipment, Meetings, 86, 1036, 1461 
Life of railway physical property: 
Members, 45 
Report, 932 
Power generation. Meeting, 1461 
Rules, Meeting, 1461 
Standards, Members, 86 
Various committees for 1914, 224 
Way matters. Members of sub-com- 
mittees, 86 

-Convention, Reports of committees, 664 

Distribution of Manual, 1341 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' 

Association : 
-Committees: 

Executive, 244 

Exhibit, 1340 
Meeting, May, 1039 

American Electric Railway Transportation & 

Traffic Association: 
Committees: 

Block signals, Meeting, 663, 671 

Passenger traffic, Meeting, 671 

Rules sub-committee, Meeting, 671 

Signals sub-committee, 414 

President D. A. Hegarty, Resignation, 537 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 
Midwinter convention: 

Merits and defects of program, 441 

Papers, *447 

Proceedings, 520, 523 

Results, 506 
American Light & Traction Co. (See New 

York City) 

American Museum of Safety, Safety medals 

for electric railways, 602 
American Railway Association, May meeting, 

New York, 1150 
American Railway Engineering Association, 

Convention proceedings, 719; Comment, 

699 

Rails, Tests on influence of seam, Discus- 
sions [McFarland, Wickhorst], 81 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation, Convention proceedings, 1376; 
Comment, 1372 

American Society of Civil Engineers: 

Annual meeting, 193 

Valuation for rate making, Report on, 

829 

American Telephone & Telegraph Co v Oppo- 
sition to government ownership, 684; 
Comment, 681 

American Water Works & Guarantee Co. (See 
Pittsburgh) 

American Wood Preservers' Association, An- 
nual meeting, 182, 315 

Anchor, Two-piece non-creeping [Chance], 
*1109 

Anderson, Ind., Union Traction Co.: 

Fare case, 691, 1120 

Muncie-New Castle line, *823 

Prizes for accident prevention essay, 851 

Safety first banquet, 1362 

Anglo-American exposition, 480 

Anthony N. Brady gold medal, Conditions of 

competition, 1037 
Anti-trust legislation. (See Legislation) 
Appraisal of railway property: 

Detroit United Ry., 600, 683 

Intangible values in settlement cases, 

Toronto Ry., 5 
Interstate Commerce Commission, Work 

of [Proutv], 365; Comment, 343 
—[Jackson], 1326 
-Los Angeles, Cal., 738 

-Los Angeles & San Diego Beach Ry., 1052 

■ Northern Ohio Traction Co., Akron, O., 

426 

Overhead charges in valuations [Abend- 
roth], 1434 

Rate making by valuation [Gray], 36; 

Discussions, 36, 37; Comment, 4 

-Report of American Society of Civil En- 
gineers on valuation for rate making, 
829 

Springfield (Mo.) Gas & Electric Co. and 

Springfield (Mo.) Traction Co., Ab- 
stract of brief presented to Missouri 
Public Service Commission, 989 

Springfield (Vt.) Electric Ry., 560 

Apprentices. (See Employees). 

Arbitration. (See Employees) 

Arc welding. (See Welding, Special methods) 

Astoria, Ore., Pacific Power & Light Co., One- 
man, near-side car, *1000 

Atlantic Shore Ry. (See Sanford, Me.) 



Auburn, N. Y., New York, Auburn & Lansing 
K.R., Reorganization plans, 557 

Auburndale, Mass., Norumbega Park, Operat- 
ing features, *411; Comment, 391 

Augusta, Ga. : Arbitration award. 434 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. K. (See Chicago) 

Austria, Electric railway statistics, 776 

Automobiles. (See Motor buses) 

Auto-trucks. (See Service and tower wagons) 



B 

Baggage shipments, C. O. D., 1444 
Ballast, Report of American Railway Engineer- 
ing Association, 664 
Baltimore, United Railways & Electric Co.: 
Annual report, 943 

Employees' bulletin, Reasons for, 1011 

Oil and paint storage building, *868 

Pension system, 101 

-Prepayment semi-convertible cars, *758 

Public relations [House], 947 

Route sign box, *143 

Track work, 91 

Barre & Montpelier Traction & Power Co. 
(See Montpelier, Vt.) 

Batavia (N. Y.) Street Car Co., Bond-selling 
campaign, 431 

Bavarian report on steam versus electric oper- 
ating costs, 811 

Bay State Street Ry. (See Boston) 

Bearings: 

Ball bearings for electric cars (S. K. F.), 

*999 

Lubrication of motor bearings [Green], 

*308 

Beaver Valley Traction Co. (See New Brigh- 
ton, Pa.) 
Belfort. (See France) 
Benefit plans. (See Employees) 
Berkshire Street Ry. (See Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Berlin. Germany: 

Elevated and Underground Ry., Subway 

extension, Artistic construction, *355 

Stadtbahn electrification, Experimental 

train, 1108 

Billings (Mont.) Traction Co., Home-made 

fender [Tohnstone], * 1 1 02 
Binghamton (N. Y.) Ry., Sale, 496, 558 
Birmingham, Ala.: 

Birmingham, Ensley & Bessemer R. R., 

Side-entrance cars, *784 
■ Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Fire destroys office building, 1114 

Improvements, 379 

Purchase of power, 1401 
Block signals. (See Signals) 
Boilers and equipment: 

Cinders in flue gas, Device for removing, 

♦1271 

-Feed water purification, 1254 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co., for 30,000- 

kw turbines, 1 
Notes, 1189 

Operating school on Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem, 34 

Tests with Illinois coal by National Tube 

Co., 316 

Boise, Idaho, Idaho Railway, Light & Power 

Co., Receivership, 99, 431 
Bond testers with saw-contact blades (Roller 

Smith). *682 
Bonds. (See Financial) 
Bonds, Rail (See Rail joints and bonds) 
Boone, la., Fort Dodge, Des Moines Southern 

R. R. : 

"Don'ts" for subordinate officers, 611 

Pipe bender and pole straightener [Dun- 
can], *781 

Booster control in Paris [Jacquin], *302 

Boston, Mass. : 

Bay State Street. Ry.: 

Findings by Commission, 208 

Journal brasses. End thrust on, *591 

Lawrence fare case, 947 

Lynn-Salem fare reduction denied, 157 

Service orders, 156 
Boston Elevated Ry.: 

Arbitration with employees. Report 
of Board. Details of wages, hours 
of work and conditions of labor, 
170; Comment, 165 

Bulletins to employees explaining con- 
ditions and enlisting their co- 
operation, 807 

Car-washing stands. Portable [Der- 
mody], *419 

Dividend reduction, 281 

Emergency cars, List of tools carried 
[Dana], * 1 137 

Financial condition of the company. 
Report of Arbitration Board, 171 

Hours of labor. Agreement with the 
Amalgamated Association, 174 

Investigation of service at Somer- 
ville, 1418 

Labor agreements. 174. 345 

Sand, Methods of obtaining and hand- 
ling. Rules and report forms 
used [Dana], *346 

Schedules and time-tables, Construc- 
tion of, 1257 

Signal maintenance details, *660 

Stock distribution, 1476 

Wages, Retroactive, 556 

Wheel-press records, Graphic, Use of 
hydraulograph. * 1 287 
-Boston Transit Commission: 

Annual report, 96 



Boston, Mass.: 

Boston Transit Commission: (Continued) 

Special report, 151 
Term extended, 1412 

Elevated line, Report against removal of, 

150 

Fare inequalities, Comment on report of 

Joint Commission, 675, 754 

Merger of systems proposed, 1168, 1412 

— Report of joint commission on street rail- 
way service, 675; Comment, 754 
Terminal at Post Office Square discounte- 
nanced, 1169 

Howling Green (Ky.) Railway, Sale, 57 

Brake rigging, Hardened pins and special 
bushings [Boyer], 371 

Brakes, Air: 

Cleveland Ry., Center-entrance car, 458 

Control interlock, New York, Westchester 

& Boston Ry., *222 
Hose specifications. Meeting of committee 

on, 1036 

New York, Westchester S: Boston Ry., 

♦222 

Performance on modern trains. Tests with 

different types of brakes on high-speed 
trains on Pennsylvania R. R. [Dud- 
ley], 362; Comment, 343 

Performance. Westinghouse prizes for 

air-brake story, 1108 

Brakes, Hand, Differential staffless [Lord], 
*1160 

Brakeshoes : 

Report at Master Car Builders' Conven- 
tion, 1337 

Tests on Pennsylvania R. R. [Dudley], 

363; Comment, 343 
Braking cars on grades. Home-made wheel skid 

for [Werth], *546 
Brass. (See Journal brass) 

Brazil, Street railway progress at Pernambuco, 

1437 

Bridges: 

— — Indiana Union Traction Co., *823 

Replacing broken panel post under traffic, 

Illinois Traction System, 1433 
Report of American Railway Engineering 

Association, 666 
Brill, T. G., Co., Annual report, 381 
Bristol (Conn.) & Plainville Tramways: 

Controlling interest, 495 

Officers, 98 

British Columbia Electric Ry. (See Vancouver, 
B. C.) 

Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry. (See Ply- 
mouth, Mass.) 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Beveled-tie practice [Bernard], *594 

Bond issue, 946 

—Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. : 

Absorbed by Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Co., 57 

Changes in personnel and financial 

matters, 206 
Fare changes, 335 

Granite-block paving for shallow T- 
rail on parked streets [Mathews], 
*271 

Manholes, Marking location of, *730 
Red lamp to protect fire extinguishers 
from freezing [Mathews], *545 

Construction progress, 1168 

Employees' bulletins, 798 

— — Fare provisions, 1233 

Fare registers on prepayment cars. Elec- 
tric ringing device [Kennedy], *1047 

-Financial conditions, 281 

Lubrication of motors, Evolution [Green], 

*308 

"Old man" for rail drilling [Taylor], *996 

Organization for a "Safety First" cam- 
paign [Bullock], 711 

Painter's rust catch-all bag, *935 

Pattern sketches on records, *195 

Rail-carrving car, *678 

Rail file for new joint work [Cram], *194 

Smoking permit, 1427 

Special work service records, 1217 

Tax burden, 797 

Tie-holder for spiking new ties [Taylor], 

937 

Transfer system, 277, 385, 499, 610, 1303 

— —Word to patrons on consolidation, 156 
Brooms, Frog, of flat wire [Paxon], 548 
Buenos Aires, Argentine: 

Electric traction developments, * 5 36 

Subway, Manganese special work, * 1 286 

Buffalo, N. Y.: 

■ Buffalo & Williamsville Electric Ry. (See 

Williamsville, N. Y.) 

International Ry. : 

Re-routing, Protest against, 60 

Safety first campaign, 1090 

Signs on cars, 59, 611 

Spitting crusade, 283 

Terminal proposed, 949 

Through service between Buffalo and 

Rochester, 102 
Time table of convenient form, 1094 
Violation of safety-appliance law, 949 

Buildings, Report of American Railway En- 
gineering Association, 668 

Bureau of Standards proposes co-operation be- 
tween state governments, 291 

Business prospects "for 1914, Opinions of rep- 
resentative manufacturers, 131, 189, 
262 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry. : 
Annual report, 1230 

Electrification details, *579; Comment, 569 

Locomotives, 2400-volt d.c, *1350 



(Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



January-June, 1914.^ 



INDEX. 



V 



Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry. : (Continued) 
Telephone jack boxes mounted on locomo- 
tives, 1157 
Tractor trucks, *1349 



Cab signals (.See Signals) 
Cable clamps: 

Maintenance record, Union Ry., New 

York, *1218 

Self-tightening, *422 

Cables: 

Markers for underground cable manholes, 

730 

Mechanical strains in a.c. conductors, 195 

Calgary Municipal Ry. (See Alberta, Can.) 

California^ Joint committee, Report on induc- 
tive interference, 313 

California Railroad Commission: 

Authority of, Decision of state supreme 

court, 941 

— —Report, 1029 

Cambridge, Ohio, New Midland Power & 
Traction Co., Combined waiting sta- 
tion and salesroom, *537 

Camden, N. J. : 

United Power & Transportation Co., An- 
nual report, 846 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R. : 

Annual report, 896 
Wrecking car rescuing hook and lad- 
der truck, *890 

Camp organization in construction work, Au- 
gusta, Ga., 141 

Canada, Electric railway statistics, 1036 

Canadian-American .Power Corporation au- 
thorized to issue stock, 558 

Canadian Northern Ry., Electrification of 
Montreal tunnel and terminal. Di- 
rect-current system considered most 
economical [Lancaster], *572 

Canadian Pacific R. R., Electrification of Sel- 
kirk Tunnel proposed, 484 

Cap and cone. Willingness of manufacturers 
to adopt standard, 1039 

Capitalization. (See Financial) 

Car construction. Woods used in South Caro- 
lina, 228 

Car design: 

Advantages of the small wheel, 753 

Cost of useless weight in steel cars 

[Brinckerhoff] , c 1 1 53 ; Com- 
ment, 1186 

France, General Omnibus Co., *514 

1 Hoist}, 10 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Railway, Steel cars [Flarrigan], cl278; 
Comment, 1239 

■ Maintenance of all-steel cars [Potter, See], 

C1212 

— —Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 
Improvements [Cross], 1397 

Monitor-deck roof, Why adhere to, 753 

New York Municipal Ry. Car of great 

length and width. Comparison with 
earlier cars, * 1 261 , * 1327 ; Comment, 
1243, 1313 

Publicity about, to avoid serious accidents. 

Case of fuse scare on fully enclosed 
car, New York, 805 

-Rapid transit cars [Brinckerhoff), 16 

Seating capacity, 907 

Comparisons of New York cars, 1265 
Folding seats, Kansas City, 889 
Steel cars for city service, cl341; 
Comment, 1313 

Somnolence in car design, 294 

Stores car, Montreal, *88 

Wood posts in steel cars, Protecting, 1371 

Car door-operating lever, Kalamazoo, * 1 405 
Car equipment as seen from the pit, 571 
Car lighting. (See Lighting of cars) 
Car platforms, Mastic flooring, Twin City 

Rapid Tnansit Co., *48 
Car steps: 

Folding : 

Metropolitan Street Ry., Kansas City, 
815 

Michigan Ry., M087 

Height, Discussion, 1208 

Low-step order in Connecticut, 335 

Car weights: 

Chicago Rys., Cars of 1913, 114 

Comparison of weights and motor capac- 
ities, New York Municipal Ry. and 
other roads, 1265 

Carbon brushes, Load performances of, 998 

Carhouses : 

Design, Errors in, 343 

Edmonton, Alberta, Vestibule to avoid 

chilling of main section [Woodroofe], 
*510 

Fire protection. Sprinkler test at Phila- 
delphia, *1028 

-Rock Island, 111., Tri-City Railway & Light 

Co., Fireproof construction, * 1 187 

Sand-handling apparatus, Philadelphia, 

*912 

Seattle Municipal Ry., *1375 

Carlsbad, Austria, Railway projects, 195 
Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh, 1469 
Cars : 

Accumulator. (See Storage battery cars) 

— ■ — Center-entrance : 

Birmingham, Ala., *784 

Cleveland Ry., Novel features, *455 

London experience, *298, 300. 

Louisville Ry., *140 

Manhattan & Queens Traction Cdrp., 
«374 



Cars: 

Center-entrance : (Continued) 

Nuremberg-Further Ry., Stepless, 
* 1 162 

Pittsburgh Rys., Construction details, 

End exit, *808 
Virginia Railway & Power Company, 

*1095 

Chicago Elevated Ry., All-steel cars, *84 

Chicago Rys., 1913 arch-roof, light-weight, 

low-step, double-end cars, * 1 1 2 

Combination, Seneca Falls, N. Y., *1408 

Composite construction, Ogden, Utah, 

*1326 

Concrete mixing, for reinforcing poles 

[Purinton], *833 

Derrick (See Work cars) 

-Double-deck, Stepless, '.Columbus, Ohio 

[Joyce], *582; Correction, 669 

Dump (See Dump cars) 

Express baggage, Chattanooga Traction 

Co., *48 

Freight, Steel trailers, Michigan United 

Traction Co., *420 

Gasoline (See Gasoline cars) 

Instruction, Open-side, Washington Rail- 
way & Electric Co. [Wenner], *543 

Low-level, end-entrance, Third Avenue 

Ry., *731 

Michigan Ry., All-steel, *1087 

New York Municipal Ry. Car of great 

length and width. Comparison with 
earlier cars, 1261, * 1 327 ; Comment, 
1243, 1313 

One-man near-side, Astoria, Ore., *1000 

Pittsburgh & Butler Street Ry., *168 

Prepayment, Rebuilt from combination 

car, Pacific Electric Ry., *46 
Prepayment semi-convertible, United 

Railways & Electric Co., Baltimore, 

*758 

Prison, Montreal Tramways, *145 

Rail-carrving, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 

*678 
Rebuilt: 

Pacific Electric Ry., *46 

Pittsburgh, Center-entrance, 1217 
"Safety First" instruction, Detroit LTnited 

Ry., 562; [Sarvis], *595 

■ Sand car, Boston Elevated Ry., *348 

Semi-steel pay-within, Albany, N. V., New 

design of car, *1030 
Semi-steel prepayment, Capital Traction 

Co., *272 

Single-truck, 1 Fully-inclosed, Meridian, 

Miss., *838 

Single-truck convertible, Union Ry., New 

York, *350 

Statistics concerning cars ordered in 1913, 

30; Comment, 2 

Steel: 

Advantages, for city service, cl463 
Chicago Elevated Rys., Fireproof fin- 
ish, special bolsters and center 
bearings, *84 
Freight trailers, Michigan United 

Traction Co., *420 
Insulation tests at University of 

Illlinois, 992 
Michigan Ry., Folding steps for cen- 
ter-entrance, *1087 
Pennsylvania R. R., 1460 
Philadelphia-Paoli line, *864 
Portland, Eugene & Eastern Ry.. *360 
Report at Master Car Builders' Con- 
vention, 1337 

Stepless double-deck. Columbus, O. 

[Joyce], *582; Correction, 669 

Storage battery (See Storage battery 

cars) 

Stores, Steel, Montreal Street Ry., *88 

Catenary construction: 

Montreal & Southern Counties Ry., *702 

Ueberetsch Ry. [Gyaros], *764 

Various designs on Philadelphia-Paoli 

line of Pennsylvania R. R., *860 

Vienna-Pressburg line, *190 

Cedar Rapids, la.: 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Ry., Exten- 

sion, 686 
Iowa Railway & Light Co.: 

Eastward extension, 1073 

Tornado destruction, 1053 
Census bureau, Preliminary reports of electric 

railways, 80, 123 
Center-entrance cars (See Cars) 
Center plate. Oil-bearing (Steel Car Forge), 

♦997 

Central Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation: 

Accounting system of Interstate Commerce 

Commission, Report on suggested 
changes, 723 

Committees : 

Passenger accounts, Report. 1444 
Freight accounts, Report, 1444 

June meeting, Toledo, 1444 

Central Electric Railwav Association: 

Annual meeting, Cleveland, 477, 478 

Committees : 

Executive, Members, 532 

Issue of annual "Brown Book," 879 

Standardization, Report, 1454 

Convention proceedings, 466, 1447, 1453, 

1454 

Interurban development in the Central 

West and the work of the Associa- 
tion TRrady], 8 

Joint weight and inspection bureau, Dis- 
cussion on rCfalll, 467; [Sullivan], 
468: [Norveill, 470 

(Abbteviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Central Electric Railway Association: (Con- 
tinued ) 

Secretary-treasurer, Report [Neereamer], 

469 

Central Electric Traffic Association: 

Business of the association L Neereamer] , 

1450 

Chairman's report [Neereamer], 469 

Committees, 880 

Central New York Southern Ry. (See Ithaca, 
N. Y.) 

Central Vermont Ry. (See Montreal & 

Southern Counties Ry.) 
Centralization of power supply [Insull], 914 
London, Report [Merz and AlcLellanJ; 

Comment, 955 
Centralized management (See Public service 

corporations) 
Charleroi, Pa., Webster, Monessen, Belle 

Vernon & Fayette City Street Ry., 

Strikes, 1005, 1114 
Charlotte, N. C. : 

Charlotte Electric Ry., Single-truck vesti- 
bule cars, *581 

Piedmont Traction Co., Electric locomo- 
tives, *596 

Chattanooga, Tenn. : 

Chattanooga Railway & Light Co. (See 

Lookout Mountain) 

Chattanooga Traction Co., Express bag- 
gage car, *48 

Viaduct completed, 427 

Chicago: 

Aurora, Elgin &, Chicago R. R.: 

Gears, Stub-tooth bull-nose [Gould], 
*1216 

Prizes to employees for efficiency sug- 
gestions, 561, 1363 

Board of Supervising Engineers, Attack 

on accounting procedure, Reply by 
1!. J. Arnold, 1152, 1249- Comment, 
1127; Attempt to remove George Wes- 
ton, 1471 

Central-station energy for surface and 

elevated lines, 92 

■ Chicago City Rys.: 

Accounting between city and com- 
pany, 1111; [Arnold"], 1249 
Annual report, 793 
Motors, Tap-field, *1407 

Chicago Elevated Rys.: 

Cars, All steel. Fireproof finish, 
special bolsters, center bearings, 
*84 

Financing, 1230 

■ Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Ry., Resale 

of Wisconsin Division, 608 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. : 

Accounting, Compliance with- rules of 
Interstate Commerce Commission, 
607 

Electrical equipment of Rocky Moun- 
tain division, *34 
Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R., Track 

elevation, 1113 
Chicago Rys. : 

Annual report, 1115 

Cars. 1913 low-step, double-end, 
arch-roof cars, * 1 12 • 
Elevated lines, Traffic conditions [Seeley], 

531 

Harbor and Subway Commission, Resig- 
nation of members, 149 

Manganese steel special work, Experience 

LWeston], cl343 

— - — Market service, Commission to investigate 
interurban, 797 

Merger problem, 55, 329, 1360 

Arnold's plans on rental basis accept- 
ed, 552 

Engineering departmental organiza- 
tions, 336 

Largest system in gross earnings in 

the world, 505 
Organization of surface lines, 210 
Rental demand refused by companies, 

602 

Motor-bus line proposed, 555 

■ Municipal Markets Commission, recom- 
mends use of interurban freight serv- 
ice, 1011 

Northwestern Elevated R. R., Field-con- 
trol and universal type control motors, 

*324 

Seat for passenger ordinance during non- 
rush hours, 1419 

Smoke abatement committee, Report, 202 

Standard Gas & Electric Co., Annual re- 
port, 1415 
— Subway matters. 151, 200, 327 
[Arnold], 276 

Comprehensive system defeated, 842 
Rental basis, Report [Arnold and 
Weston], 489 

Terminal electrification, Delays, 328 

Track construction. History of experi- 
ence with solid and insert manganese 
special track work, *970; Comment, 
959; [Cram], cl040 

Track elevation in suburbs, 900 

■ Traction fund, 843 

Christiania (See Norway) 

Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Cincinnati Street Ry., Objection to loop, 

425 

Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Appraisal proposed, 555 

Car painting by use of portable dry- 
ing oven using ordinary air-dry- 
ing paints and varnishes, *444; 
Comment, 442 

Employees. College students in shops, 
130 



VI 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLIII. 



Ciscinnati, Ohio: 

Cincinnati Traction Co.: (Continued) 

Fare question, Suburban, 851 
Solid and insert manganese steel spe- 
cial track work experience 
[Berry], cl099 
Washing of cars, Use of instantaneous 

electric water heater, *47 
Welded joint and rail brace, * 1 467 
Wheel and gear testing set, *89 

■ Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry., 

Scheme to secure employment, 1119 

Depot franchise, Revocation, 202 

Ohio Electric Ry,, Repairing worn brush 

holders [Foote], *1045 

Ohio Traction Co., Fare case, 1061, 1364 

Circuit breakers, Car [Parsons], * 1283 
Circuit breakers and hood switches. Equip- 
ment defects [Squier], *1344, *1403, 
♦1465 

Circular inch versus the circular mil [Hering], 

c589; Comment. 570 
City planning. Effect of transportation, 1298 
Claim department (See Accident claim depart- 
ment) 

Claims Association, Action toward preven- 
tion of accidents, 263 
Cleaning of cars: 

Disinfecting and cleaning [Lloyd], 928 

'Formula for cleaner [Ingle], 677 

Suction cleaner, Home-made [Ingle], *887 

Clearance for overhead third rail, Report of 
American Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation, *667 
Cleveland, Ohio: 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R. 

(See Willoughby, Ohio) 

■ Cleveland Ry. : 

Accident claims increased, 53 
Accounting. Charging off obsoles- 
cence, 424 
Annual meeting and report, 328, 493 
Center-entrance cars. Novel features, 
*455 

Cross-town line denied, 843 
Pavement plow [Clark], *T346 
Protest against tax assessment, 378 
Rotary converters, Sixty - cycle, 
Year's operating results [Cre- 
celius], 713 
Schedules, Demand for readjust- 
ment, 1053, 1175 
Stock increase, 488, 683 
Tickets, Three for 10 cents, suggest- 
ed, 736 
Welfare of employees, 1473 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry., 

Safety work and personal efficiency 
[Schneider], 348 

Electrical exposition, 423 

Lake Shore Electric Ry., Annual Report, 

605 

Subway proposed, 148, 202 

Clocks: 

Headway, Metz, Germany, *196 

Running-time terminal (Railway Improve- 
ment Co.), *547, 550 
Coal. Bituminous coal strike, Effect of, 443 
Coal and ash handling, Louisville Traction 
Co., *405 

Coal bunker, Submerged concrete, Kansas 

City, 348 
Coasting time recorders: 

■ Operating experiences, Interborough Rapid 

Transit Co., *680 
Third Avenue Ry., 550 

Coffeyville, Kans., Union Traction Co., Strike, 
822 

Coin handling and counting, 907 
Coin-handling machine (Sattley), *733 
Colleges and public service, Conference m 

New York, 1133; Comment, 1127 
Colorado Spring (Colo.) & Interurban Ry., 

Strike, 894 
Columbus, Ohio: 

Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus Ry. (See 

Marion, O.) 
Columbus Railway Power & Light Co.: 

Car, Stepless double-deck [Joyce], 
*582; Correction, 669 

Welfare program, 383 
Columbus, Urbana & Western Ry. Sale, 

332 

Commissions on electrification proposed, 701; 
[Lee], c778 

Commutator bars, Dental cement to fill cav- 
ities in, *730 

Company sections of the National Electric 
Light Association, Educational work 
of [Martin], 518: Comment, 508 

(See also American Electric Railway As- 
sociation) 

Compensation law (See Employees, Work- 
men's compensation) 

Complaints (See Public, Relations with) 

Concrete mixing and placing, Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal Co., *1404 

Concrete-mixing car for reinforcing decayed 
poles [Purinton], *833 

Conductivity, Electric, _ of exhaust gases from 
steam locomotives, 818 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. (See Brook- 
lyn) 

Congestion of traffic (See Traffic investiga- 
tions) 

Connecticut Co. (See New Haven, Conn.) 

Connecticut Public Utilities Commission, An- 
nual report, 1437 

Constantinople, Belgian company in, 1339 

Contact plow for conduit railway [Squier], 
*1103 



Contact shoes (See Third-rail shoes) 
Controllers and wiring: 

Circuit breakers and hood switches, 

[Squier], *1344, *1403, *1465 
Development of street railway control 

systems [Renshaw], 17 
Field control test in Toledo [Wynne], 

1447; Comment, 1427 
Jones control system on center-entrance, 

end-exit cars, Pittsburgh Rys., *8 1 

K type, Improvements [Parsons], *418 

Maintenance of circuit breakers [Parsons], 

♦1283 

— —Requirements of circuit breakers and hood 

switches [Squier], *1344 
Single-phase Rhaetian Ry. locomotives, 

♦761 
Converters : 

Cleveland Ry., Operating results with 60- 

cycle [Crecelius], 713 

— — Principles of design for 60-cycle [Cre- 
celius], 713 

Co-operative stores (See Employees) 

Copper statistics for 1913 and prospects for 
1914, 669 

Corporations (See Public service corporations) 

Cost of living (See Employees) 

Couplers: 

-Cleveland, Rv., Center-entrance car, *458 

-M. C. B., New standard, 1337, 1372 

-Tests at University of Illinois for Scul- 

lin-Gallagher Iron & Steel Co., 890 
Covington, Ky., South Covington & Cincinnati 

Street Ry. Injunction concerning 

franchise tax dissolved, 555 
Creosoting (See Timber preservation) 
Crossing, Track, T-rail steam road, Kansas 

City, *1406 

Crossing-gate, Remote-control (Cook), South- 
ern Pacific Ry., *422 
Crossing signals (See Signals) 
Cross-ties (See Ties) 
Current collection: 

Contact plow for conduit railways 

[Squier], *1103 

Maximum wear from trollev wheels, 

Rockford, 111. [Ingle], *592 
— ■ — Rail elevation and pantographs, 1428 

Splicing broken poles [Ingle], 936 

Third-rail shoe, Detachable [Potter], 

. * 110 . 2 

Third-rail shoe maintenance [Squier], 

*993 

-Trolley base defects [Squier], *831 

Trolley wheel defects [Squier], *543 

Cuspidors for motormen, 746 

D 

Dallas, Tex., Safety campaign, 1111 
Dalrymple, James, on American railway con- 
ditions, 490 

Danbury (Conn.) & Harlem Traction Co., 
Sale, 154 

Data sheets, American Electric Railway As- 
sociation, Value of. 391 

Davenport, la., Tri-Citv Railwav & Light Co., 
Carhouse at Rock Island, 111., *1187 

Delaware & Hudson Co., Annual report, 1007 

Delaware & Hudson R. R., Strike settlement, 
163 

Delta Electric Light & Traction Co. (See 
Greenville, Miss.) 

Denver (Colo.) City Tramway: 

American Electric Railwav Association sec- 
tion work [Casey], 826 

Safety league, 746 

Storm effects, 158 

Taken over by Denver Tramways, 848 

Depreciation (See Accounting) 
Derailments : 

Correcting troubles from maximum trac- 
tion trucks [Williams], 782 

Derailments at facing point switches, *676; 

[George], *728 

Derrick cars (See Work cars) 

Des Moines (la.) Citv Ry. : 

— - — Cleaning and disinfecting of cars TLloydl, 
928 

Franchise proposed, 1472 

Wage readjustment, 603 

Detroit, Mich.: 

Annual reports of various lines, 380 

— — Detroit Municipal Street Railway Com- 
mission, Dean Cooley as counsel, 940 

Detroit United Ry. : 

Accidents, Decrease in, 104 
Appraisal, 600, 683 
Caoital expenditures, 150 
Coil-baking oven [Keller], *1464 
Dogs on cars, 102 

Express and freight service methods, 

trucks and warehouses, *1022 
Extensions, 1052 

Fares, Effect of low rate upon riding 

habit [Fullerton], 770 
Handling the Ford employees, 208 
Hutchins replies to commission. 1296 
Publicity work [Van Zandt], cl279 
Relation with city. Company called 

"Ancient adversary" by the 

Mayor, 217 
Repair shops, Fireproof, * 1 3 1 4 
Safety campaign, 1060 
"Safety First" instruction car, 562; 

[Sarvis], '595 
Service difficulties, 433 
' ' Sign, Illuminated train number, *49 
Vestibules, Larger, 1304 
Waste paper, Handling of, 1256 

(Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



Detroit, Mich.: (Continued) 

Subway system suggested, 1113 

Diesel engine economies, 930 

Direct-current railways (See High-tension, 

direct-current railways) 
Dispatching of trains: 

Headway recorder [Nachod], *598 

Megaphone, Use of, 1427 

Telegraph versus telephone [Clapp], 637 

Telephone system, Rochester, N. Y., *888 

-Terminal clock for registering running 

time, * 547 

District of Columbia (See Washington, D. C.) 
Dogs on cars, Detroit United Ry., 102 
Doors on cars, Patent decision, 894 
Double-deck cars (See Cars, Double-deck) 
Dublin, Ireland, Strike, 1225 
Dubuque, la., Union Electric Co., Tower 

wagon with removable tower, *483 
Duluth (Minn.) Street Ry., Franchise decision, 

1298 

Dump cars, Steel multiple, motor-operated, 
Connecticut, * 1 9 7 

E 

Earnings (See Financial) 
East St. Louis (111.) & Suburban Ry.: 
Concrete reinforcement of poles [Purin- 
ton], *833 
— Reorganization, 206 

Easton Consolidated Electric Co. (See Allen- 
town, Pa.) 
Edmonton (Alta.) Radial Ry. : 

Carhouse and shops, New, *510 

Electrolysis prevention. Rules of the 

British Board of Trade and their ap- 
plication in Alberta. Consideration 
of several plans from the economic 
standpoint [ vVoodroofe] , *920 
Labor conditions under municipal owner- 
ship, 571 

Report on financial difficulties. Reasons 

for deficits and increase in fares, 1334 

Track construction [Saunders], *878 

Education, Popular (See Publicity) 
Efficiency engineering in shops of the Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 
*631 

Efficiency exposition and conference, First 
national, New York City, 423 

Electric lamps (See Lighting of cars) 

Electric Railway Journal: 

Efforts for the railway industry, 1 

Equipment and its maintenance depart- 
ment, 65 

Semi-annual index, 1427 

Electric vehicles (See Motorbuses; Service 
wagons) 

Electrified steam railroads (See Heavy elec- 
tric traction) 
Electrolysis : 

Edmonton. Alta., Rules of British Board 

of Trade and their application in Al- 
berta. Consideration of several plans 
from the economic standpoint [Wood- 
roofe], *920 

Fundamental facts regarding [Wyer], 

cl211 

[Ganz], c933 

■ Toint committee of national associations 

formed, 1428 
[Kittredge], c541 

National joint committee, February meet- 
ing in New York, Scope of work, 763 

[Rosa and McCollum], *39; Comment, 1 

Springfield, Ohio. Methods for mitigating 

damage [Rosa and McCollum], *225; 
c369; Comment, 345; Tests, 646; Cor- 
rections, 722 

Test on a system of insulated negative 

feeders in St. Louis [Rosa, McCol- 
lum and Logan 1. * 1 1 6 ; Comment, 109 
[Townley], cllOO 
Eliot, Charles W., on trades unions, 378 
Elmira (N. Y.) Water, Light & Railroad Co., 

Sale of stock, 559 
El Paso (Tex.) Electric Ry. : 

Accident reduction campaign, 498 

-Energy meters on cars. Success of 

. [Morse], 1206 

Safety competition between train crews, 

745 

Emergency cars (See Tower cars; Work cars) 
Emergency wagons (See Service wagons) 
Employees: 

Accident-saving value of old employees, 

Scranton Ry. [Reilly], 1083 

Apprentice training: 

New York State Rys. [Cameron], 

c722 

Progress in [Roberts], c539 
Value of system, 393 

Arbitration of difficulties: 

Augusta, Ga., 434 

Boston Elevated Ry., Report of 
Board, 170; Comment, 165 

Indianapolis, 52, 398, 1175 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry., 893, 
1418, 1472 

Northampton, Mass., 685, 739, 841, 
851, 1411 

Pittsburgh, 1175 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Co., Working agree- 
ment, 542 
Versus strikes, Comment on report 
by Amalgamated Association, 753 

Bulletins for, Brooklyn, 798 

Camp organization in construction work, 

Augusta, Ga., 141 



January-June, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



VII 



Employees: (Continued) 

College students in railway shops, Cin- 
cinnati Traction Co., 130 

Co-operation of. Enlisting. Methods of 

progressive railway managers, 807 

Co-operative stores in New York City, 

Results of operation, 367 

Cost of Living, Report of Boston Arbi- 
tration Board, 170 

Cuspidors for motormen, 746 

"Don'ts" for subordinate officers, Ft. 

Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Ry., 
611 

Education. Contagion of ambition and 

co-operative education, 757 

Educational work of company sections: 

American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion, at Milwaukee and Newark, 
541 

National Electric Light Association 
(Martin], 518: Comment, 508 
Efficiency suggestions, Prizes for, Aurora, 

Elgin & Chicago R. R., 561 
Enthusiasm essential to personal progress 

[Gove], c539 
Hours of labor, Boston Elevated Ry., 

Agreement, 174 

Ideal supervisory officers, 1019 

Indiana liability act interpreted, 1357 

Insurance : 

Pittsburgh Rys., 433 

Sickness insurance. Practicability 
[Chamberlain], 27 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 
City, 66 

United Railroads, San Francisco, 201 

Labor agreements, Boston Elevated Ry., 

345 

Labor legislation [Crownhart], 27; 

[Tingley], 251 
Liquor Protest against sale of, Pittsburgh, 

850 

Loan fund, Interborough Rapid Transit 

Co., 948 

Making opportunities, 701 

Municipal ownership, Labor conditions 

under, 571, 805 
Pensions, United Railways & Electric Co., 

101 

Piece-work system in repair shop. Third 

Avenue Ry., 373 

Premium system of Milwaukee Electric 

Railway & Light Co., 632 

Premiums for reducing coal consumption, 

Topeka, Kan., 384 

"Right job for the man." Study of in- 
dividual adaptability, 505 

Roll of honor, Pennsylvania R. R., 352 

Salaries on Seattle Municipal Ry., 1375 

School for steam boiler operators, Illinois 

Traction System, 34 

Steady employment a factor in wages, 907 

Strikes (See Strikes) 

Time distribution, Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
way & Light Co., 633, 637 

Training: 

Co-operative system proposed [Wil- 
son], c589 
Pennsylvania R. R., Results of sys- 
tematic promotion, 651 
Platform men, Public Service Ry. 

[Coe], 1190; Comment, 1240 
Young men for railway work [Bas- 
ford], 292 

Wages : 

Boston Elevated Ry., Report of Arbi- 
tration Board, 173 
British and American railways, 134 
Danville, III., Increase, 791 
Des Moines City Ry., 603 
Grand Rapids, Mich., Increase, 1176 
Indianapolis, Ind., 398, 740 
Lehigh Valley Transit Co., Increase, 
335 

Northampton, Mass., 1304, 1411 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 

Increase, 1060 
Public Service Ry., Increase, 60 
Steady employment a factor in fixing 

wages, 907 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 

Traction Co., 542 

-Welfare work: 

Cleveland Ry., 1473 

Columbus Railway, Power & Light 

Co., 383 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co., 465 
Public Service Ry. [Donecker], 416 

Workmen's compensation : 

Kansas rulings, 1027 
Kentucky act, 1003 
New York law, 1051 
Report by National Civic Federation, 
601 

Spread of legislation, 791 
Engineering organization in the United States, 

Status of [McDonald], 1343 
Engineers: 

Accounting knowledge desirable [Hum- 
phreys], 366 

Making opportunities, 701 

Members of public service commissions 

[Humphreys, Sague and Gibbs], 126; 
Comment, 109 

England (See Great Britain) 

Equipment defects [Squier], 318, *543, *779, 
*993, *1103, *] 344, *1403, *1465 

Erie R. R., Electrification plans, 942 

Erie & Central Pennsylvania Ry. (See Titus- 
ville, Pa.) 

European railway electrification [Gibbs], 11 



Evanston (111.) Ry., Bond issue, 154 
Explosives, Safe transportation of, 1150 
Express (See Freight and express) 



Fairmont, W. Va., Monongahela Valley Trac- 
tion Co., Stock bonus, 209 

Fall River, Mass., Investigation of traffic con- 
gestion, Report by D. 1. & Wm. B. 
Jackson, *816 I 

Fan for operation with shafting [Parsons], 
1347 

Fare boxes, Ticket receptacle LJohnson], *599 
Fare collection: 

Front-end system, Kansas City, 383, 569 

Novel method, Alliance, Ohio, 144 

Fare registers, Electric ringing device on 

prepayment cars, Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Co., *1047 
Fare Research Bureau, American Electric 

Railway Association, 1037, 1080 

hares : 

— —Accounting methods, Improved LForse], 
c884 

Cincinnati suburban fare case, 1364 

Cost of passenger transportation service, 

Report of American Electric Railway 

Association committee, 1383 
Detroit United Ry., Effect of low rate 

upon riding habit [Fullerton], 770 
-Discrepancy on different lines. Value of 

explanation to the public, 806 
Freight rate increase, Proposed, and the 

Interstate Commerce Commission, 291 

Indiana fare case decision, 691 

Inequalities in large cities, Comment on 

report of Boston Joint Commission, 

675, 754 

Investigation of economics of fare unit at 

Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, 587 

Kansas changes, 1480 

Low fares, Do they increase riding? 

[Fullerton], 770 

Milwaukee, 148, 256 

Norfolk, Va., Investigation, 1443 

Oregon cases, 1119 

Portland, Oregon, Ordinance declared 

void, 334 

Rate of fare as affected by riding habit 

[Uild], 229; Discussions, [Coates], 
247; [Nash], 253, 315; [Stearns], 255; 
Comment, 218 

Seattle Municipal Ry., Ordinance, 1375 

Toledo complications (See Toledo Rail- 
ways & Light Co.) 

Vancouver, B. C, 1479 

Wisconsin railway conditions, 163 

Zone system: 

Glasgow, Statistics, 231 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Co., Suburban territory, * 185 

(See also Tickets) 

Federal Light & Traction Co. (See New York 
City) 

Feed water purification, 1254 
F'enders and wheel guards: 

Home-made fender, Billings, Mont. [John- 
stone], *1 102 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co., *709 

Financial: 

Capitalizing prospects in reorganizations, 

431 

Census figures, Preliminary, for electric 

railways of 1913, 671 

Charge for public utility service, F'actors 

determining [Cooley], 124 

Charitable donation by Kansas City re- 
ceivers, 110 

Corporate financing during 1913, 98 

Corrections of the street railway situation 

[Gay], 14; Comment, 3 

Cost of construction, Seattle Municipal 

Ry., 1374 

Cost of passenger transportation service, 

Report of American Electric Railway 
Association committee, 1383 

Cost of various types of steel cars, 1267 

Earnings of London tube railways, 297 

Electrification costs in Switzerland, 659 

Holding companies: 

Advantages and disadvantages [Ford], 
23 

Bill in Congress, 685 

Lectures at New York Young Men's 
Christian Association, 684 

Testimony at Washington by repre- 
sentatives of public utility com- 
panies [Flexner, Gibboney, Beek- 
manj, 1098 

Views of the Federal administration, 
217 

Increased cost of railway operation [Eld- 
ridge], 7 

Justice for the railroads, 770 

Operating ratio, Value of, 1241 

Operating results in Toledo as applied to 

three-cent fare, 772 

Philadelphia subway and elevated lines, 

Estimated cost and earnings, 76 

Prospects for 1914, Opinions of repre- 
sentative manufacturers^ 131, 189, 262 

Public utility investments I Gardiner], 1008 

— Uayburn bill in Congress, Protest of elec- 
tric railway representatives, 1399; 
Comment, 1372 

Reasonable return on an investment, Cost 

of money to California public utilities 
| Hockenbeamer], 1074; Comment, 



Financial: (Continued) 

1067; [Woodward, N;;shJ, cll53- 

[Foster], cl278; [Gardiner], cl279 
Receivership and foreclosure statistics 

for 1913, 33 
Selling securities direct to the public, 

Third Avenue Ry., 494, 507, 607 
Short-term financing and equipment trust 

certificates, 344 

Treasury stock, What is, 1372 

Uniformity in financial statements. Need 

of, 859 

Fire equipment located on walls by red stripes 

[Boyce], 592 
Fire extinguishers, Red lamp used to protect, 

from freezing | Mathews], *545 
Fire protection, Sprinklers in carhouse, Test 

by Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 

*1028 

Floors, Shop, Report of American Railway En- 
gineering Association, 668 
Flue gas, Device for removing cinders, *1271 
Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R (See 

Gloversville, N. Y.) 
Form for curved field coils [Comstock], *681 
1-ort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R. 

(See Boone, la.) 
Foundations, Testing for seams in rock, 
Augusta, Ga., 181 

F ranee : 

— ~ Belf °3 t , 3 nieter " gage ' s'ngte-phase railway, 

— Results of public ownership, 1021 

Free rides for policemen, firemen and letter 

carriers, Illinois, 798 
Free transportation, Decision of Pennsylvania 

Public Service Commission, 432, 900 
Freight and express: 

— — Agriculture in relation to street railways, 
Albany, N. Y., 611 

Chicago Markets Commission, Report, 1011 

Contracts with old-time express companies, 

Desirability of, 79 

Detroit United Ry., Methods employed 

and service rendered, *1022 

Discussion [Neereamer], 1450 

Illinois Traction System, 1480 

Joint weight and inspection bureau dis- 
cussed by Central Electric Railway 
Association, 467, 468, 470 

Milk tag, Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 

F-astern Traction Co., *550 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit to., 384 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & New 

Castle Ry., Freight schedule and new 
form of waybill [Mclntire], *1034 
— — Waterloo, Cedar F'alls & Northern Ry., 
1060 

WaU 498 a Klectnc L 'B ht & Railway Co., 

Freight houses, Detroit United Ry., Plan 
*1023 ' 
Freight rates [Neereamer], 1450 
Fuse-testing board, Third Avenue Rv TPar- 

sons], *3 19 



Gait, Preston & llespler Ry. (See Preston, 
Out. ) 

Garbage cars [ Orenstein-Koppel] , *1349 
Cary (Ind)., Hobart & Eastern Traction Co 

Reconstruction, 602 
Gas-electric cars. (See Gasoline cars) 
Gasoline cars: 

Beach, with battery auxiliary, 1347 

Central New York Southern R. R , 1409 

India tramwavs, 307 

Louisiana & Texas lines, *144 

Minneapolis & Northern Gasoline Motor 

Ry., *1469 

Pieper system. Trial service, Paris, *1288 

bates between cars, Collapsible, Portland Rail- 
way Light & Power Co., Boynton, 

677 

Gear cases, Rivetless [ Chillingworth], *1468 
Gears : 

Comparison of gears and pinions for city 

heavy and interurban traction, Amer- 
ican order for England, *486 

Fits [Litchfield], *320 

Formula for press fits [Litchfield], 320 

- — Ratios, Influence on power consumption, 
811 

Stub-tooth bull-nose [Gould], *1216 

Geary Street Municipal R. R. (See San 
F'rancisco) 

General Electric Co., Annual report; 944 
Geneva, Seneca Falls & Auburn R. R (See 

Seneca Falls, N. Y.) 
German Street & Interurban Railway Asso- 
ciation, Executive committee report, 
128 

Germany : ; • 

Berlin: ,, 

Elevated & Undergound Ry., Artistic 

construction of subway, *355 
Stadtbahn electrification, Experimental 
train, 1108 

— — Nuremberg-Further Ry., Center-entrance 

stepless cars, *1162 
Glasgow Corporation Tramways, Report on 

American railways [ Dairy mple], 490 
Gloversville, N. Y., Fonda, Johnstown & 

Gloversville K. R„ Sacandaga Park, 

Old and new features [Colt], 927 
Going value. (See Accounting) 
Goldsboro (X. ('. ) Traction Co., Sale, 99 



(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



VIII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLIII. 



Government ownership. (See Municipal 

ownership ) 
Grand Rapids, Mich.: 
Grand Rapids Ry. : 

Snow scraper, Two-section steel-blade 
*549 

Wage increase, 1176 
Michigan & Chicago Ry., Construction 

progress, 686 
Michigan Ry., All-steel cars with folding 

steps for center entrance, *1087 
Great Britain: 

Electrification schemes, 790 

Great Eastern Ry., American manager ap- 
pointed, 393 

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry.: 

Electrification, 584 
Proposed expenditure, 650 

London : 

Accidents due to cars and other 

vehicles, 1347 
Centralized power supply, Report 
[Merz and McLennan], Comment, 
955 

Letters from, 51, 325, 551, 787, 1292 
London Electric Ry., Spring posters, 

i *ii44 

Rapid transit progress. Consolidation 
of transit facilities. Traffic sta- 
tistics. Experiments with center- 
door cars, *296 
Underground Rvs., Ventilation of 
tunnels, 930 
London County Council Tramways, An- 
nual report, 790 
-London & Northwestern Ry., Electrifica- 
tion of suburban lines, 349 

Trackless trolley double-deck bus, Brighton, 

Eng., *783' 
Great Eastern Ry. (See Great Britain) 
Greenville, Miss., Delta Electric Light & Trac- 
tion Co., Purchases, 1173 
Ground detectors for a. c. rolling stock. New 
York, Westchester & Boston Ry. 
[Longhurst], *729 

H 

Halifax, N. S., Nova Scotia Tramway & Power 

Co., Incorporation, 795 
Hardware. (See Repair shop practice) 
Harrisburg (Pa.) Rys., Arch-roof cars without 

body doors, *91 
Hartford, Conn., Waiting station, *966 
Harvard University, Engineering department 

merged with that of Massachusetts 

Institute of Technology, 150 
Havana, Elevated railway franchise, 894 
Haverhill, Mass., Massachusetts Northeastern 

Street Ry., Canobie Lake Park, Salem, 

N. H., Operation details, *576 
Hazleton, Pa., Lehigh Traction Co., Strike, 

201, 894 

Headlights, Pressed steel, with welded joints 

(Esterline), *998 
Report of Master Mechanics committee, 

1377 

Headway recorder [Nachod], *598 
Heating of cars: 

Cleveland Ky., Center-entrance car, 457 

Non-bulkhead and platform prepayment 

types compared, 619 

Novel type of heater in Berlin, 1103 

Heavy electric traction: 

American railways, Discussion at New 

York Railroad Club, 705 

American railways, Foreign view of [Daw- 
son], 762 

Bava«jan report on steam versus electric 

operating costs, 811 
Bombay, India, 446 

Canadian Northern Ry., Direct-current 

system for Montreal tunnel and ter- 
minal [Lancaster], *572 

Canadian Pacific R. R., Proposed for 

Selkirk Tunnel, 484 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., Elec- 
trical equipment, *34 

Christiania-Drammen Ry., Norway, Elec- 
trification approved, 50 

Discussion by New York Railroad Club, 

705 

European conditions [Gibbs], 11 

Gothard tunnel. (See below, Switzer- 
land) 

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. , 584 

"Light wanted on electrification decisions," 

65 

■ London & Northwestern Ry.. Suburban 

lines, 349 

London & Port Stanley Ry., 96 

Melbourne, Australia, 274 

Norwegian report on electrification, 523 

Pennsylvania R. R. [Gibbs], 705 

Review of work of electrification during 

1913 [Burch], 129 
Rhaetian Ry., Single-phase system, *760, 

*1430 

Stadtbahn electrification, Experimental 

train, 1108 

Switzerland [Huber-Stockar], 717; Discus- 
sion, 705 
Proposed electrification, 188 
Report of Electrification Commission. 
Single-phase operation favored 
[Wyssling], *524; Comment, 508 
Supplementary report to the Admin- 
istration Council of the Federal 
State Railways [Dinkelmann] , 
657 

Systems for main line electrification 

[Vaughan], cl93 



H?avy electric traction: (Continued) 

Technical commissions on electrification 

proposed, 701; [Lee], c778 
Ueberetsch Ry., 1200-volt system [Gyaros], 

♦764 

Usui-Toge Ry., Japan, * 1 393 

(See also High-tension direct-current rail- 
ways; Single-phase railways) 

High-tension current-direct railways: 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., *579; 

Comment, 569 

Canada, First interurban, Toronto to Ber- 
lin, 1162 

Canadian Northern Ry., Montreal tunnel 

and terminal [Lancaster], *572 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry., Locomo- 
tives, *785 

Pittsburgh & Butler Street Ry., Change 

from single-phase to 1200-volt direct 
current, * 1 66 

Salt Lake & Utah R. R., *87 

Ueberetsch Ry., 1200-volt system [Gyaros], 

*764 

Hoists, Portable electric (Northern), *733 
Holding companies. (See Financial) 
Holyoke, Mass., Rail joint, Combination 
shrunk-on and welded [Pellissier], 

*323 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co., Annual 
report, 896 

Hooper-Holmes Index Bureau [Well], c778; 

Comment, 756 
Hudson & Manhattan R. R. (See New York 

City) 

Hungary, Ueberetsch Ry., 1200-volt d. c. sys- 
tem [Gyaros], *764 

I 

Idaho Railway, Light & Power Co. (See 

Boise, Idaho) 
Illinois Electric Railways Association: 

Annual meeting. Springfield, 111., 585 

May meeting, Proceedings, 1134, 1459 

Illinois Public Utilities Commission: 

Authority questioned, 942 

Methods of [Norton], 586 

Illinois Traction System. (See Peoria, 111.) 
Illumination of cars. (See Lighting of cars) 
Inclined railway, Lookout Mountain Ry., *820 
Index bureau. (See Accident claim depart- 
ment) 

India: 

Electrification plans in Bombay, 446 

-Gasoline tramways, 307 

Indiana arbitration board, 1175 

Indiana LInion Traction Co. (See Anderson, 

Ind.) 
Indianapolis, Ind.: 

Indianapolis Street Ry., Annual meeting, 

897 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co., 

I. C. C. case against, 1481 
■ Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co. : 

Fairview Park, Developments, * 5 1 6 

Strike: 

Arbitration decison, 146, 368. 

398, 488 
Company's side presented, 52 
Concrete mixing and placing, *!404 
Testimony of company, 94 

Interurban development, Statistics, 158 

Passenger traffic out of the city, Statistics, 

744 

Terminal station, Decision of commission 

concerning, 1231 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co. : 

Agreement with employees, Attempt to 

break, 94 
Annual report, 742 
Milk tag, *550 
Wage increase, 740 

Working agreement and permanent 
arbitration board, 542 
Inductive interference. ^See Transmission 
lines) 

Inspection of overhead construction in Wis- 
consin, 175 

Inspection of rolling stock [Hanf], 725; [Lam- 
bertl, 1459 

Inspection tests to locate incipient defects 
[Ransom], 1282; Comment, 1371 

Instruction of trainmen. (See Employees) 

Instrument posts for control outfits (West- 
mghouse), *548 

Insulation tests for steel cars. University of 
Illinois, 992 

Insulators : 

Line and strain (Electrose), *50 

Report of American Institute of Electrical 

Engineers, 452 
Insurance. (See Employees) 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co. (See New 

York City) 

International Electrical Congress, Publicity 

meeting, New York, 523 
International Engineering Congress, Subjects 

to be treated, 1211 
International Railway. (See Buffalo) 
Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Accident bulletin, 1233 

Accident report for 1913, 383 

Accounting system: 

Compliance with rules, 607 

Conference with Accountants' Associa- 
tion, 727 

Criticism by Central Electric Railway 
Accountants' Association, 723 

Discussion by committee of Account- 
ants' Association [Wilson], c674 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Accounting system: (Continued) 

Discussion by various railways 

[Weeks, Young, Tingley], c720 
Letter to accounting officers of electric 

railways, 588 
Opinions [Davies, Bramble, Stivers, 
Elkins, Bigelow], c777; [Glover, 
Cade, Forse], c828; [Bridges], 
c883; [Brion], c980 
Titles of accounts. Condensed classi- 
fication for small carriers, 1321; 
Comment, 1311 

Annual report, 53 

—Appointment of W. M. Daniels, 858 
'- ontrol over books and records of com- 
mon carriers, Question of, 1067 

Freight rate increase, 291 

Jurisdiction over electric railways, i J ro- 

posed increase of. Hearing of railway 
managers at Washington | Brady, 
Schoepf, Perry, Weadock, Fischer, 
Henry, Potter], 533 

Pass evil, Attitude toward, 441 

■ -Railroad valuation, Work of commission 

[Prouty], 365; Comment, 343 
Interstate regulation. (See Public service 

corporations) 
Interstate trade commission bill in Congress, 
1067 

Investments. (See Financial) 

Iowa "Blue-Sky" Act unconstitutional, 281. 

426 

Iowa, Interurban railway development, 899 
Iowa Railway & Light Co. (See Cedar Rapids, 
la.) 

Iowa Street & Interurban Railway Association, 

Convention, 928, 982 
Iron production. Pig-iron in 1912 and 1913, 

704 

Italy, Labor troubles succeed in raising 

wages and establishing pensions, 805 
Ithaca, N. Y. : 

Central New York Southern Ry., Incor- 
poration, 847; Gasoline motor cars, 
1409 

Ithaca Street Ry., Reorganization plans, 

557 

Reorganization plan of Ithaca companies, 

846 

J 

Jacks: 

Emergency (Duff), *1351 

Order requiring lifting jacks, Pennsyl- 
vania, 1298 

Philadelphia, Jacks on cars, 739 

Jackson, Mich., Michigan United Traction Co.: 

Cars, Steel freight trailer, *420 

Issue of notes, 1476 

Oil record system, * 1 346 

Snow removal equipment, *483 

Jackson (Miss.) Light & Traction Co., School 
tickets, 336 

Jacksonville, Fla., Owl cars operated by city 
power, 328 

Jacksonville & Peoria Ry. (See Alton, 111.) 

Japan : 

Electrical progress, 1049 

Usui-Toge Ry., Electrification details, 

*1393 

Jerusalem, Electric development in, 890 

Toint weight and inspection bureau. Discussion 

on [Crall], 467; [Sullivan], 468; 

[Norveil], 470 
Tournal brass: 

Discussion concerning M. C. B., *220, 

"224; Comment. 219; [Brinckerhoff , 
Pomerov], c369; Comment, 343; 
[Evans], c417; Comment, 391; [Tay- 
lor, Hoist, Boynton], c479 

End thrust on, *591 

Special journal brass on New York, West- 
chester & Boston Rv., *224; [Brinck- 
erhoff], c*540 



K 

Kansas City, Mo.: 

\utomobile ordinance, 433 

Entrance to city, Company differences, 612 

Fjve-cent fare into city, 384 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Ry. : 

Bond issue, 848 

Cars, Center-entrance steel [Harri- 

gan], cl278; Comment, 1239 
Safety emblems for employees. 1304 
Waiting stations secured in novel 
manner, 1304 

Kansas City Rys., Incorporation, 1355 

Kansas City Southern R. R., Accounting 

treatment of abandoned property, De- 
cision of U. S. Supreme Court, 392 

Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Accident prevention by removing pos- 
sible footholds on cars, 914 
Buttons and service marks, 103 
Campaign against smallpox, 385 
Car seats, Folding, 889 
Car steps, Folding, 815 
Coal bunker, Submerged concrete, 348 
Concession to suburban residents, 157 
Contribution to Student Volunteer 

Convention, 103, 110, 157 
Crossing, T-rail, for steam road, *1406 
Depot line proposed, 378 
Differences over operating agreement, 
425 



January-June, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



IX 



Kansas City, Mo. : 

Metropolitan Street Ry.: (Continued) 

Fare collection, Front-end system, 383, 

569 

Franchise negotiations, 95, 150, 1002, 

1050, 1068, 1110, 1165, 1224, 

1297, 1412, 1472 
Mileage on deviations from schedule, 

Method of keeping, *423 
Petition to determine exact status, 

275 

"Safety First" campaign, * 1270 

Signs on cars, 746, 1012 

Stenographers for division superin- 
tendents, 433 

Stopping of cars, Alternate, 850, 908 

Taken over by Kansas City Rys., 1355 

Safety primer for schools, 102 

Terminal and viaduct questions, 738 

Trade trios, 900 

Kansas tax assessments, 1354 

Kings County Light Co. (See New York 

City) 



705; 
1200- 



*835 
*596 



(See 



Labor. (See Employees) 
Labor agreements. (See Employees) 
Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R. R. 

Scranton, Pa.) 
Lake Shore Electric Ry. (See Cleveland, O.) 
Lamp cluster for controller and motor work, 

Flexible [Parsons], *887 
Laredo (Tex.) Electric & Railway Co., Change 

in ownership, 382, 427 

Legal: , * . . , 
Abrogation of existing contracts for in- 
creased rates, Georgia decision, 1113 

Charters, ordinances and franchises, 839, 

1163, 1290 

Cost of progress and operating charge, 

Kansas City Southern R. R., 392 

Liability for negligence, 839, 1164, 1290 

Loan decision in Philadelphia, 1165 

Michigan Supreme Court decision on 

Verdier act, 275 

Prepayment-car patents, Status of [Casey], 

cl462 

Respective rights of street cars and auto- 
mobiles, Toronto, Ont., 562 

Transfers, Nebraska decision, 1012 

Legislation: 

Anti-trust legislation [Tripp], 409, 685, 

893, 1357 

Bills in Congress, Action of committee 

on federal relations of American Elec- 
tric Railway Association, 487 
— — Electric railway, in various states, 277, 
379, 427, 492, 556, 603, 687, 740, 792, 
844, 895, 1357, 1474 

Governor's message, 138 

Influence of labor [Tingley], 251 

Michigan "Blue Sky" law unconstitutional, 

281 

■ Testimony at Washington on holding com- 
panies. Testimony at Washington by 
representatives of public utility com- 
panies [Flexner, Gibboney, Beekman], 

1098 

Water-power legislation, 1400 

Lehigh Traction Co. (See Llazleton, Pa.) 
Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, 

Pa.) . „, 

Letter carriers, Transportation m Tacoma, 

Wash., 433 

Lexington, Ky., Kentucky Traction & Terminal 
Co.: 

Fare increase, 1363 

Office building, *1267 

Life of railway physical property, Work of 
joint committee of Engineering and 
Accountants' associations, 932 

Lighting of cars: 

Cleveland Ry., Center-entrance car, 458 

— ■ — Discussion by New England Street Rail- 
way Club, 986 

Storage-battery, New York Central, *1255 

Tungsten lamp fixtures (Dayton), *1288 

Lightning arrester hangers (E. S. S. Co.), 

M351 
Lightning arresters: 

Electrolytic, with charge-and discharge re- 
sistor (Westinghouse), *836 

Home-made car arrester [Gaw], *1402 

Liquor advertisements barred fom cars, West 

Penn Traction Co., 1364 
Little Rock, Ark., Ordinances in interests of 

interurban lines, 60 
Liverpool Tramways, Statistics, 1097 
Locomotive construction, Use of heat-treated 
steel, 1376 

Locomotive headlights, Report of Master 
Mechanics' committee, 1377 

Locomotive shops, Electric, Van Nest, N. Y., 
New Haven Road, Arrangement and 
equipment, *623; Comment, 619 

Locomotive stokers, Automatic, Report of 
Master Mechanics' committee, 1376 

Locomotives, Electric: 

(Baldwin-Westinghouse), Gait, Preston & 

Hespler Ry., Preston, Ont., 375 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., 2400-volt 

d. c. with separate tractor trucks for 
switeh service, * 1 349 

Design [Armstrong], 13 

Development of the mine locomotive 

r Eaton], 826 
High accelerating tests in suburban service, 

1429 

I.oetschberg Uy. [Huber-Stockarl, 717 



Single-phase, 



Locomotives, Electric: (Continued) 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R., 

Switching locomotive at Harlem yards, 
*1159 

— Norfolk & Western Ky. [Gibbs], 
[Storer], 706 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry., 

volt, high-speed, *785 

Panama three-phase towing, 

Piedmont & Northern Lines, 

Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co., 

Home-made locomotive, * 1 1 32 

Rhaetian Ry., Switzerland, 

273, *760, *1430 

Split-phase, Discussion at New York Rail- 
road Club, 706 

Usui-Toge Ry., Japan, *1393 

Yienna-Pressburg line, *190 

Loetschberg Ry., Experience with single-phase, 
*529 

London. (See Great Britain) 
London, Ont.: 

London & Port Stanley Ry., Electrification 

progress, 96, 1298 
London Street Ry., Prepayment car opera- 
tion, 336 

Sunday operation, 102 

Long Island Ry. (See New York City) 
Lookout Mountain Ry., Construction details 

[Reed], *819 
Los Angeles, Cal.: 

Congestion relieved, 851 

Los Angeles Ky. : 

Fare reduction, 900 

Report [Damon and Mohler], 149 
Los Angeles & San Diego Beach Ry. 

(See San Diego, Cal.) 
Pacific Electric Ry. : 

Car, Combination, Rebuilt for prepay- 
ment service, *46 

Elevated tracks at Sixth Street depot, 
1138 

Laborers scarce, 941 

Manganese steel special work, Ex- 
perience [Johnson], cl099 

Motion pictures for instructions on 
rules, 578, *769; Comment, 753 

Shelters, Concrete, *90 
Rail ordinance, 329 

Valuation of street and interurban rail- 
ways, 738 
Louisville, Ky. : 

Employees, Effort to organize, fails, 1055 

Jovian League, 1395 

Louisville & Interurban R. R., Campaign 

with truck gardeners, 104 

Louisville & Northern Railway & Light 

Co. (See New Albany, Ind.) 

Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction 

Co. (See New Albany, Ind.) 

Louisville Ry. : 

Annual report, 845 
Center-entrance car, *140 
"Safety First" League, 1364 

Louisville Traction Co., Power station 

constructed according to the unit sys- 
tem, *402, *716 

Spitting crusade, 335 

Lubrication: 

Oil records on Michigan United Traction 

Co., 1346 

Railway motors, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

system [Green], *308 



M 



Mail carriers, Transporting, Seattle, Wash., 
284 

Mail transportation: 

Connecticut Co. discontinues service, 1470 

Pay bill in Congress, 1356 

Report of United States mail service on 

electric lines, 358 
-Westchester, Pa., Service discontinued, 

798 

Maine, Accident record, 900 

Maintenance of electric railway equipment 
[Lambert]. 1459 

Maintenance records and costs: 

New York Rys., Comprehensive records 

and charts concerning operation of 
rolling stock, *915: Comment, 909 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., 

Costs and records with single-phase 
equipment, 643 

Rome, G'a. [Wade], 935 

Manganese steel. (See Track construction, 
Manganese special work) 

Manganese steel castings, Difficulties in manu- 
facture, *1221 

Manganese steel societies, Meeting ot, fn New 
York, 923 

Manholes, Marking location, Brooklyn [Mc- 

Kelway], *730 
Manila. (See Philippines) 

Manufacture of cars by railways [Cummins], 
15 

Manufacturer and his relation to the industry 
[Tripp, Hawley], 18-19 

Maps: 

lielfort, France, 1323 

Buenos Aires, Argentina, 536 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry-, 579 

— Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., 34 

Detroit United Uy., 1023 

Fall River, Mass., 816 

Gothard Line, Switzerland, 528 

— . — Illinois Traction System, Signalled terri- 
tory, 1071 

London, 296 

-Mesaba Ry., 68 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Maps: (Continued) 

Milwaukee fare zones, 185 

Montreal, Canadian Northern Ry., 572 

— Montreal & Southern Counties Ry., 702 
— New York Municipal Ry., 1262 
Pennsylvania R. R., Philadelphia electri- 
fication, 861 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Ky., 359 

Marion, Ohio, Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus 
Ry., Reorganization, 795 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology: 

C ourses in electrical engineering, 186 

Electrical research, 1389 

Engineering Department merged with that 

of Harvard University, 150 

Investigation of fare economics, 587 

Massachusetts Northeastern Street Ry. (See 
Haverhill, Mass.) 

Massachusetts Public Service Commission: 

Bay State Street Ry., Findings, 208 

Depreciation hearings, 1152 

Watertown fare petition, 208 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association: 

— ■ — February meeting, 415 

January meeting, 191 

Mayors' night, 1151 

Master Car Builders' Association: 

Convention : 

Comment, 1311 
Exhibits, 1338 
Papers, 1337 

Medford, Ore., Southern Oregon Electric Ry., 
New road, 791 

Megaphone for announcing cars, 1427 

Melbourne, Australia, Electrification, 274 

Memphis (lenn.) Street Ry. : 

Enforcement of ordinance enjoined, 739 

Man efficiency considered by safety com- 
mittee, 1010 

Mercury-arc rectifier, Experimental use on New 
Haven Road [Gibbs], 706 

Meridian (Miss.) Light & Railway Co., Single- 
truck cars, *838 

Mesaba Ky. (See Virginia, Minn.) 

Meters : 

-Laboratory portable voltmeter (Westing- 
house), *734 

Portable graphic (Esterline), *549 

(Westinghouse) 5-in. d. c. ammeters and 

voltmeters, *937 
Metropolitan Street Ry. (See Kansas City) 
Metz, Germany, Headway clock, * 196 
Mexican Light & Power Co., Protection by 

machine gun equipment, 893 
Mexico, Prophecy concerning, 942 
Michigan Ry. (See Grand Rapids, Mich.) 
Michigan United Traction Co. (See Jackson, 
Mich.) 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry. (See Newton- 
ville, Mass.) 

.Mileage records, Method of keeping. Metro- 
politan Street Ry., Kansas City, Mo., 
*423 

Milk transportation, Detroit United Ry., 1027 
Milledgeville (Ga.) Railway, Storage battery 

cars, *1350 
Milwaukee, Wis.: 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. : 

Car design improvements [Cross], 
1391 

Educational work in the company 

section 541 
Efficiency engineering in shops, *631 
Fare, Effect of reduced, 256 
Fare zones, Suburban, Two cents a 
mile with minimum fare of five 
cents, * 1 85 
Operating problems [Stearns], 1135 
Planning department and premium 

system, 632 
Repair shop practice, *652 

Midwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Co.: 

Fare readjustment, 148 
Racine complaint dismissed by Wis- 
consin Commission, 726 
Minneapolis, Minn.: 

Minneapolis & Northern Gasoline Motor 

Ry., Gasoline car, *1469 
Minneapolis Street Ry., Manganese steel 

special work, Experience [Wilson], 

cllOO 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 429 
Car details, *48 

Maintenance of way notes, *81 
Photographic contest, 1304 
Reduction of running time, 899 
Wheel maintenance, *142 
Mississippi Electric Association, April meeting, 
1099 

Missouri Electric, Gas, Street Railway & Water 
Works Association, Annual meeting, 
1267 

Missouri Public Service Commission: 
Annual report, 1054 

Report on inspection of railways, 1341 

Valuation case of Springfield Gas & Elec- 
tric Co. and Springfield Traction Co., 
Abstract of brief, 989 

Mobile (Ala.) Light & Railroad Co., Annual 
report, 1229 

Montpelier, Vt., Barre & Montpelier Traction 
& Power Co., Strike, 379, 492, 603 

Montreal : 

— Electrification of Canadian Northern Ry. 
tunnel and terminal [Lancaster], *572 

Montreal & Southern Counties Ry., 600- 

volt d. c. electrification. Route, track, 
line, substations and cars, *702 

Montreal Tramways: 

Hushing press for different types 
of motors [Macleod], * 1 104 



X 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLIII. 



Montreal : 

Montreal Tramways: (Continued) 

Pipe-threading machine, Motor-driven, 

*1284 
Prison car, * 1 45 

Safety first campaign methods, 988; 

Comment, 955 
Stores car, Steel, *88 
Train-operation, *367 
Morgan & Co., J. P., Resignation from direc- 
torates, 98 

Morristown, N. J., Morris County Traction 

Co., Power contract, 941 
Moscow, Platform accidents [Sheremetewsky], 

c675 
Motorbuses : 
— Chicago, Proposed in, 555 

Competition by, 1207 

>St. Louis, 555 

Stepless [Field], *1352 

Toronto, Suggestion, 499 

.Motor repair shop, Third Avenue Ry., New 

York [Parsons], *638 

Motors: 

Booster control in Paris [Jacquin], *302 

Cleveland Ry., C enter-entrance car, 458 

Comparative characteristics of different 

types for electric locomotives, "535 

Field-control, Chicago Elevated R. R., 

*324 

Field control test in Toledo [Wynne], 

1447; Comment, 1427 
— Improvements [Layng], *466 

Load performances of carbon brushes 

ISpeer], 998 
— Low-floor GE-247, Pittsburgh, Ry., 938 
— Lubrication, Evolution of, Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit system [Green], *308 
Maintenance cost of old and new [Tay- 
lor], 175 

Tap-field motors, GE-242-A, Chicago City 

Ry., *1407 

Temperatures of single-pnase, New York, 

Westchester & Boston Ry., 396 

Ueberetsch Ry., 1200-volt d. c. motor 

[Gyaros], *768 

Wiring diagrams of commutating ■ pole 

motors, Westinghouse and General 
Electric, *1285 
Moving of buildings [McKelway], 824 
Moving pictures: 

Central agency suggested, 753 

Chicago Safety Bureau, 949 

Pacific Electric Ry., 578, *769; Comment, 

753 

^—Washington, D. C. [Dement], c829 
Muncie-New Castje line. (See Anderson, 

Ind., Indiana Union Traction Co.) 
Municipal ownership: 

[Brady], 1455 

Comment, 1069 

District of Columbia. (See Washington, 

D. C.) 

-France, Results in. Comment on book by 

Yves Guyot, 1021 

Government ownership of railways. Re- 
view of book by Samuel O. Dunn, 353 

Labor conditions under, 571, 805 

Nelson, B. C, 149 

Opinions of leading men, 1198 

Statistics on government and private 

ownership, 1200 

Superior, Wis., 149 

Tacoma, Wash., Poposed, 150 

Testimony in Washington case. (See 

Washington, D. C.) 

Toronto, Mayor Hocken re-elected, 93 

Versus private enterprise [Burdett], 19 

Washington, D. C. (See Washington) 

[Williams], 737 



N 

National Association of Corporation Schools, 

Convention, 1392 
National Efficiency Exposition in New York 

City, 825 

National Electric Light Association: 

Company sections, Educational work of 

[Martin], 518; Comment, 508 

Convention at Philadelphia, *1271, 1324 

Near-side stops, 909, 949, [Lyne], cl041, cl 101, 

[Fairchild], c 1154 
Nelson, B. C, Municipal ownership, 149 
New Albany, Ind.: 

Park for Insull properties, 1080 

— i — Safety first association formed, 1382 

Safety first results, 384 

New Brighton, Pa., Beaver Valley Traction Co., 
Safety first campaign, * 1390 ; Com- 
ment, 1373 
New England Street Railway Club ( : 

■ Annual meeting and banquet, 715 

April meeting, 986 

May meeting, 1257 

Past-president's night, 530 

New Haven, Conn., Connecticut Co.: 

Derailments at facing point switches, *676 

Dump cars, Steel multiple motor-operated, 

*197 

Mail service discontinued, 1470 

-Overhead construction, spans, brackets and 

curves [Harte], *994 

Reclaiming old switch tongues and general 

special work, *592 

Statement concerning separate organiza- 
tion, 1057 

Switch hole, Making self-cleansing, *729 

Switches, Preventing freezing of electri- 
cally-operated, *373 



New Jersey Public Utility Commission, Rec- 
ommendations, 94 
New Midland Power & Traction Co. (See 

Cambridge, Ohio) 
New Orleans, La,: 

Interurban entrance, 942 

New Orleans Railway & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 1359 
Car building plans abandoned, 791 
New York, Auburn & Lansing R. R. (See 

Auburn, N. Y.) 
New York Central & Hudson River R. R.: 

Lighting by storage battery, * 1 2 5 5 

Repair shops at Harmon, N. Y. Original 

features of design, * 1244 ; Comment, 
1240 

Wrecking derrick car, Double-ended, *1046 

New York City: 

Accidents, 1913, 103, 334 

American Light & Traction Co., Earnings, 

742 

Conference on universities and training 

for public service, 1133; Comment, 
1127 

Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery R. R., 

Change in motive power, 491 

Efficiency exposition and conference, First 

national, 423 

Elevated extensions and third tracking, 

328 

Federal Light & Traction Co., Annual re- 
port, 793 

Forest Products Exposition, 1155 

Franchise forfeiture cases, 149 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. : 

Construction, time extension, 844 
Financial readjustment, 57 
Income statement, 944 
Maintenance of all-steel cars [See], 
cl212 

Interborough Rapid Transit: 

Boilers for the 30,000-kw turbines, 1 
( hristmas gift to employees, 385 
Clocks, Running-time terminal, * 547 
Coasting time recorders, Operating ex- 
periences with, *680 
Co-operative stores for employees, 

Results of operation, 367 
Elevated, Contracts for third-track- 
ing, 426 

Fenders and wheel-guards, *709 
Loan fund, 948 

New Year's greeting to employees, 102 
Power production economies [Stott], 
1041 

Power station at 74th St., Changes, 
*872 

"Safety" movement [Doyle], 709; 

Comment, 707 
Subway, Platforms, Extensible, at 

stations, *421 
Transportation record, 900 
Venner suit dismissed, 58 
Welfare department, List of activities, 

465 

Kings County Light Co. Decision of New 

York Court of Appeals. Recognition 
of "Going value" for rate making, 
821, 1055 
— Long Island R. R., Statistics, 157 
Manhattan & Queens Traction Corp., Cen- 
ter-entrance cars, *374 

New York Consolidated R. R., Operating 

contracts, Results, 56 

New York Municipal Ry. : 

Car of great length and unusual 

width. Comparisons with earlier 

cars, "1261, *1327; Comment, 

1243, 1313 
Progress report, 1003 

New York Rys. : 

Bond issue proposed, 1470 
Christmas gift to employees, 385 
Fender, cars and safety first movement 

[Doyle], *709; Comment, 707 
Financial matters, 206 
Interest payment, 559 
Magazine for employees, 1059 
Manganese insert turnouts at end of 

Williamsburg bridge, * 1 1 5 8 
Snow sweeper, Outboard, *838 
Statistics on operation of rolling 

stock. Comprehensive records 

and charts, * 9 1 5 ; Comment, 909 
Suit to enforce interest payments, 1117 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry. : 

Ground detectors for a. c. rolling 

stock [Longhurst], *729 
Journal brass, Design of [Brincker- 

hoff], c *540 
Maintenance of all-steel cars [Potter], 

cl212 

Maintenance of electrical equipment, 
_ *394 

Maintenance of mechanical equip- 
ment, *220 

Operating records and maintenance 
costs with single-phase equipment, 
643 

Shrink fits versus press fits [Potter], 
*321 

North American Co., Annual report, 741 

Public Service Commission: 

Accounting for maintenance and de- 
preciation [Weber], c827 

Appropriation, 570 

Magazine called Public Service Rec- 
ord, 1473 

Report for 1913, 192 

Track specifications for new rapid 
transit lines [Mills], *317 



New York City: (Continued) 

SmoKing on cars, Petition dismissed, 59 

Snow problem, Conference between trac- 
tion officials and Street Cleaning De- 
partment, 600 
Snow removal, 727 

Stemway tunnel assigned to city, 843 

— Stopping of cars on near-side, 909, 949; 
[Lyne], c 1041; cllOl, Fairchild], 1154 

— Storm, Storage-battery cars in, 424 

Subways, New: 

Contracts, 93, 275, 426, 491, 601, 737, 

789, 940, 1004, 1166 
Details concerning routes, 376 
Notes on, 193 

Kails, Separate contracts for, 56 

Seventh Avenue, Bids, 55 

Track Specifications of New York Pub- 
lic Service Commission [Mills], 
*317 

Third Avenue Ry. : 

Accident prevention by installation of 

folding doors and steps, 805 
Annual report, 205 

Bonds sold directly to the public, 494, 

507, 607 

Car, Low-level, end-entrance, *731 
Clocks, Running-time terminal, 550, 

*547 

Coasting time recorders, 550 
Conduit operating difficulties, 768 
Controllers of K type. Improvements 

[Parsons], *418 
Equipment and stores economies 

[Johnson], *780 
Fuse-testing board [Parsons], *319 
Insurance for employees, 66 
Motor repair shop [Parsons], *638 
Safety campaign [Maher], 708 
Shop work on a piece-work basis 

[Johnson], 373 
Smoking order modified, 1060 
Truck-overhauling shop [Johnson], 

*1077 

Welding, Electric arc [Parsons], *482 
Tunnels under East River, Construction 

contracts, 1227, 1296 
Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth -eets 

Cross-Town R. R. Reorj, 

proposed, 558 
Union Ry. : 

Cable clamp maintenance 
*1218 

Car, Single-truck convertible, 
United Gas & Electric Engineerin 

Formation, 155 
United Railways Investment G 

justment plan, 846 
New York Electric Railway Associatic 

meeting, 707, 713 
New York, New Haven & iiartfor 

Accident near Rye, N. Y., 89 

Affairs, 892 

April meeting of stockholders, ui. 

Balanced distribution system, 22,0u0-volt 

[Murray], 706 

Burning of books of an affiliated company. 

The fault and the remedv. 1067 

Convertible bond issue annulled, 153 

Electrification extensions, 738, 842, 1473 

Financial matters, 607, 892 

Inductive interference, Reduction by auto- 
transformer plan. Details of plan 
and of circumstances leading to its 
adoption LMurray], *706; *960; Com- 
ment, 958 

Investigation of, 377, 426, 1004, 1053, 1112 

1166, 1172, 1226 
Mellen on government ownersr' 

1239 ■■() 
— Locomotive shops, Electric, at V an Nesi, 

N. Y. Arrangement and equipment, 

*623; Comment, 619 

Locomotives, Switching electric, at Har- 
lem yards, * 1 159 

Note issue, 945 

Khode Island properties, Trustees for, 280 

Segregation of various properties, 146, 735, 

941 

Time inspection, New. system of, 992 

New York Public Service Commission, First 

District. (See New York City) 
New York Public Service Commission, Second 
District. (See New York State Pub- 
lic Service Commission) 
New York Railroad Club, Electrical night, 705 
New York State Public Service commission: 
— r — Appropriation and the cost of regulation, 
570 

Bulletin on cases pending, 93.8 

■ Keport for 1913, 192 

New York State Rys. (See Rochester, N. Y.) 
Newark, N. J., Public Service Ry. : 

Annual report, 845, 1007 

-Bond sale, 58, 154 

Company section of American Electric 

Railway Association, 725, 1190 

Derailments at facing-point switches 

[George], *728 

Educational work in the company section, 

541 . . 

Employees: the ideal supervisory officer, 

1019 

Franchise agreement, 426 

Invoice sticker, 454 

Purchase-money mortgage disapproved by 

State Commission, 606 
"Safety First" movement [Van Brunt], 

712; Discussion, 707 
Stores department, Organization and 

workings of [Inglehart], 454, 459 



(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



January-June, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



XI 



Newark, N. J., Public Service Ry.: (Continued) 

Storm effects, 591 

Team work, 139 

Terminal grants approved, 740 

Track maintenance [McGuire], 139 

Training of platform men [Coe], 1190; 

Comment, 1240 
Transportation department, Organization 

[Bolen], *415 
— i — Wage increase, 60 

Welfare work [Donecker], 416 

Newport News, Va. : 

Newport News & Hampton Railway, Gas 

& Electric Co., Organization, 381 
Public relations, 376 

Newtonville, Mass., Middlesex & Boston Street 
Ry.: 

Arbitration hearings, 893, 1418, 1472 

Hearings on fares, 745, 1480 

Norumbega Park, Operating features, 

♦411; Comment, 391 
Norfolk, Va., Study of traffic conditions, 1443 
Norfolk & Western Ry., Electrification, Dis- 
cussion at New York Railroad Club, 
705, 706 

North American Co. (See New York City) 
Northampton (Mass.) Street Ry. : 

Arbitration with employees, 685, 739, 841, 

851 

Wage award, 1304, 1411 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (See 

Akron, Ohio) 
Norumbega Park. (See Parks) 
Norwalk, Conn., Roton Park Improvements, 

514 

Norway : 

Christiania, Subw.ay for, 184 

— i — Christiania-Drammen Ry., Electrification 

approved, 50 
Electrification of state railways, Report of 

royal commission, 523 
Nova Scotia tramway (See Halifax, N. S.) 
Nut, Absolute lock (American Lock Nut Co.), 

*938 



o 

■1, Cal.: 

lakland, Antioch &• Eastern Ry. : 
Financial matters, 1361 
, Locomotives, Electric, *785 
i Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys.: 
•Bond issue, 898, 1302 
Complaint dismissed, 692 
'Organization chart, 1086 
Rails electrically welded, 1289 
United Properties purchase, 206, 279, 
. , 333 

J }h) Rapid Transit Co.: 
— ^ite construction cars, *1326 
/ements, 240 

Ohio.-. Public Utilities Commission, Legislation 

gives additional authority, 1004 
Ohio Traction Co. (See Cincinnati) 
Ohio valuations, 842 

Oil and paint storage building, Baltimore, *868 
Oil record system, Michigan United Traction 
Co., *1346 

Oklahoma Ry., Line car with platform having 

side adjustments, *372 
Omaha (Neb.) & Council Bluffs Street Ry.: 

Fare ordinance, 602, 738, 1227 

Manganese steel special work, Experience 

[Findley], cl281 

' Repair shop practice [Wood], 929 

■eida, N. Y., West Shore Ry., Fraud in pro- 

.motion, 1167 
.jitario, Radial electric railways proposed, 842, 

1002 

Operating problems of electric raliways 
[Stearns], 11'35 

Operating ratio, Value of, 1241 

Operating records and costs: 

Chicago Elevated traffic curves, 532 

Compiling operating expenses [Kase- 

meier], 1445 

Costs and recorus with single-phase equip- 
ment. New York, Westchester & Bos- 
ton Ry., 643 

Energy and time analyses, 756 

Enerey meters on cars, Economy of. El 

Paso, Texas [Morsel, 1206 

Field control test in Toledo [Wynne], 

1447; Comment, 1427 

T ondon tube railways, 298 

Special work. Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. 

[Bernard], 1217 

Speed durine non-rush hours in varioui 

cities, 867 

Station spacing. Effect of, on schedules 

[Squier], *670 

Steam versus electricity in Bavaria, 811 

Time-tables, Development of [Jackson], 

873; Comment. 857 

Traffic statistics, Pittsburg, 924 

Oregon, E. L. Van Dresar a pro-railroad can- 
didate for Congress, 1039 
Organization charts: 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys., 

1086 

Signal maintenance: 

Boston Flevnted Ry., 660 
Illinois Traction System, 1071 

Organization of the electric railway and team- 
work [Mcfi'raw], 462 

Organization of tl>" transportation department 
[Bolen], *41S 

Overhead charges (See Appraisal of railway 
property) 



Overhead construction: 

Anchorage [Harte], 936 

Cable clamps, Maintenance record, Union 

Ry., New York, *1218 

Clips and hangers [Harte], 936 

Conductor tables, 1106 

Connecticut Co. [Harte], *994 

Diagonal span construction on staggered 

poles used for single track, Cleveland 

[Scott], *832 
Feeders, feed taps and lightning arresters 

[Harte], 1105 
— Inspection, in Wisconsin, 175 
Insulators, Cap and cone, Willingness of 

manufacturers to adopt standard, 1039 

Mesaba Ry., *69 

— Montreal & Southern Counties Ry., *702 
— Salmon River Power Co., *1380 
Spars, brackets and curves. Design of 

[Harte], *994 

Splicing sleeve, Philadelphia [Harte], 935 

Suspension, Three - part straight - line 

[White], *732 
— Suspension problems [Harte], *885 
Trolley pan with guides for terminals 

where cars are turned, *420 
Trolley wire on curves, Determining 

correct position [Dixon], *1042 
Trolley wire, Selection of [McKelway], 

647 

2400-volt, Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., 

*579 

Ueberetsch Ry. [Gyaros], *766 

Vienna-Pressburg line, * 1 90 

(See also Catenary construction) 

Oxy-acetylene in Decatur Shop of Illinois Trac- 
tion System, * 1438 



P 

Pacific Claim Agen*s' Association, Executive 
committee meeting, *480 

Pacific Electric Ry. (See Los Angeles, Cal.) 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co. (See San Fran- 
cisco) 

Pacific Power & Light Co. (See Astoria, Ore.) 

Painter's rust catch-all bag, Brooklyn, *935 

Paints and painting: 

— — Air brush for motor cases, * 1 284 

— — Cincinnati Traction Co., Car painting by 
use of portable drying oven with ordi- 
nary air-drying paints and varnishes, 
*444; Comment, 442 

Report of American Railway Engineering 

Association, 666 

Storage building for oil and paint, Balti- 
more, *868 

Varnish remover, Home-made [Ingle], 677 

Panama Canal, Electric locomotives, *835 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition: 
Electnc railway exhibits and transporta- 
tion facilities, 358, 553 

Intramural railway, 1336 

Progress on buildings, *821, * 1 277 

View of transportation palace, * 1 277 

Pantographs, New York, Westchester & Boston 
Ry., *220 

Paris: 

Gas-electric car, Pieper system, Trial serv- 
ice, M288 

Metropolitan Ry., Booster control [Jac- 

quin], *302 

Subway statistics, 80 

Parks and pleasure resorts: 

Canobie Lake, Salem, N. H., Operation 

details. *576 
Fairview Park, Indianapolis Traction & 

Terminal Co., Developments of, * 5 1 6 
New Albany, Ind., Silver Hills Grove of 

Insull properties, 1080 
Norumbega Park, Auburndale. Mass., 

Operating features, *411; Comment, 

391 

Roton Point, Norwalk, Conn., Improve- 
ments, 514 

Sacandaga Park. Fonda, Johnstown & 

Gloversville Ry., Features, 927 

Value of, to railway company, 391 

Pass evil, Reduction of. Politicians as graft- 
ers, 441 

Passenger stations. (See Waiting stations) 
Pavement : 

Breaking up p-ivement with a plow, Cleve- 
land [Clark], *1346 

Edmonto", Alberta [Saunders]. *878 

Granite-block, for shallow T-rail on parked 

streets [Mathews], *271 

Wood-block, Experiences with, 1207, 1 254 

Peak loads sometimes unprofitable [Reillyl, 

1082: Comment, 1068 
Pekin, 111., Municipal ownership favored, 1055 
Pennsylvania, History of street railway devel- 
opment [Tingley], 1081 
Pennsylvania R. R.: 

Air-brake performance, Tests with differ- 
ent types of brakes on high-speed 
trains [Dudley], 362; Comment 343 

Depreciation charges on equipment, 981 

Electric energy supply, Contract with Phil- 
adelphia Electric Co.. 54. 966 

Electrificition plans, 555, 606, [Gibbs], 

*705 

Employees roll of honor, 352 

Pass evil. Action of the Company, 441 

Philadelphia-Paoli electrification, *860; 

Comment, 858 

Tractor, Electric, for switching in city 

streets, *130 
Training of employees a"d results of sys- 
tematic promotion, 651 



Pennsylvania Street Railway Association, May 
meeting at Harrisburg, Proceedings, 
1081 

Pension. (See Employees) 

Peoria, 111., Illinois Traction System: 

Annual report, 1475 

Billboard advertising, * 1396 

Bridge panel post replaced under traffic, 

1433 

Bridges of wood replaced with concrete 

and steel, 419 
Express business by Adams Express Co., 

1480 

Oxy-acetylene in Decatur shop, *1438 

— Painting motor cases with air brush, * 1 284 
Peg board for ordering cars to the shops 

for inspection [Chubbuck], *593 

School for steam-boiler operators, 34 

■ Sign on ridgepole of shops, 352 

— —Signal maintenance organization and costs, 

Automatic block system, *1070 
Philadelphia, Pa.: 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.: 

Agreement with city for rapid transit 

system, 1294 
Appropriation requested for audit, 941 
Farm freight service, 384, 432 
Jack, Emergency [Duff], *1351 
Tacks on cars, 739 
Near-side stops [Fairchild], cll54 
Proposed plan for operation of addi- 
tional lines. Comparison with 
suggestions of the Department of 
city transit, 788 
Route guide, 103 
Sand-handling methods, *910 
Signals on Chester Short Line, *1348 
Snow removal, 746 

Sprinkler test at Luzerne carhouse, 
*1028 

Transit agreement. 1227. 1312 
V entilating near-side cars, 746 

Rapid transit report bv A. Merritt Taylor. 

Tables showing estimated increase in 
revenue, future investment, overhead 
percentages, rate of return and time- 
savine. 76 

Semaphore signals for traffic regulation, 

*1033 

Snow removal conference, 931 

Subway, Dayton fare boxes in, 1104 

Subways proposed, 96, 755 

Philippines : 

Center-entrance cars in Manila, 562 

Public Utilities Commission appointed, 202 

Piedmont Traction Co. (See Charlotte, N. C.) 
Piles, Treatment. (See Timber preservation) 
Pine Bluff (Ark.) Co., Steel underframe cars, 
*484 

Pipe: 

Electrolysis. (See Electrolysis) 

Preservative coatings for, 1254 

Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

American Water Works & Electric Co., 

Sale, 1057 

American Water Works & Guarantee Co., 

Reorganization, 689, 794, 1008 

Freight terminal proposed, 385 

Philadelphia Co., Annual report, 1299 

Pittsburgh & Butler Street Ry. Change 

from single-phase to 1200-volt direct 
current. Description of new equip- 
ment, * 1 66 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & New Cas- 
tle Ry., Freight transportation [Meln- 
tyre], *1034 

Pittsburgh Rys.: 

Cars: 

Center-entrance, end-exit, *808 
Remodeled for center-entrance, 
♦1217 

Commutator bar cavities filled with 

dental cement, *730 
Employees asked to arbitrate, 1012 
Insurance for employees. 433 
Motors, Low-floor GE-247, 938 
Protest against sale of liquor to em- 
ployees, 850 
Traffic statistics. Methods used in 

compiling, *924 
Transfer tickets, *867 

Subway committee appointed, 426 

Subway ordinance competition, 942 

Transit problems, 1296 

West Penn Traction & Water Power Co.: 

Annual report, 430 

Liquor advertisements barred from 
cars, 1364 

Reorganization, 945 
Pittsfield, Mass., Berkshire Street Ry., Moun- 
tain line denied, 150 
Platform for raising rheostats to cars with one 

man [Parsonsl. * 1 1 5 6 
Platforms of cars, Order against riding on, 

Pennsylvania, 562 
Platforms of stations. Extensible, in New York 

Subway, *421 
Plymouth. Mass., Brockton & Plymouth Street 

Rv.. Hearing on fares and service, 101 

Pole*: 

Brackets, Hot-riveted, with impregnated 

cobs [Barnes & Kobert], *783 

Concrete : 

Hollow [Jones], 198 

Tests of solid and hollow reinforced 
poles at Oklahoma Citv and Nash- 
ville, Tenn., M85 

Tests in Syracuse, N. Y., * 781 
Joint use of: 

Rental rates, Virginia Railway & 
Power Co., 443 



(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



XII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLIII. 



Poles: 

— Joint use of: (Continued) 

Report of American Electric Railway 
Association, 249 

Red Cedar Association meeting, 169 

Reinforcing decayed, with concrete-mixing 

car [Purinton], *S33 
Portland, Ore.: 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Ry., System, 

power distribution and rolling stock, 
*359 

Portland Railway Light & Power Co.: 

Campaign in interest of home pur- 
chases, 603 
Fare ordinance declared void, 334 
Pare rates and length of ride, Statis- 
tics, 229 

Gates of two-car trains [Boynton], 

*677 

Safety-hrst signs, *316 
Power distribution: 
[Bell], 12 

Direct-current distribution for mterurban 

service [Rice], 521 
Direct-current distribution for underground 

and elevated railways [Blair], *521 

General problems I Junkersfeld] , 520 

Inductive interference. (See Transmission 

lines) 

— ■ — Insulated negative feeder systems, 44 
Lighting and industrial power [Merriam], 

522 

-Mechanical strains in a. c. conductors, 195 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Ry., *360 

—Reactance in power circuits, 423 

2400-volt, Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., 

*579 

Underground trolley difficulties, Third 

Avenue R. K., 768 
Power generation: 

Centralization of power supply [Instill], 

914 

Centralization of power supply in London 

[Merz and McLellan], Comment, 955 

Designing hydroelectric plants [Hutchin- 
son], 520 

— — Economies in production, Interborough 
Rapid Trcnsit Co. [Stott], 1041 

Euel, V alue of various kinds, 1253 

Illinois [Junkersfeld], 1134 

Mercury-vapor turbine, Experiments by 

W. L. R. Emmet, 575 

Protective reactances in larger stations 

[Lyman, Rossman and Perry], 447 

Relays, Operating characteristics of inverse 

time-limit (Westinghouse), *1049 

Reports of National Electric Light Asso- 
ciation, 1271, 1324 
Salmon River Power Co., 1382 

Water power economics [Coldwell], 1272 

Power requirements and energy consumption 
of electric railways [Richey], 1192 

Fower stations, Hydroelectric 

Marseilles, 111., McKinley system, Im- 
provements [Humphrey], 586 

Salmon River Power Co., Construction de- 
tails, * 1378 ; Comment, 1373 

Savannah River, near Augusta, Ga., Com- 
pletion, 426 

Power stations, Steam: 

■ -Interborough Rapid Transit, New York, 

Changes, *872 

Louisville Traction Co., Growth, *402, *716 

Mesaba Ry., *70 

Prepayment-car patents, Status of [Casey], 
cl462 

President Wilson's message, 201 
Presidio & Ferries R. K. (See San i'rancisco) 
Pressburg, Hungary, Single-phase line to Vien- 
na, *190 

Preston, Unt., Gait, Preston & Hespler Ry., 
Locomotive [ Baldwin- Westinghouse] , 

375 

Profit-sharing with the municipality. (See 

Public service corporations) 
Progress and problems: 

Discussions [Black, Allen, Eldridge, Brady, 

Ayling, Hoist, Gibbs, Bell, Armstrong, 
Gay, Cummings, Brinkerhoff, Ren- 
shaw, Tripp, Hawley, Burdett, Web- 
ster, Mortimer, Joyce, Rollins, Ford], 6 

• Trend of technical branches of railway in- 
dustry, 2 

Providence, R. I.: 

Rhode Island Co., Signs for cars follow- 
ing, 729 

Subway proposed, 277, 601, 739, 1053 

Prussian-Hessian State Rys., Lauban-Konigs- 

zelt single-phase line, 1076 
Public, Relations with: 

Accident claim department and the public, 

294 

[Anderson], 241 

Baltimore [House], 947 

Betterment of, Responsibility of railway 

companies, 164 
Complaints, Proper manner of caring for 

[Crafts], 982; Comment, 1020 

Delays from vehicular traffic, 699 

"Do it, and do it first," 291 

Exhausting the public's patience, 295 

Explaining service and accident cost to 

public [Reilly], 1082; Comment, 1068 

How to have good relations [Allen], 7 

Improvements suggested [Tripp], 238; 

Comment, 219 
Modern public policies of public service 

corporations [Crafts], 982; Comment, 

1020 

Policies to be used in dealing with public 

[Slater], 1142 
[Rollins], 23 



Public ownership. (See Municipal ownership) 
Public policy report of National Electric Light 

Association, 1274; Comment, 1311 
Public service, Training for, National confer- 
ence in New York, 1133; Comment, 
1127 

Public-service commissions : 

Co-operation with state governments pro- 
posed by Bureau of Standards, 291 

Engineers as members of [Humphreys, 

Sague and Gibbs], 126; Comment, 106 

[Mortimer], 21 

Regulation of utilities compared with 

profit-sharing with municipality [Erick- 
son], 257; Discussions [Brady], 245; 
[Rosecrantz], 246; Comment, 217 

Public service corporations: 

Alternative of regulation is municipal 

ownership and operation, 1019 

Annual reports, Need of uniformity in, 

859 

California. Cost of money. Reasonable 

return on the investment [Hochen- 
beamer], 1074; Comment, 1067 

Centralized management, Advantages to 

the public [Webster], 20 

Control of. Rate making by valuation 

[Gray], 36; Discussions, 36, 37; Com- 
ment, 4 

Credit of public utility companies 

[Elliott], 1448 

Dividends on public utilities, 1297 

-Factors determining a reasonable charge 

for service [Cooley], 124 
Future of public utilities, from their point 

of view [McCarter], 871; Comment, 

857 

Future regulation of [Kerr], 1052 

Governmental operation, Where it fails, 569 

Holding companies: 

Advantages and disadvantages [Ford], 
23 

Bill in Congress, 685 

Lectures at New York Young Men's 

Christian Association, 684 
Testimony at Washington [Flexner, 

Gibboney, Beekman], 1098 
Views of Federal administration, 217 
Inefficiency in boards of directors [Bab- 
son], 354 

"Irresponsible political boss," 1239 

Liability for unsecured debts after reor- 
ganization, 1056 

Management by large operators [Joyce], 23 

Municipal ownership. (See Municipal 

ownership) 

Regulation : 

Cost, New York State, 570 
Discussion by Western Society of En- 
gineers, 673 
Engineer's part in [Humphreys, 
Sague and Gibbs], 126; Comment, 
109 

Interstate Commerce Commission, Pro- 
posed increase of jurisdiction over 
electric railways. Hearing at 
Washington [Brady, Schoepf, Per- 
ry, Weadock, Fischer, Henry, 
Potter], 533 
Legal aspects of [Mathewson], 1111 
Rayburn bill, Protest of electric rail- 
way representatives against, 1399; 
Comment, 1372 
State regulation [Norton], 586 
Regulation or profit-sharing with the mu- 
nicipality. Economic aspects [Erick- 
son], 257; Discussions [Brady], 245, 
[Rosecrantz], 246; Comment, 217 

Relations between cities and railways 

[Arnold], 535 

Valuation. (See Accounting, Appraisal) 

Public Service Ry. (See Newark, N. J.) 
Publicity : 

Advertising methods [Barron and Wil- 
liams], 54 

Co-operative publicity problem. "Low- 
landers and highlanders" [Hazzard], 
967; Comment, 956, 1020 

— — Corporation baiting and misrepresentation, 
1184 

Explaining service and costs by car an- 
nouncements, 1068 

Failure to eliminate troubles in many in- 
stances. Different kinds of publicity 
service. The most effective service 
[Buchanan], 1209: Comment, 1183; 
[Van Zandt], cl279 

Need of [Black], 234 

-Newspaper publicity. Criticisms requested 

and answered. Leaflets in cars, Tole- 
do, 1250 

Reasons for corporation publicity, 1183 

Value of, illustrated by methods of steam 

road campaign for increased freight 

rates, 1241 

Puget Sound Electric Ry. (See Tacoma, 

Wash.) 

Puget Sound Traction & Light Co. (See Se- 
attle, Wash.) 

Purchased power: 

[Ayling], 9 

— — Birmingham, Ala., 1401 

Charges for power, c369; Comment, 345 

Pennsylvania R. R., for Philadelphia lines, 

54, 966 



Q 

Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co., Traffic 
development methods, *1 130 

(Abbreviations: Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



R 

Rail-cleaning car, Suction type, Zurich Muni- 
cipal Rys., *1223 

Rail file for accurate finish of new joints, 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., "194 

Rail joints and bonds: 

( ombination shrunk-on and welded joint, 

Holyoke, Mass. [Pellissier], *323 

Electrically welded, San Francisco-Oak- 
land Terminal Rys., 1289 

-Welded joint and rail brace, Cincinnati, 

*1467 

Rails: 

British standard section, *812 

Characteristic practice in American cities, 

815 

Corrugation, Causes and remedies [Sel- 

lon], 593 

Girder, Standards of Engineering Associ- 
ation. History of their development. 
Old and new designs LSchreiber], 
-812; Comment, 704, 806 

— —Production in 1913, 1138 

Report of American Railway Engineering 

Association, 666 

Rolls for standard rails, Lorain Steel Co., 

867 

[Schreiber], 1258 

Seams developed from cracks in the ingot 

[Wickhorst], 81 

Seams in base, influence of, on ductility of 

the metal [McFarland], 81 

— ■ — T-rail construction [Mitchell], *476 

Titanium in rail steel, Influence of. Bul- 
letin issued by Titanium Alloy Mfg. 
Co., 301 

Titanium, Tests by Titanium Alloy Mfg. 

Co., 783 

Wear measurements, United Railroads of 
San Francisco, 1032 
Railway ills, Mellen's prescription, 1298; [Lee], 
1429 

Railway Signal Association, March meeting, 

669 

Railway Storekeepers' Association, c87 

Rate making by valuation. (See Appraisal of 
railway property ) 

Rates, Railway. (See Fares) 

Rayburn bill. (See Public service corpora- 
tions. Regulation) 

Reactances in large power stations [Lyman, 
Rossman and Perry], 447 

Reasonable return on investments. (See Fi- 
nancial) 

Receivers, Philanthropic donations by, 110 
Receiverships and foreclosure sales in 1913, 33 
Records and record forms: 

Emergency call, Boston, 1138 

— —Equipment defects LSquier], 318 

-Freight waybill, "Harmony Route," 1035 

-Mileage on deviations from schedule, Kan- 
sas City, *423 
Milk waybill, 1027 

-Oil record, Michigan United Traction Co., 

*1346 

— — Pattern sketches on records, Brooklyn, 
*195 

Piece-work system, Third Avenue Ry., 374 

Pull-in and defect records, Milwaukee 

Electric Railway & Light Co., 631 
— — -Sand-car operation, Boston Elevated Ry. 

[Dana], 347 
Storekeeping: 

Public Service Ry., *460 

Third Avenue Ry., *780 
Time distribution, Milwaukee Electric 

Railway & Light Co., 633, 637 
Traffic [Larson], 180 

Unit cost system, Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
way & Light Co., 635 

Value of automatic records of occurrences 

in electric circuits [Steinmetz], 522 

Regulation. ( See Public service corporations) 

Relays : 

Inverse time-element (Westinghouse), 

*1049 

Reverse current, for d.c. circuits [Roller- 
Smith], "1220 

Reverse power (Condit), *679 

Torque compensator (Westinghouse), *1468 

Repair shop equipment: 

Axle straightener, Hydraulic type [Wat- 

son-Stillman], 682 
Bushing press for different types of mo- 
tors, Montreal [Macleod], "1104 

Chuck for turning up bearings [Foote], 

Coil-baking oven, Detroit [Keller], *1464 

Collar puller, Ratchet, *653, *1045 

Commutator slotter, Simple, *653 

Conduit cutting apparatus, Albany, N. Y., 

*89 

Dies for renewing worn slots ot brush- 
holders [Foote], *1045 

Drills, Two-spindle [Stow], M219 

Drum sander of large size, 655 

Jack for installing rheostats [Parsons], 

*1156 

-New York Central Road at Harmon shops, 

*1244 

New York. New Haven & Hartford at 

Van Nest shops, 619, *623 

Pantograph-shoe forming machine, *223 

Pipe bender and pole straightener [Dun- 
can], *781 

Pipe-threading machine, Motor-driven, 

Montreal, *1284 
Sign boxes and signs, Manufacturing 

[See], *46 



January-June, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



XIII 



Repair shop equipment: (Continued) 

■ Suction devices for punch presses, Safety 

[Westinghouse], *889 

Trolley-pole straightener, *1406 

-Truck-overhauling shop, Thud Avenue 

R. R. [JohnsonJ, 1077 

Wheel and gear testing set, Cincinnati, *89 

Repair shop practice: 

Air compressors, Overhauling, 654 

Axle straightener, *654 

. Bolster standardization, *655 

Brushes, Recutting and transferring worn, 

from motor to motor [Ingle], 543 
Burning-off torch, 656 

Cleaner, Home-made suction [Ingle], *887 

-Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R., 

*650 

Device for connecting motor leads to con- 
troller used to run truck from under 
cars, *834 [Parsons], *834 

Edmonton, Alberta, 512 

Electroplating, 656 

Equipment and stores economies, Third 

Avenue Rv. [Johnson], *780 

Field-coil dipping tank, "652 

■ Gear fits i Litchfield] , *320 

Hardened pins and bushings [Boyer], 371 

Hardware, Statuary bronze finish of 

[Kreusser], *481 

Illinois Electric Railway Association [Lam- 
bert], 1459 

-Inspection of rolling stock [Hanf], 725 

— — Inspection test set to locate incipient de- 
fects [Ransom], 1282; Comment, 1371 

Maintenance efficiency [Squier], 318 

Maintenance of modern and old type mo- 
tors [Renshaw], 176 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 

*631, *652 

Motor overhauling, 654 

-Motor-testing machine, *655 

New Haven road. Electric locomotive 

shops, Van Nest, N. Y., *623; Com- 
ment, 619 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., 

*220 

Oil and waste reclaiming, *656 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry. 

[Wood], 929 
Oxy-acetylene equipment, Illinois Traction 

System, *1438 
Pattern sketches on records, Brooklyn, 

*195 

■ Peg board for ordering cars to the shops 

for inspection, Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem [Chubbuck], *593 

Piece-work system, Third Avenue Ry. 

[Johnson], 373 

Pinion puller, Novel, *653 

— — Potential test set, 652 

Press for removing bearings, *652 

Remodeling old 'cars. Cleveland, Paines- 
ville & Eastern R. R., *650 

Safety, Interborough Rapid Transit Co., 

*710 

Scrap handling 908 

___Shrink fits versus press fits [Potter], *321 

Testing trolley poles [Squier], *779 

-Testing wheels and gears for location and 

centering, Cincinnati, *89 

Third Avenue Ry.: 

Electric arc welding [Parsons], *482 
Motor shop [Parsons], *638 

Time distribution, Milwaukee Electric 

Railwav & Light Co., 633, 637 

Trolley-wheel grinding attachment, *6d3 

Truck-overhauling shoo, Third Avenue 

R. R. [Johnson], '1077 

Trucks, Hand-drawn, of elevating type 

[National-Chapmanl , * 599 
Wheel maintenance, Steel wheels, Minne- 
apolis. *142 

Wheel-press records. Graphic, Use ot hy- 

draulograph, Boston, * 1 287 
— — (See also Paints and painting) 
Repair shops: 

Accident prevention by means of safe 

guards, 66 

Baltimore, United Rvs.. Oil and paint 

storage building, *868 

Detroit United Ry., Fireproof construc- 
tion, *1314 

Edmonton, Alberta [Woodroofe], *S 10 

Floors, Report of American Railway En- 
gineering Association, 668 

— — New Haven road. Electric locomotive 
shops at Van Nest, N. Y., Arrange- 
ment and equipment, *632; Comment, 
619 

New York Central & Hudson River R. R., 

Design and equipment, *T244; Com- 
ment, 1240 

Planning shop areas, 110 

Revenues. (See Financial) 

Rhaetian Rv., Single-phase electrification. 

Novel feature of locomotives, *760, 
*1430 

Rheostats, Stand for hanging, to cars, with 
one man [Parsons], * 1 1 56 

Rhode Island Co. (See Providence, R. I.) 

Richmond, Va., Virginia Railway & Power Co.: 

Center-entrance cars, *1095 

Rental rates for joint use of poles, 443 

Surface condensers for cooling trans- 
formers [Palmer], *270 

Track, Life of concrete [Johnston], M263 

Traffic conditions investigated, 1443 

Rirling habit. (See Statistics) 

Rochester, N. Y. : 

Dispatching cars by telephone, *888 



Rochester, N. Y. : (Continued) 
New York State Rys. : 

Apprentice training [Cameron], c722; 
Comment, 757 

Binoculars to detect line troubles 
[Cadle], 1216 

Derrick work car on Utica lines 
[Ayers], *1044 

Fare reduction order, Answer to pe- 
tition of City, 147 

Poles, Tests of reinforced-concrete, 
*781 

Signals for double-track line between 

Utica and Little Falls, *836 
Snow removal with scrapers, *835 
Traffic interruption, Statistics, 745 ; 
Comment, 699 
Remedies for, Traffic obstruction, Co-oper- 
ation of railway with teamsters' union, 
699 

Rock Island, 111., Tri-City Railway & Light Co., 
Carhouse, * 1 1 87 

Rockford (111.) & Interurban Ry.: 

Brushes, Re-cutting and transferring worn, 

from motor to motor [Ingle], 543 

Home-made suction cleaner LIngle], *887 

Splicing broken trolley poles, 936 

Trolley wheels, Maximum wear from 

[Ingle], *59 

Rome (Ga.) Railway & Light Co., Car main- 
tenance statistics, 935 

Rules, Instruction in, by moving pictures, 578, 
*769; Comment", 753 

Rush-hour : 

Fallacies, 621; [Bigelow], c77 

Running time during rush-hours compared 

with norma], 955 
Traffic sometimes unprofitable [Reilly], 

1082; Comment, 1068 
Traffic, Unequal growth of IJackson], 873; 

Comment, 857 



Safety islands on wide avenues [Striezheff), 
*919 

Safety medals for electric railways to be 
awarded by the American Museum of 
Safety, 602 

Safety movements. (See Accident claim de- 
partment) 

St. G'othard Ry., Electrification. (See Swit- 
zerland, Electrification of railways) 
St. Louis, Mo. : 

Motor bus line, 555 

United Rys.: 

Electrolysis test of insulated negative 
feeders under direction of Bureau 
of Standards [Rosa, McCollum 
and Logan], *116; Comment, 109 
Tefferson Avenue line decision, 427 
Mangansese steel special work, Ex- 
perience [Hawkins], cl280 
Transfer matters, 892, 1061 
Salesroom combined with waiting station, 

Cambridge, Ohio, *537 
Salmon River Power Co., Details of hydro- 
electric plant, * 1378 ; Comment, 1373 
Salt Lake City, Utah: 

- — — Salt Lake & Ogden Ry., Improvements, 
240 

Salt Lake & Utah R. R., Construction de- 
tails, *87 

San Antonio, Tex., Smoking on cars prohib- 
ited, 1060 

San Diego, Cal., Los Angeles & San Diego 

Beach Ry. : 

Electrification proposed, 324 

Valuation, 1052 

San Francisco, Cal.: 

Crossings, Observations at, 50 

Geary Street Municipal Ry.: 

Annual report, 557, 1170; Comments, 
1128, 1185 

Employees' demands, 1012 

Motor trucks, *890 

New line, 894 

Report on extensions, 424, [Dodge J, 
cl401 

Geary Street, Park & Ocean R. R., Suit 

against, 1476 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co. Testimony in 

rate case. Cost of money to California 
utilities. Necessity of adequate rate 
of return [Hockenbeamer] , 1074; 
Comment, 1067 

Presidio & Ferries R. R., Purchase terms, 

54 

''Safety First" conference, 745 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys. 

(See Oakland, Cal.) 
-Southern Pacific Ry. : 

Annual Report, 152 

Crossing gate, Remote-control [Cook], 
*422 

Interchange of steam and electric 
traffic on the Coast, 157 

United Railroads: 

Certificate issue. Investment in irri- 
gation projects, 1300 
Employees' magazine, 746 
Insurance for employees, 201 
Rail-wear measurements, 1032 
Sale to city proposed, 1298, 1410, 1412 

United Railways Investment Co., Annual 

report, 1300 

War department grants revocable permit 

for lines to Exposition, 927 
Sand, Obtaining and handling: 

Boston Elevated Ry. [Dana], "346 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., *910 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Sand cars: 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., *912 

Pneumatic operation suggested, 886 

Sand trap for single-hooper equipment (Nich- 

ols-Lintern), " 1409 
Sanford, Me., Atlantic Shore Ry., Annual re- 
port, 688 

Saybrook, Conn., Shore Line Electric Ry., 
Agricultural developments furthered, 
561 

Schedules and time-tables: 

Advertising electric service in steam fold- 
ers, 1240 

Arranged from traffic investigations [Lar- 
son], 181 

Construction of time-tables, Boston Ele- 
vated Ry., 1257 
- — Development of time-tables [Jackson], 873; 

Comment, 857 
Handy time-table for employees, Interna- 
tional Ry., Buffalo, 1094 

Headway clock to show when car is due, 

*196 

— Mid-day traffic, Importance of, 621 
Safety-first ideas in time-tables, New Mid- 
land, Ohio, 157 

Station spacing. Effect of, on schedules 

[Squier], *670 
Schenectady, N. Y. : 

Investigation of traffic conditions, 691 

Schenectady Ry., Fare case, 1232, 1233 

Scranton, Pa.: 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R- R-, 

t hange in control, 897 
Scranton & Binghamton Traction Co., 

Merger hearing, 430 
Scranton Ry., Relations with the public. 

Explaining service and accident cost 

[Reilly], 1082; Comment, 1068 
Scranton & Wilkes-Barre Traction Corp., 

Bond issue, 1117 
Scrap, Handling oi. 908 
Seats in cars. (See Car design) 
Seattle, Wash.: 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co.: 

Annual report, 1475 

Mail carrier transportation, 284 

Rate decision appealed, 59 

Terms for extensions, 1005 

Ticket sale on cars not allowed, 335 

Rainier Vallev lines proposed, 894 

Seattle Municipal Ry., 276, S43, 1051, 1228 

Construction progress. Cost tables. 
Operating expenses, * 1 374 

Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry., Sale ne- 
gotiations, 1167, 1356 

Securities. (See Financial) 

Self-propelled cars. (See Gasoline cars; Stor- 
age battery cars) 

Seneca Falls, N. Y., Geneva, Seneca Falls & 
Auburn R. R., Combination car, *1408 

Service cars. (See Work cars) 

Service and tower wagons: 

Dubuque, la., Removable tower, *483 

Gasoline emergency wagon with fender, 

New York City, *709 

Operating costs for one year, 1157 

Sheboygan (Wis.l Railway & Electric Co., 
Transfer of stock control, 100 

Shelters. (See Waiting stations) 

Shore Line Electric Ry. ( See Saybrook, Conn.) 

Shreveport, La., Rate cases, 1356 

Sidings. (See Track construction) 

Signal lenses, Glass for [Churchill], 446 

Signals : 

— ■ — Automatic, Washington & Great Falls 
Railway & Power Co., *89 

Automatic train control, Report on, by 

American Railway Association, 1150 

Block system : 

Boston Elevated Rv., Maintenance de- 
tails, *660 
Chester Short Line of Philadelphia 

Rapid Transit Co., *1348 
Indiana, Proposed installations, 1166 
Maintenance organization and costs of 
automatic block system, Illinois 
Traction System, *1070 
New York State Rys., *836 
Puget Sound Electric Ry., 96, 889 
Single-track automatic, without pre- 
liminaries (Union), * 198 
Statistics for 1913, 32 
Switch indicator (U. S. & S. Co.), 
MOOO 

Cab, Simmen system, on Mesaba Ry., *71 

Classifying signal failures,- 806; [Leisen- 

ring], e883; Comment, 857; [Brown], 
c884; [Hovev], c933; [Stadelmnn], 
c981; [Peddle], cl040 

Crossing : 

Oscillator (Protective), *734 
(Protective), *92, *734 
Wigwag, Portland, Ore., *677 

Illumination of, Discussion in Chicago, 879 

Interlocking plant rules in Missouri, 150 

Joint committee meeting of Engineering 

and Transportation & Traffic associa- 
tions, 663 

Report of American Railway Engineering 

Association, 667 

Simmen system, Mesaba Ry., *71 

Tail-light and indicating train signals 

[Nichols-Lintern], *681 
Traffic regulation by semaphore, Phila- 
delphia, *1033 

Trolley contactor signal on individual pole, 

M408 

Signs on carhouses, Washington, D. C, 433 
•1156 



XIV 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLIII. 



Signs on cars; 

Baltimore route number sign box, * 1 43 

■ Explanations of door operating mechan- 
ism on fully-inclosed cars, 805 

Illuminated train number, Detroit, *49 

International Kv., Buffalo, 611 

Kansas City, 746. 1004 

Safety-first signs in Portland, Ore., *316 

Side location Buffalo, 59 

Signs on shops, Illinois Traction System, 352 
Single-phase railways: 

Arles-sur-Tech-Prats de Mollo, Switzerland, 

820 

Belfort, France, 1323 

Electrical maintenance, New York, West- 
chester & Boston Ry., *394 

Inductive interference. (See Transmis- 
sion lines) 

Lauban-Kcnigszelt line, Silesia, 1076 

Maintenance of mechanical equipment on 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., 

*220, 643 

Pbiladelphia-Paoli line of Pennsylvania 

R. R., System, *860; Comment, 858 
Power distribution and inductive interfer- 
ence in Switzerland, 718 
Rhaetian Ky., Novel feature of locomo- 
tives, *760 

Vienna-Pressburg line, *190 

Smoking on cars: 

Atchison, Kan., Order against, 561, 612 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit, Permit, 1427 

Chicago rules, 612 

— International Ry., Buffalo, 209 

New York City, 59, 1060 

San Antonio, Tex., Prohibition, 1060 

Wheeling, W. Ya., 433 

Snow removal: 

Michigan United Traction Co., *483 

New York City, 727 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit I o., 746 

Responsibility, Toronto, 843 

Snow removal conference in Philadelphia, 931 
Snow scrapers: 

New York State Rys., Work at Syracuse, 

*835 

Two-section steel-blade, Grand Rapids, 

Mich., *549 

Snow sweeper, Outboard, New York Rys., *838 
Society for Electrical Development, 1382 
South American section of World's Trade 

Directory, 759 
South -arolina Light, Power & Railways Co. 

(See Spartanburg, S. C.) 
South Covington & Cincinnati Street Ry. (See 

Covington, Ky.) 
Southern Iowa Railway S: Light Co. (See 

Albia, la.) 

Southern Pacific Co. (See San Francisco) 
Southwestern Electric & Gas Association, Con- 
vention proceedings, 1139, 1206, 1253 
Spartanburg, S. C, South Carolina Light, 
Power S: Railways Co., Annual re- 
port, 845 

Special work. ( See Track construction) 

Speed in miles per hour during non-rush-hour 
period for different systems, 867 

Spitting in cars: 

Buffalo crusade, 283 

Louisville, Ky., Campaign, 335 

Spokane, Wash., Washington Water Power 
Co., Annual report, 742 

Springfield (111.) Light, Head & Power Co., 
Boiler practice, 1189 

Springfield (Mo.) Gas & Electric Co. and 
Springfield Traction, Valuation case 
abstract of brief presented to Com- 
mission, 989 

Springfield. Ohio, Electrolysis mitigation. Bul- 
letin issued bv Bureau of Standards 
[Rosa and McCollum], 225, c369; 
Comment. 345; Tests, 646; Correc- 
tions, 722 

Springfield (Vt. ) Electric Ry., Appraisal val- 
ues, 560 

Sprinklers. (See Fire protection) 

Stark Electric Ry. (See Alliance, Ohio) 

Statistics : 

Accidents classified [Maher], 708 

Austria, 776 

Block signal installations in 1913, 32 

— — Canadian electric railways, 1036 

Cars operated in rush-hour in different 

cities, 233 

Cars ordered in 1913. Returns bv rail- 
way companies, 30; Comment, 2 

Census bureau of reports of electric rail- 
ways, 80, 123, 304, 538, 671, 700 

Electrical industrv in United States and 

Great Britain, 1202 

Connecticut electric railways, 153 

Dividend increases and deductions in 1913, 

280 

Fare rates as affected by the riding habit 

mild], 229; Discussions [Coates], 
247; [Nashl, 243, 315; [Stearns] , 255 ; 
Comment, 218 

Great Britain, 331 

Holding companies [Ford], 23 

Indianapolis interurban development, 158 

Tapan's electrical progess. 1049 

Liverpool Tramways. 1097 

London railways, 296 

Maine electric railways, 782 

Mileages in service and proposed by heavy 

electric traction systems in 1913 
[Burch], 129 

Miles of track per inhabitants in different 

cities, 233 

New York Rvs., Maintenance of rolling 

stock, *915: Comment, 909 
Paris subways, 80 

— — Passenger traffic by zones in Glasgow, 231 



Statistics: (Continued) 

(Juebec, Data snowing growth of city, 1132 

Rail production, 1138 

Rails and pig-iron in 1914, 704 

Receiverships and foreclosure sales in 

1913, 33 

Riding habit and its effect on the rates of 

fare LHild], 229; Discussions [Loates], 
247, [Nash], 253, 315, [Stearns], 255; 
Comment, 218 
Speed in miles per hour during non-rush- 
hour period for different systems, 867 

Switzerland Kys., 1912, 1260 

Tie timber in the United States, 183 

Toronto, Ont., 381 

TracK built in 1913 in United States and 

Canada, 28 

-Traffic statistics, Pittsburgh Rys., Methods 

of collecting data, *924 
Trend of technical branches of railway 

industry, 2 

Steam railroad electrification. (See Heavy 
electric traction) 

Steel: 

For city car construction, cl463 

Heat-treated, in locomotive construction, 

1376 

Stone & Webster Management Association, An- 
nual report, 331 
Stopping of cars: 

Comparison of near-side and far-side stops, 

1208 

Kansas City, Alternate stops, 850 

Little Rock, Ark., 1233 

— New York City, 909, 949; |Lyne], cl041; 
cllOl 

Philadelphia, Near-side stop [Fairchild], 

cll54 

Skip-stop idea, Developments in, 908 

Springfield, 111., Near-side stop, 1480 

Storage battery cars: 

Milledgeville, Ga., * 1350 

— — New \ ork blizzard conditions, 424 
Store-rooms : 

Organization and work, Public Service 

Ky. [Inglehart], 454, 459 

Perpetual inventories [Vungbluth], c87 

Storms on the Atlantic Coast, Kecord of rail- 
way companies, 552 
Strikes : 

Arbitration versus strikes, Comment on 

report of Amalgamated Association, 

753 

Colorado Springs, Colo., 894 

Delaware & Fludson R. R., 163 

Dublin, Ireland, 1225 

Hazleton, Pa., 201, 894 

Indianapolis, 52, 94, 146, 368, 398, 488 

Kansas Union Traction Co., 842 

-Montpelier, Vt., 379, 492, 603 

Preparation for and provision against, 163 

Terre Flaute, Ind., 683 

— — Wetster, Monessen, Belle Vernon & Fay- 
ette City Street Ry., 1005, 1114 

Westinghouse Works, 1357 

Substations : : 

Agawam, Mass., Amherst Power .Co., *450 

Bottrop, Germany, *1109 

Chicopee, Mass., Amherst Power Co., *450 

Indiana Union Traction Co., Combined 

with waiting station, *823 
-Mesaba Ry., *71 

Outdoor versus indoor [Macomber, Fuller- 
ton, Flunt and Perry], *448 

Pittsburgh & Butler Street Ry., *166 

Seattle Municipal Ry., * 1375 

1200-volt, Ueberetsch Ry., *764 

Subways, Demand for, 755 

Suction cleaner, Home-made [Ingle], *887 

Superior. Wis . Municipal ownership proposed, 
149, 602 

Surveyor's short cut [Bernard], *676 
Suspension. Three-part, straight-line [White], 
*732 

Sweden, Extensions and improvements of state 
railways, 301 

Switch hole, Making self-cleansing, Connecti- 
cut Co., *729 

Switch indicator with time release and power- 
saving device [Union], *1000 

Switch stands [Mitchell], *475 

Switches, Electric, Selector type disconnecting 
[Westinghouse], *682 

Switches, Track : 

Anti-straddling tongue switch [New York], 

*679 

Derailments at facng point, Preventing, 

Public Service Ry., *728, 1402 

Freezing prevention of electrically-oper- 
ated, Connecticut Co., * 373 , 

Hook-heel (Pennsylvania), * 1 1 61 

Tadpole switch, with replacement features 

(St. Louis), *1352 

Switzerland: 

Arles-sur-Tech-Prats de Mollo single-phase 

railway, Notes on system, 820 

Electrification of railways [Huber-Stockar], 

717; Discussion, 705 
Report of Commission on choice of 
systems. Single-phase operation 
favored [Wyssling], *524; Com- 
ment, 508 
Statistics of state railways, 188 
Supplementary report to the . Adminis- 
tration Council of the Federal 
State Railways [Dinkelmann], 657 

Loetsrhberg Railway, Experience with 

single-phase, *529 

National Exhibition, Railway exhibits, 1215 

Rhaetian Ry., Single-phase, 273, *760 

Statistics for 1912, 1260 

— —Zurich Municipal Rys., Rail-cleaniiig car 

of suction type, *1223 
Syndicalism [Brooks], 38 

(Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



T 

Tacoma, Wash. : 

City-built road to be operated by private 

company, 554 

-Municipal ownership proposed, 150 

-Puget Sound Electric Ry. : 

Block system between Seattle and Ta- 
coma, 96, 889 
Fare schedule, 1304 
Rate case, 1059, 1174 

Tacoma Railway & Power Co.: 

Efficiency department, 1175 
Operating agreement, 843 

Tariff in the electric railway industry, Com- 
parison of old and new, 83 

Taxation of public service corporations, Report 
of Annual Tax Association, 1116 

Taxes in Ohio, Decision, 203, 555 

Taylor- Wharton Iron & Steel Co., Stock in- 
crease, 1008 

Technical commission. (See Heavy electric 
traction) 

Technical journal: 

— i — Making of a [Mehren], 553 

— — Place of, in promoting efficiency, 509 

Technical school and its relations to the elec- 
tric railway business, 506; [Buck], 
cl040 

Telephone and telegraph disturbances. (See 
Transmission lines, Inductive inter- 
ference) 

Telephone jack boxes on Butte, Anaconda & 

Pacific locomotives, 1157 
Temporary structures versus permanent, 111 
Terminal clocks. (See Clocks) 
Terminals at Akron, Ohio, Proposed, 940 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 

Co. (See Indianapolis, Ind.) 
Tests of equipment: 

Inspection test set to locate incipient de- 
fects in car wiring [Ransom], 1282 

Circuit-breaker testing [Squier], * 1 465 

Contactor coils tested without removal 

[Case], 1464 

Third Avenue Ry. (See New York City) 

Third-rail : 

Protected (Redman-Merz) , *89 • 

Pure ingot iron for, American Rolling Mill 

Mill Co., 1286 
Third-rail shoes: 

Detachable shoe [Potter], *1102 

Equipment defects [Squier], *993 

Tickets : 

Sale on cars not allowed, Seattle, Wash., 

335 

School tickets in Jackson, Miss/, 336 

Zone system, Milwaukee Electric Railway 

& Light Co., *185' 
Tie-holder for spiking new ties [Taylor], *937 
Ties: 

Beveled-tie practice, Brooklvn Rapid Tran- 
sit System [Bernard], *594 

Future material in the United States 

[Gibson], 183 

Protection from mechanical destruction 

[Weiss], 182 

Records, Methods of keeping [Howson], 

184 

Reinforced-concrete, with block fastenings 

[Percival], *1223 
Report of American Railway Engineering 

Association, 664 
Studies of experimental ties [Waterman], 

182 

Treatment (See Timber preservation) 

Timber preservation: 

Discussion by Southwestern Electrical & 

Gas Association, 1253 
— — Protective effect of creosote on yellow 

pine and cedar piles in Galveston Bay, 

*1213, *1281 
— — Report of American Railway Engineering 

Association, 665 

Specifications, Suggestions [Powell], 182 

Studies of experimental ties [Waterman], 

182 

Tie-treating plants. Statistics, 1086 

— ■ — Yale Forest School, Notes on work of 

[Record], 182 
Time-table rack, Adjustable, *1048 
Time-tables (See Schedules and time-tables) 
Titusville, Pa.. Erie & Central Pennsylvania 

Ry., Sale, 99 
Toledo, Ohio: 

Toledo Railways & Light Co.: 

Attitude of citv administration toward, 

276 

Derrick car with tower, *677 
Fare rates, Statistics, 248 
Franchise negotiations: 

Communication to City Council, 

200 

Proposition with changing fare to 
provide fixed dividend return 
on fixed valuation, 326 

City Council declines proposals of 
company, 376 

Administrative committee of City 
Council, 425 

Delayed advertising plans, 554 

Schreiber ordinance, 735 

Free rides. Statement of Judge 
Killits. Losses under the 
ordinance. ' Mayor counsels 
against disorder. Mr. _ Do- 
herty's discussion of issue, 
771; Comment, 754 

Temporary operation at three cents 
proposed, 841 

Ordinance proposed by company, 
891 



January-June, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



XV 



Toledo, Ohio: 

Toledo Railways & Light Co. : 

Franchise negotiations: (Continued) 
Modifications suggested by city 

solicitor, 939 
Basis of renewal, 1002 
Agreement on most of terms, 1050 
Negotiations abandoned, 1110 
Publicity campaign by company, 
1165 

Report of special franchise com- 
mittee, .1224, 1293 
Draft of Toledo Citizens' Fran- 
chise Association, 1354, 1410, 
1470 
[Coates], 1454 
Publicity forum. Criticisms request- 
ed and answered in daily papers 
and leaflets in cars, 1250 
Reorganization, 207 
Trolley-pole straightener, *1406 

Toledo & Western K. R., Special track 

work, Solid and manganese [Swartz], 
cl 155, cl280 
Topeka, Kan.: 

Investigation of earnings of railways, 328 

Topeka Street Ry., Premiums for reducing 

coal consumption, 384 
Toronto, Can.: 

Fare increases advocated, 379 

High-tension d.c. line to Berlin, 1162 

Motor buses, 499, 1303 

Municipal ownership proposed, Mayor 

Hocken re-elected, 93 

Passenger statistics for 1913, 381 

-Toronto Ry.: 

Purchase complications, 377 
Valuation. I-ntangible values in set- 
tlement cases, 5 

Transportation problems, 276, 1176 

Tower cars: 

Side adjustments, Oklahoma Ry., *372 

Toledo Railways & Light Co., *677 

Tower wagons. (See Service and tower wagons) 
Towers, Construction notes [Sothman], 451 
Track construction: 

City streets, Construction in [Schreiber], 

1257 

Crossing, T-rail steam road, *1406 

Derailments at facing-point switches, *676; 

[George], *728, 1402 

Discussion by New England Street Rail- 
way Club, 987 

Drainage, Twin City Rapid Transit Co., 

*81 

Economies in permanent waterways. 111 

Edmonton, Alberta [Saunders], *878 

Guard rails, special work and crossings 

[Mitchell], 476 

Hard-center mates with solid support at 

ends (Pennsylvania), * 1 2 1 9 
■ Insert special work, Manard steel (Penn- 
sylvania), * 1 1 07 

Life of concrete track, Richmond, Va. 

[Johnston], * 1283 

Manganese steel castings, Difficulties in 

the manufacture of, *1221 

Manganese steel special work: 

Buenos Ayres subway system, * 1 286 
Chicago. Experience with solid and 
insert. Service results, *970; 
Comment, 959; [Cram], cl040; 
[Weston], cl343 
Cincinnati Traction Co.'s experience 

[Berry], cl099 
Minneapolis Street Ry., Experience 

[Wilson], cllOO 
New York Rvs., Insert turnouts at 
end of Williamsburg Bridge, * 1 158 
Omaha [Findley], cl281 
Pacific Electric Ry., Experience 

[Johnson], cl099 
Toledo & Western R. R., Experience 

[Swartz], cl 155, cl280 
St. Louis, Experience I Hawkins], 

cl280 
[Schreiber], 1259 

Mesaba Rv., *69 

[Mitchell], *472 

Report of American Railway Engineering 

Association, 664 
Siding, Through type electric [Mitchell], 

♦472, 474 

Special work, Renewable center or solid 

manganese, 700 
Specifications of New York Public Service 

Commission [Mills], * 3 1 7 
Statistics of 1913 for United States and 

Canada, 28 

Switch stands [Mitchell], *475 

T-rail [Mitchell], *476 

Track-laying machine, Salt Lake & Utah 

R. R., *87 

United Railways & Electric Go., 91 

Welded joint and rail brace, * 1 467 

(See also Rails; Ties; Track construction) 

Track grinder, Portable, with cup wheel 

(Indianapolis), *784 
Track maintenance: 

Electric welding [Price], 471 

Freezing of switches, Preventing, *373 

fMitchell], *472 

"Old man" for drilling, Brooklyn [Tay- 
lor], *996 

Rail elevation and pantographs, 1428 

Rail-wear measurements, San Francisco, 

1032 

Reclaiming old switch tongues and general 

special work, *592 

Special work, Solid manganese or renew- 
able center, 700, *970 

Special work service records, llrooklyn 

[Bernard], 1217 



Track maintenance: (Continued) 
Switches, Self-cleaning tongue, Connecti- 
cut Co., *729 
T 'e-hoblcr for spiking new ties [Taylor], 

(See also Track construction) 

Trackless trolley double-deck bus, Brighton, 
Eng., *783 

Tractor, Electric, Pennsylvania R. R., *130 
Traffic investigation by American Electric 
Railway Association committee, Cost 
of passenger service, 1383 
Traffic investigations. Cities: 

Boston, Report of joint commission, 675 

Fall River, Mass. Report by D. C. and 

Wm. B. Jackson, *816 

■ Improved methods outlined [Larson], 180 

-Norfolk, Va., Chamber of Commerce, 1443 

Philadelphia, Report by A. Merritt Taylor. 

Various tables, 76 
Relation to railway operation, manage- 
ment and regulation [Larson], 177 

Schenectady, N. Y., 691 

Winnipeg Electric Rv., Report [Feustel], 

865 

Traffic promotion: 

Boston, Maps of Bay State Street Ry. 

sent to educational institutions, 92 

London Electric Ry., Posters, * 1 1 44 

Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co., * 1 1 30 

Traffic regulation: 

Police chiefs discuss uniform, 1480 

Semaphore signals for, Philadelphia, *1033 

Traffic rules, Columbus, Ohio, 1176 

Traffic statistics department. Pittsburgh Rys., 

Methods followed, *924 
Trailer operation, Houston, Tex., 1207 % 
Train operation, High accelerating tests in 

suburban service, 1429 
Train resistance due to curves, grades and 

sliding wheels [Mitchell], 472 
Train resistance tests at University of Illinois, 

*1388 

Training of men (See Employees) 
Transfers: 

Nebraska decision, 1012 

Pittsburgh Rvs., *867 

Seattle Municipal Rv., Ordinance, 1375 

Transformer case. Light-weight, pressed steel 

(Pittsburgh), *785 
Transformers, Cooling with surface condensers 

[Palmer], *270 
Transmission lines: 

Augusta (Ga.) Stevens Creek Line. 

Ballasting suspension insulators [Buck], 

•5*20 

Binoculars to detect line troubles [Cadle], 

1216 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., Rocky 

Mountain division, *34 
Inductive interference: 

General methods available for pre- 
venting and overcoming, 960 

New York, New Haven ft Hartford 
R. R. Details of auto-trans- 
former plan of reducing inter- 
ference and of circumstances lead- 
ing to its adoption, [Murrav], 
*706; *960; Comment, 958 

Prevention methods in France [Gir- 
ousse], *82 

Prevention on Loetschberg Ry., *529 

Report of California joint committee, 
313 

Lightning troubles [Nicholson!. 453 

Mechanical strains in a.c. conductors, 195 

Multi recorder rSteinmetz], 522 

Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commis- 
sion, Interruption of service. 327_ 

Oscillations set up bv switching [Faccioli], 

454 

Pacific Coast installations [Downing], 453 

Pacific Power Co., Tie line between Bishop 

and Lunry, Cal., 370 

Peak voltage voltmeter. * 1 96 

-Report of American Institute of Electri- 
cal Engineers, 451 

Reports of National Electric Light Asso- 
ciation, 1272, 1325 

Salmon River Power Co., *1 380 

Transportation : 

—Pass evil. Reduction of. Politicians as 

grafters, 441 

Report of American Electric Railway As- 
sociation committee on cost of pas- 
senger service. 1383 

Trenton (N. T.) & Mercer Countv Traction 
Co.: 

Safetv first campaign, 384 

Ticket system, Effort to abolish, 1060, 

1113 

Tri-City Railway & Light Co. (See Davenport, 
la.) 

Trolley bases: 

Air-operated, with retrieving feature [Was- 

son], *1289 
— — Defects [Squierl, *831 

Trolley catcher, Ball-tvpe (Q-P Signal Co.), 
*322 

Trolley ears, Troubles with [Hartc], *935 
Trolley pan with angle-iron guides, Yonkers, 

P. R. rO'IInnlonl, *420 
Trolley-pole straightener, Toledo, *1406 
Trolley poles, Defects [Squier], *779 
Trolley wheels, Defects [Squier], *543 
Trolley wire: 

Determining correct position on curves 

[Dixon], *1042 

Selection of best wire, Factors to be con- 
sidered rMcKelway], 647 

Trolley wire splice with copper wedge clamp 
[Holland], *997 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Truck handling (See Repair shop practice) 
Trucks, Car: 

Cleveland, Rv., Center-entrance car, 458 

-Correcting derailment troubles from maxi- 
mum trucks [Williams], 782 

Lengthened trucks to stop nosing, Albany, 

N. Y., 143 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., 223 

Progress in design (Standard Motor 

Truck Co.), 937 

San Francisco Municipal Rys., *890 

Tungsten lamps (See Lighting of cars) 
Turbines, Hydraulic, Selection of [Seastone], 

*1271 

Turbo-generator, Short-circuited test, without 
external protection, bv Westinghouse 
Electric & Mfg. I o., 423 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (See Minneapolis, 
Minn. ) 

u 

Ueberetsch Ry., 1200-volt d.c. system [Gyaros], 

Underground trolleys, Difficulties with, 768 

Union Electric Co. (See Dubuque, la.) 

Union Traction Co. (See Albany, N. Y. ; Cof- 
fey ville, Kans. ) 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (See 
Anderson. Ind.) 

United Power & Transportation Co. (See 
Camden, N. J.) 

United Railroads (See San Francisco) 

United Rys. (See St. Louis, Mo.) 

United Railways & Electric Co. (See Balti- 
more) 

Usui-Toge Ry., Tapan, Electrification details, 
* 1393 

V 

Valuations (See Appraisal of railway property) 

Vancouver, B. C. : 

British Columbia Electric Ry. : 

Annual report, 97 
Cars of arch-roof type, 515 
Clocks, Running-time terminal, *547 
Fare increase report, 1479 
Interruption of service. 248 
Suburban traffic, Revision of per- 
centages for, 157 
Wheel skid for braking cars on grades 
[Werth], *546 

Eburne and Lulu Island Ry., Waiting 

station, *486 

Vehicular traffic: 

Fall River, Mass., *816 

Remedies for obstruction, by co-operation 

of railway in Rochester, N. Y., with 
teamsters' union. 699 

Ventilation of cars, Philadelphia Rapid Tran- 
sit Co., 746 

Vienna, Austria: 

Accident campaign, with moving pictures 

and posters, *188 
Single-phase line to Pressburg, Hungary, 

^190 

Virginia, Minn., Mesaba Ry., Construction and 
operating features. Complete cab- 
signal system, *68 

Virginia Railway & Power Co. (See Richmond, 
Va.) 

Voltmeter for indicating peak voltages (Sim- 
plex), *196 

w 

Wages (See Employees) 
Waiting stations: 

Combined with salesroom, Cambridge, 

Ohio, *537 

Concrete, Pacific Electric Ry., *90 

Extensible platform for stations on curves, 

*421 

Hartford, Conn., *966 

Indiana Union Traction Co., *823 

Mesaba Rv., *69 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Ry., *359 

Securing stations in novel wav, Kansas 

City, 1304 

Vancouver, B. C, Eburne and Lulu 

Island Rv., *486 
Wood station faced with tin, Quebec, 

♦1133 
Washing of cars: 

Portable stands replace ladders, Boston 

Elevated R. R. [Dermody], *419 

Water heater, Instantaneous electric, *47 

Washington, D. C. : 

Capital Traction Co.: 

Cars, Semi-steel prepayment, *272 
Signs on carhouses, * 1 1 5 6 

Fare case, 1232 

Municipal ownership : 

Grosser bill, 277, 600 

Favored bv Commissioners of District 

of Columbia, 939; Comment, 957 
Hearing on Crosser bill. Arguments 
against public ownership. r Tes- 
timony of railway officials [King, 
McCarter, Crawford], 1091, 1148; 
Comment. 1129 
Hearing on Crosser bill, held at re- 
quest of American Electric Rail- 
way Association. Testimony 
IKerrl, 1145; Comment, 1183; 
[Harries], 1193; [Rosecrantz], 
1195; [Clark], 1198; [Hender- 
shott], 1203; [Nicholas], 1204; 
Comment, 1184, 1242; Other tes- 
timony, 1275 



XVI 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLIII. 



Washington, D. C: 

Municipal ownership: (Continued) 

Action of House Committee on 

Grosser bill. 1353 

Prospects, 1458 
Washington & Great Falls Railway & 

Power Co., Automatic signals, *89 
Washington Railway & Electric Co. : 

Annual report, 1359 

Bond issue, 946 

Car for platform instruction; Open- 
side [Wenncr], """543 

Christmas entertainment and profit 
sharing, 102 

Company section meeting, 529 
Washington Public Service Commission, An- 
nual report, 1109 
Waste paper, Handling of, Detroit, 1256 
Water heater. Instantaneous electric, for car 

washing, Cincinnati, *47 
Water-power legislation, 1400 
Water power stations (See Power stations) 
Waterloo (la.). Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. : 

Freight interchange, 1060 

Safety first movement, Results obtained 

[Welsh, Jr.], 984 
Waterways, Economies in permanent, 111 
Watt-hour meters in cars, Success of, El Paso, 

Texas [Morse], 1206 
Watt-hour meters for showing demand [West- 

inghouse], *1220 
Waupaca (Wis.) Electric Light & Railway 

Co., Freight transportation, 498 
Webster, Monessen, Belle Vernon & Fayette 

City Street Ry. (See Charleroi, Pa.) 
Welding, Special methods: 

Arc welding sets ( Westinghouse) . *997 

-New uses, Third Avenue Ry. [Parsons], 

♦482 

Oxy-acetylene equipment at Decatur shops 

of Illinois Traction System, *1438 

Portable outfit for track work with arc 

method (Welding Materials Co.), *274 



A 

Abbott, Jack. Handling long girders on a short 
curve, *832 

Abendroth, H. G., Overhead charges in valu- 
ations, 1434 

Allen, C. Loomis. How to have good public 
relations, 7 

Anderson, H. VV. Relations of public service 
companies and the public, 241 

Armstrong, A. H. Design of electric locomo- 
tives, 13 

Ayling, C. L. Purchased power and the street 
railway, 9 

Ayers, T. R. . Home-made crane motor work 
car, *1044 

B 

Bell, Louis. Distribution of power for trac- 
tion, 12 

Bernard, M. Beveled-tie practice on elevated 
structures, *594 

Special work service records, 1217 

Surveyor's short cut, *676 

Berry, E. H. Solid and manganese steel spe- 
cial track- work experience, cl099 

Bigelow, C. H. Rush-hour fallacies, c777 

Bigelow, E. S. The Interstate Commerce 
Commission Accounts, c777 

Black, C. N. Opportunities before the Ameri- 
can Association, 6 

Boggs, L. S. Maintenance and depreciation, 
c828 

Boyce, W. H. Red stripes painted on walls 

to locate fire fighting equipment, 592 
Boyer, W. L. Hardened pins and special 

bushings, 371 
Boynton, B. F. Safety inter-car gate and 

street semaphore at Portland, Ore., 

*677 

Boynton, E. C. Well-built trucks a help for 
journal brass troubles, c479 

Brady, A. W. Central Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation and the interurbans, 8 

■ Government ownership, 1455 

Bramble, D. S. The Interstate Commerce 
Commission accounts, c777 

Bridges, M. H. Interstate classification of ac- 
counts, c883 

Brinckerhoff, F. M. Cost of useless weight in 
steel cars, cl 1 53 

Design of rapid transit cars, 16 

■ M. C. B. brass, c369 

-Westchester journal brass, c*540 

Brion, E. A. Interstate classification of ac- 
counts, c980 

Brown, T. W. G. What constitutes a signal 
failure, c884 

Buchanan, W. T. Publicity for electric rail- 
ways, 1209 

Buck, A. M. Technical schools and the elec- 
tric railways, c!040 

Bullock, H. A. Organization for a "Safety 
First" campaign, 711 

Burch, E. P. Electrification to date, 129 . 

Burdett, E. W. Municipal ownership versus 
private enterprise, 19 

c 

Cade, G. B. Tentative system of accounts, 
c829 

Cadle, C. L. Binoculars to detect line trouble, 
1216 



Welding, Special methods: (Continued) 

Track and rolling stock repairs LPrice], 

471 

Welfare work (See Employees) 
West India Electric Co., Annual report, 896 
West Jersey & Seashore R. R. (See Camden, 
N. J.) 

West Penn Traction & Water Power Co. (See 
Pittsburgh) 

West Shore Rys. (See Oneida, N. Y.) 

West Virginia Public Service Commission rate 
making power upheld, 328 

Western Red Cedar Association, Annual meet- 
ing, 169 

Western Society of Engineers, March meeting, 

673 

Westinghouse, George: 

Biographical sketch, *590 

— - — Memorial proposed, 739 
— — Pioneer spirit of, 619 
Tributes to, 672 

Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Prizes for story, 
1108 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Annual 
report, 1171 

Wheel skid for braking cars on grades, Home- 
made [Werth], *546 

Wheels: 

Maintenance of steel wheels, Minneapolis. 

*142 

Small wheel coming into its own, 753 

-Solid-wrought, carbon steel, Proposed spe- 
cifications, Discussion by sub-commit- 
tee of Engineering Association, 86 

— —Squeak deadener, Twin City Rapid Tran- 
sit Co., *48 

Williamsville, N. Y., Buffalo & Williamsville 
Electric Ry., Sales. 56, 1057 

Willoughby, Ohio, Cleveland, Painesville & 
Eastern R. R. : 

Annual report, 793 



AUTHOR INDEX 

Cameron, G. M. Apprentice training on New 
York State Railways, c722 

Case, F. E. Testing type M contactor coils 
without removal, 1464 

Casey, T. W. Status of prepayment-car patents, 
cl462 

Casey, W. M. A. E. R. A. section work at 

Denver, 826 
Chubbuck, O. P. Peg board for ordering cars 

to the shops for inspection, *593 
Clark, C. H. Breaking up pavement with a 

plow at Cleveland, *1346 
Cole, W. W. Maintenance and depreciation, 

c881 

Colt, R. M. Old and new features at Sacan- 
daga Park, 927 

Connette, E. G. Maintenance and deprecia- 
tion, c881 

Cooley, M. E. Factors determining a reason- 
able charge for public utility service, 
124 

Crafts, P. P. Modern public policies of pub- 
lic service corporations, 982 

Crall, J. H. Joint weight and inspection 
bureau, 467 

Cram, R. C. Rail file for new joint work, 
*194 

■ Renewable center or solid manganese spe- 
cial work, cl040 
Cummings, J. J. Buying and building cars, 15 



D 

Dana, Edward. Removal of surface obstruc- 
tions, * 1 1 3 7 

Sand from tidewater to rail in Boston, 

*346 

Davies, H. J. The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission accounts, c777 

Dement, W. F. Movies for electric railways, 
c829 

Dermody, M. Portable car-washing stands at 
Boston, *419 

Dixon, R. D. Determining the correct posi- 
tion of the trolley wire on curves, 
*1042 

Dolge, William. San Francisco Municipal 

Railway report, cl401 
Doyle, J. S. Practical "safety first," 709 
Dudley, S. W. Air brake performance on 

modern trains, 362 
Duncan, Tohn. Pipe bender and pole straight- 

ener, *781 



E 

Eldridge, Chauncey. Increased cost of elec- 
tric railway operation, 7 

Elkins, A. F. The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission Accounts, c777 

Elliott, C. E. Credit of public utility com- 
panies, 1448 

Ennis, R. W. A "safety first" double acrostic, 
C1343 

Erickson, Halford. Regulation or profit- 
sharing, 257 

— —Some problems of public utility account- 
ing, 306 

Evans, R. H. Why use any kind of journal 
brass? c417 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Willoughby, Ohio, Cleveland, Painesville & 

Eastern R. R. : (Continued) 
Remodeling sixteen-year-old cars and other 

maintenance features, *650 
Winnipeg Electric Ry. : 

Prepayment cars, 798 

— —Reports on service [Feustel], 865 
Winnipeg hydro-electric developments, 426 
Wiring diagrams of eommutating pole motors, 

Westinghouse and General Electric, 

*1285 

Wisconsin Electrical Association: 

Convention proceedings, Januarv, 1914, 

137, 175 

Presidential address [Winslow], 136; 

Comment, 163 
Wisconsin-Minnesota Light & Power Co., 1475 
Wood preservation (See' Timber preservation) 
Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Ry., 

Fare hearing, 797 
Work cars: 

Boston Elevated Ry., Emergency cars, 

Table showing list of tools carried 

[Dana], *1137 
-Crane motor car, Home-made, Utica lines 

of New York State Rys. [Ayers], 

*1044 

Efficiency in service cars, 67 

-First aid equipment, 1460 

Tools for, List of, Boston [Dana], * 1 1 3 7 

Workmen's compensation law (See Employees) 
World's busiest spot, 1120 

Wrecking derrick car. Double-ended, New 

York Central Road, *1046 
Wrecks (See Accidents) 

Y 

Yonkers (N. Y. ) R. R., Trolley pan with angle- 
iron guides LO'Hanlon], *420 
York (Pa.) Rys., Annual report, 430 



F 

Fairchild, C. B., Jr. Near-side stop in Phila- 
delphia, cll54 
Findley, R. H. Solid and insert manganese 

steel special work, cl280 
Foote, F. J. Dies for removing worn slots of 

brush-holders. Chuck for turning up 

bearings, * 1045 
Ford, F. R. Holding company — its advantages 

and disadvantages, 23 
Forse, W. H., Jr. Improvements in method of 

accounting for fares, c884 

Tentative system of accounts, c829 

Foster, E. C. Reasonable rate of return, cl278 
Fuller, W. W. Accident prevention engineer, 

934 

Fullerton, Irwin. Do low fares increase rid- 
ing? 770 

G 

Ganz, A. F. Electrolysis mitigation, c933 
Gardiner, W. H. Reasonable rate of return, 
cl279 

Gaw, C. B. Home-made car lightning arrester, 
*1402 

Gay, E. H. Correction of the street railway 
situation, 14 

George, H. H. Derailments at facing point 
switches, *728 

Gibbs, George. European railway electrifica- 
tion, 11 

Glover, M. W. Tentative system of accounts, 

c828 

Gould, E. F. Stub-tooth bull-nose gears, *1216 

Gove, W. G. Enthusiasm essential to personal 
progress, c539 

Green, Alfred. Evolution of railway motor 
lubrication, *308 

Gyaros, W. C. 1200-volt d.c. Ueberetsch Rail- 
way, *764 

H 

Flarrigan, J. R. Center-entrance steel cars for 
mterurban service, cl278 

Harte, C. R. Overhead line problems, *885, 
*935, *994, 1105 

Hawkins, C. L. Solid and insert manganese 
steel special work, cl280 

Hawley, C. S. Manufacturer's relation to the 
industry, 19 

Hazzard, H. C. Problem of co-operative pub- 
licity, 967 

Hering, Carl. The circular inch versus the 

circular mil, c589 
Hild, F. W. Effect of rate of fare on riding 

habit, 229 

Hoist, E. W. End thrust on journal brasses, 
c479 

Rolling stock design, 10 

Hovey, M. H. Limited definition for signal 

failure advocated, c933 
Humphreys, A. C. Business training for the 

engineer, 366 

I 

Ingle, C. A. Car cleaner formula and home- 
made varnish remover, 677 

Home-made suction cleaner, *887 

-Maximum wear from trolley wheels, *592 



January-June, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



XVII 



AUTHOR INDEX— (Continued) 



Ingle, C. A. (Continued) 

Kecutting and transferring worn brushe3 

from motor to motor, 543 

Splicing broken trolley poles, 936 

Insult, Samuel. Centralization of power sup- 
ply, 914 



J 

Jackson, Alexander. Development of time- 
tables, 873 

Jacquin, Charles. Trial of booster control in 
Paris, *302 

Johnson, A. R. Equipment and stores econo- 
mies on the Third Avenue Railway 
system, *780 

Shop work on a piece-work basis, 373 

Third Avenue Railway truck-overhauling 

shop, *?077 

Johnson, E. C. Solid and manganese steel 
special track-work experience, cl099 

Johnston, A. L. Life, of concrete track at 
Richmond, Va., *1283 

Johnstone, John. Home-made fender, *1102 

Joyce, A. St. G. Management by large oper- 
ators, 22 

— Stepless double-deck car for Columbus, 

Ohio, *582 



K 

Kasemeier, E. L. Compiling operating ex- 
penses, 1445 

Keller, T. L. Detroit coil-baking oven, *1464 

Kittredge, G. W. Systems for the reduction 
of electrolysis, c541 

Kreusser. O. T. Statuary bronze finish of car 
hardware, *481 



L 

Lancaster, W. C. Electrification of the Can- 
adian Northern Montreal tunnel and 
terminal, *572 

Larson, C. M. Street railway traffic surveys 
in relation to railway operation, man- 
agement and regulation, 177 

Layng, J. F. Railway motors, *466 

Lee, Barrett. Commissions on electrification, 
c778 

Leisenring, John. Suggestion for classifying 
signal failures, c883 

Litchfield, Norman. Gear fits, 320 

Lloyd, M. M. Cleaning and disinfecting of 
street and interurban cars, 928 

Logan, K. H. (See Rosa, E. B.) 

Lonehurst, A. Ground detectors for a.c. roll- 
ing stock, *729 

Lyne, G. H. The near-side stop, cl041 



M 

McCarter, T. N. Future of public utilities, 
871 

McCollum, Burton. (See Rosa, E. B.) 
McGraw, T. H. Organization and teamwork, 
462 

Mclntire, J. B. Freight transportation on the 
"Harmony Route," *1034 

McKelway, G. H. Best trolley wire, 647 

House-moving jobs, 824 

Marking location of manholes, "730 

Macleod, Keith. Montreal armature bearing 
press, * 1 1 04 

Maher, E. A., Jr. Possibilities of the safety 
campaign, 708 

Martin, T. C. Company Sections in the Na- 
tional Electric Light Association, 518 

Mathews, E. L. Granite-block paving for 
shallow T-rail on parked streets, *271 

Red lamp used to protect fire extinguishers 

from freezing, *545 

Mills, E. L. Track specifications of New 
York Public Service Commission, * .31 7 

Mitchell, L. A. Track construction and main- 
tenance, *472 

Mortimer, J. D. Is regulation by commission 
a permanent part of our economic 
scheme? 21 



N 

Nash, L. R. Effect of rate of fare on riding 
habit, 253 



Nash, L. R. (Continued) 

What constitutes a reasonable return? 

cll53 

Neereamer, A. L. Our Traffic Association, 
1450 

Norris, H. H. Present tendencies in self- 
improvement, 873 

Norton, W. T. State regulation of utilities, 
586 

Norveil, F. D. Joint weight and inspection 
bureau, 47(1 



o 

OTIanlon, Thomas. Trolley pan with angle- 
iron guides, *420 



P 

Palmer, H. R. Service condensers for cool- 
ing transformers, *270 
Parsons, R. H. Car circuit breakers, * 1 283 
Device for connecting motor leads to con- 
troller used to run truck from under 
cars, *834 

Fan for operation with shafting, * 1347 

Flexible lamp cluster for controller and 

motor work, *887 

Fuse-testing board of the Third Avenue 

Railway, *319 

Improvements on K controllers, *418 

Motor repair shop of the Third Avenue 

Railway, New York, *638 
— ■ — -New uses for electric arc welding, *482 

Stand for hanging rheostats to cars with 

one man, *1156 
Peddle, C. R. Signal failure definition on 

double track lines, cl040 
Pomeroy, L. R. Clasp brake versus the semi- 
circular journal brass, c369 
Potter, R. R. Detachable contact shoe, * 1 10 J 

Maintenance of all-steel cars, cl212 

Shrink fits versus press fits, *321 

Price, E. C. Repairs and welds of track and 

rolling stock by electricity, 471 
Prouty, C. A. Valuation of railroads, 365 
Purinton, A. J. ( oncrete-mixing car for re- 
forcing decayed poles, *833 



R 

Ransom, E. D. Use of inspection test set to 

locate incipient defects, 1282 
Reed, E. D. Electric traction on Lookout 

Mountain, *819 
Reilly, P. T. Transportation comments, 1082 
Renshaw, Clarence. Street railway motor con- 
trol systems, 17 
Rice, C. G. Analysis of damage claims, 1084 
Rifenberick, R. B. Maintenance and deprecia- 
tion, c881 

Roberts, W. H. Progress in apprentice train- 
ing, c539 

Rollins, F. W. Public relations, 23 
Rosa, E. B., and Burton McCollum. Electrol- 
ysis mitigation in Springfield, Ohio, 

♦225 

— ■ — ^Methods of mitigating electrolysis from 
street railway currents, *39 

Rosa, E. B., Burton McCollum and K. H. 

Logan. Electrolysis test on a system 
of insulated negative feeders in St. 
Louis, * 1 16 



s 

Sarvis, A. H. A "Safety First" instruction 
car, *595 

Saunders, H. C. Track construction in Ed- 
monton, Alberta, *878 

Schreiber, Martin. New standard grooved gir- 
der rail sections, *812 

Plea for company sections, 250 

Track construction, 1257 

Scott, James. Diagonal span construction on 
staggered poles used for single-track 
in Cleveland, *834 

See, P. V. Maintenance of all-steel cars, 
cl212 

Manufacturing sign boxes and signs, *46 

Sheremetewsky, M. Platform accidents in 

Moscow, c675 
Squier, C. W. Defects in trolley bases, *831 
-i Effect of station spacing on schedules, *670 



Squier, C. W. (Continued) 

Equipment defects, 318, *543, *779, *993, 

*1103, *1344, 1403, *1465 

Stadelman, II. R. Definition of failure for 
signals of the contact type, c981 

Stearns, R. B. Effect of rate of fare on rid- 
ing hal it. 255 

Present-day electric railway problems, 1135 

Stivers, S. C. The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission accounts, c777 

Striezheff, S. Safety islands on wide avenues, 
*919 

Sullivan, C. O. Joint weight and inspection 
bureau, 468 

Swartz, A. Solid and manganese special work, 
c 1 1 5 5 , cl280 



T 

Taylor, R. C. Roller bearings in place of 

journal brasses, c479 
Taylor, W. K. "Old man" for drilling, *996 

Tie-holder for spiking new ties, *937 

Tingley, C. L, S. Educational course of Ac- 
countants' Association, el 401 
■ Present-day influence of labor on legisla- 
tion, 251 

Tentative system of accounts, c720 

Townlev, <"alvert. Electrolvsis mitigation, 
cllOo 

Tripp, G. E. Anti-trust legislation, 409 

Manufacturer and the industry, 18 

Public relations, 238 



V 

Van Brunt, A. T. "Safety First" movement 
on the Public Service Railway of New 
Jersey, 712 

Van Zandt. A. D. B. Publicity for electric 
railways, cl279 

Vaughan, H. H. Systems for main line elec- 
trification, cl93 



w 

Wade, A. Maintenance of cars at Rome, Ga., 
935 

Weber, A. F. Maintenance and depreciation, 
c827 

Webster, E. S. Centralized management of 

public utilities, 20 
Weeks, H. E. The tentative system of ac- 
counts, c720 
Well, W. F. Index bureau, c778 
Welsh, M. A., Jr. Results obtained from a 

"safety first" movement, 984 
Wenner, W. A. Open-side car for platform 

instruction, *543 
Werth, M. F. M. Home-made wheel skid for 

braking cars on grades, *546 
Weston, G. W. Solid and insert manganese 

steel special track work experience, 

cl343 

Wildman, J. R. Depreciation, c882 
Williams. R. P. Correcting derailment trouble 

from maximum traction trucks, 782 
Williams, T. S. Maintenance and depreciation, 

c720 

Wilson, A. M. Co-operative training for elec- 
tric railway employees, c589 

Wilson, G. L. Solid and manganese steel spe- 
cial track-work experience, cI099 

Wilson, H. L. Tentative system of accounts, 
c674 

Wood, T. E. Shop practice, 929 

Woodroofe, W. T. Carhouse and shops at 
Edmonton, Alberta, *510 

Electrolysis prevention in Edmonton, 

Alberta, *920 

Woodward, J. T. What constitutes a reason- 
able return? cl 1 53 

Wyer, S. S. Facts regarding electrolysis. cl211 

Wynne, F. E. Field control lest in Toledo, 
1447 

Wyssling, Dr. Electrification of Swiss rail- 
ways, 524 



Y 

Voung, P. S. The tentative system of ac- 

counts, c720 
Yungbluth, B. F. Perpetual inventories for 

storerooms, c87 



(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



XVIII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLIII. 



PERSONAL 



Ackerman, M., 158 
Adams, Edwaid Franklin, 614 
Adams, John H., 1477 
Alderman, C. A., 435 
Allerton, Sampel W., 500 
Anglin, John F., 563 
Anthony, S. Reed, 614 
Ayres, Milan V., 852, 950 

Babbitt, George H., 287 
Bales, C. H., 1013 
Bancroft, William A., 910 
Bancioft, W. H., 338 
Barnes, Charles R., 499 
Blackham, H'. J., 385 
Boileau, W. E., 338 
Bolen, Newton W., 901 
Boucher, B. B., 1013 
Boyd, John Y., 614 
Beauchamo, Thomas, 747 
Bell, Charles D., 1120 
Bemis, Edward W., 1061 
Beran, Theodore, 499 
Berry, Orville, F., 104 
Binkley, George H., 563, 693 
Boardman, William H., 436 
Braden, James A., 385 
Breese, Paul, 1365 
Brewer, Joseph Ft., 385, 563 
Brill, Edward, 1366 
Brizzolara, John, 1013 
Broadhead, William A., 436 
Brockway, W. B., "1013 
Brown, F. W., 499, 614 
Brown, George N., 434 
Brown, J. Q., 435, *6U 
Brown, L. ri., 385 m 
Bryan, James H., 386 
Buchsbaum, William, 563 
Budd, Britton I., 613 
Bunnell, Homer, 1120 
Burgee, Joshua, 285 

Calderwood, John F., *61 
Calhoun, Patrick, 1061 
Callahan, John W., 436 
Campbell, Jarnes, 693, 1421 
Campbell, VV. C, 1305 
Carithers, J. Y., 385 
Carson, C. E., 158, 286 
Carson, I. R., 435 
Caster, H. O., 385 
Chappelle, C. C, 950 
Clark, C. M., 747, 1176 
Clark, C. VV., 158 
Clark, H. M., 563 
Clough, D. C, 338 
Cobb, W. T., 285, 901 
Cole, W. W., 61 
Conway, John T„ *747 
Cooley, Mortimer E., 1176 
Cooper, William, 287 
Corrigan, Bernard, 105 
Cox, C. D., 385 
Crafts, P. P., 1478 
Craigmile, Charles, 1305 
Cramer, L. B., 613 
Cummins, James Sheldon, 748 
Cummins, Robert F., 564 
Cummins, T. R., 1120 
Cushing, Arthur, 1120 

Daniels, Thomas R. H., *500 

Daniels, Winthrop More, 338, 852 

Davidson, A. T., 338 

Davidson, W. E., 105 

Davis, Tohn, 1176 

Davis, W. L., 852 

Day, William L., 1061 

Deal, E. C, 500 

De Mart, F. W., 613 

De Windt. J. P. H., 1305 

Dickson, John, 563 

Dimmer, L. C, 1234 

Dolan, Peter C, 1421 

Dolan, Thomas. 1421 

Dole, Alva C, 1365 

Doolittle, Frederick, *1 122 

Doughty, H'., 614 

Duerr, T. V. B., 285 

Duffy, C. N., 1121 

Duffy, Frank J., 434. 799 

Dunlap, Alvin, 1176 

Duulap, G. W., 1478 

Dunne, Edward J., 564 

Dusenberrv, Tames P., 1062 

Dutton, W. A., 748 

Eaton, Ralph W.. 1062 
Ebbson, L. T., 158 
Edgar, B. C, 1305 
Edwards, Charles A., 613 
Edwards, J. Paulding, 434 
Eldridge, Chauncey, 1305 
Elkins, A. F., 1177 
Elliott, Howard, 60 
Emmett, William Temple, 799 
Ewing, Nathaniel, 800 

Fahnestock, Harris Charles, 1306 
Faut, D. A., 1477 
Fennell, Daniel L., 158, 212 
Ferguson, W. H., 158 



Ferry, Montague, 1177 - 
Feustal, Robert M., 563 
Fields, G. C, 613 
Fish, Williston, 1062, * 1 1 22 
Fisher, Daniel G., *1234 
Folev, C. F., 158 
Folk, Joseph W., 563 
Ford, A. H., 1234, "1306 
Forsyth, Henry H., 852 
Foster, W. H., 1234 
Francis, J. D. Perry, 285 
Franklin, C. J., *564 
Frederick, William R., 338 
Fritch, Louis C., 747 
Frueauff, F. W„ 385 
Funk, Frank H'., 60 
Funk, Harry E., 613 
Furlong, A. D., 61 
Furth, Jacob, 1366 

Gallaher, C. C, 1176 
Gannon,John J., 1013 
Gaston, George A., 950 
Gault, E. D., 563, 614 
Gaumnitz, E. C, 1177 
George, Tames Z., 1013 
Gibson, Tames S., 1013 
Gillette, Tames Walter, 1365 
Gilman, L. C, 212 
Gitin, F. H., 338 
Go'bey, Francis Edward, 613 
Goff, F. H„ 338 
Gonzenbach, Ernest, 104, *951 
Goodwin, T. S., *386 
Graham, Edward R., 1234 
Graham, George C, 1177 
(irambs, W. V, 435 
Griffin, W. V., 563 
Griffith, Charles J., 1014 
(Iriswold, Howard, 1365 
Ground, J. W., 1421 

Hall, Henry Clay,338 
Hamilton, F. M., 1177 
Hammett, Edward, 212 
Hannaford, Foster, 1120 
Hannaford, R. M., 1365 
Harlan, James S., 693 
Harries, George H., 950, 1421 
Harrington, M. T., 613 
Harris, George"H., 159, 563 
Harrison, Hugh H., 385 
Hart, Toseph S., 385 
Karve'y, T. H., 158, 212 
Hayden, J. G., 1176 
Haves, P. J., 1013 
Hazelrigg, S. F., 212 
Hebner, Charles N., 693 
Ilegarty, D. A., 104, 563 
Heilman, R. E., 1121 
Hendley, W. E., 499, 564 
Hendrie, George, 105 
Henry, T. N., 1305 
Flewitt, Edward, 212 
Might, Eugene, 158 
Hoagland, H. G., 1013 
Honor, Tames, 614 
Hoover," F. W., 499, 1176 
Hotchkiss, C. W., 385 
Huber-Stockar, Emil, 613, 747 
Huff, Slaughter W., 61, *105, 285 
Houston, D. W., 1421 
Houston, E. T., 614 
Howard, D. H., 799 
Humpe, J. H., 158 
Huntington, Henry E., 563 

Irelan, S. B., 1176 
Irvine, Frank, 799, S52 
Irwin, Howard W., 747 
Ivers, Harry B., 286. 435 
Ivers, Wallace J., 1013 

Tackson, A. H. R., 1 120 
Jefferies, Alva A., 1178 
Jenkins, Thomas M., 104 
Johnson, C. C, 434 
Tohnson, Joseph, 1305 
Tones, A. H., 1121 
Tones, B. T., 1365 
lones, S. W. C, 158 
Jumonville, H. J., 1013. *1121 

Kalbach. Andrew, 212 
Karow, Edward, *61 
Kealy, Philip J., 435 
Kearny, P. J., 747 
Kelker, R. F., Jr., 613 
Kelsey, Charles B., 385 
Kennedy, John S., 212 
Kidd, George, 1121, * 1 1 77 
King, C. B., 1176, 1365 
Kinkel, John M., 285 
Kinnarnev, John, 852 
Knox, George W y *1178 
Kochersperger. H. M.. 799 
Korst, P. H.. *21? 
Kramer, A. Ludlow, 434 

Ladue, Pomeroy, 434, 563 
Lang, H. C, 338 
Larmouth, T. H., 693 
Lenhart, C."E., 1061 



Leussler, R. A., 1013 
Libbey, W. S., 1234 
Lillie, E. E., 1305 
Lincoln, E. B., 1014 
Loos. William K., 117o, 1305 
Louderback, Delancy H., 901 
Lynn, 1 racy, 1176 
McArdle, James, 564 
McCarthy, G. A., 1421 
McClure, I. H., 60 
McCoy, Hugh, 1477 
McLovern, W". A., 1477 
McKinley, W. B., 613, 747 
McLean, E. S., 1234 
McLimont, A. W., *286 
McMeen, S. G., 285 
Mackie, A. D., 159 
Macreadie, Andrew S., 1013 
Maddock, George F„ 212 
Maher, Fxlward A., 386 
Mailloux, C. O., 1365 
Mandelick, W. E., 563 
Mathias, O. C, 1176 
Merwin, Byron E., 287 
Metcalf, H. L., 159 
Meyers, B. F., 693 
Miller, Peter M., 693 
Miller, T. L., 61 
Mills, Roger Clarkson, 212 
Mitchell, Edwin R., 614 
Montgomery, R. T., 1061 
Moore, Lewis E., 499 
Moore, W. E., 1120 
Morrison, Henry, 500 
Morrison, Norman, 852 
Morrison, Robert, lr., *564 
Morrison, R. W., 434 
Mortimer, James D., *694 
Mudge, H. U., 1234 
Mullen, T. J., 385 
Munger, E. T., 286 
Muntoti, C. J., 385 
Murray, W. S., 615. 950 
Murrin, W. G., 1013, *1062 
Musser, Frank B., 693 



Nagle, George U., 1061 
Nash, L. C, 285 
Neall, N. J., 901 
Neat, John R., 1062 
Newman, F. R., 1061 
Newton, C. A., 285 
Nichols, F. A., 1421 
Nicholson, W. G., 285, 386 
Noble, Alfred, 951 
Nolan, F~dwin Emerson, 213 
Norris, IT. H., *386 

Odeli, E. H., 1305 
O'Dowd, D. C, 434 
O'Flara, Joseph, 1305 
Orr, Alexander E., 1306 



Palmer, Lewis E., 499 
Patten, Howard, 338 
Patterson, G. N., 385 
Patterson, H. C, 748 
Pearson, R. Vance, 613 
Pearson, Walter Ambrose, 338 
Pender, Dr. Harold, 1365 
Pennev, Thomas, 434 
Pevear, J. S., 499, *1014, 1305 
Phillips, Benjamin, 285 
Phillips, Franklin, 500 
Phillips, W. C, 852 
Poland, William B., 1305 
Fontius, D. W., 60 
Porter, Benjamin W., 614 
Porter, H. Hobart, 799 
Potter, A. E., *60 
Potter, W. B., 1176 
Punderford, J. K., 1120, '1 177 
Purdy, J. H., 1120 



Ranno, Fred W., 950 
Read, Walter E 1421 
Redderson, Arthur W., 1477 
Reed, E. W., 499 
Reed, George F., 159 
Reid, Arthur, 385 
Reynolds, R. W., 285, 747 
Richards, T. L., 1234 
Riddle, Samuel, 285 
Bobbins, Edward D., 61 
Robinson, David, Jr., 901 
Robinson, T. Russell, 563 
Robison, Tames L. 1478 
Roe, Charles W., 500 
Roher, F., 613 
Rolley. R. S., 285 
Ross. W. D., 693 
Rowley, Henry W., 499 
Rudd, L. G., 159 
Russell, Samuel, 1421 



St. Pierre, George W., 434 
Saltonstall, P. L., 1305 
Sanders, John, 212 
Sanderson, E. N., 212 
Schindler, A. D., 1365 



Schneider, E. F., *500 
Schramm, B. J., 613 
Schulz, George M., 799, 1120 
Sherwood, E. C. 434, 1121 
Scofield, E. M., 1477 
Scott, W. D„ 212 
Scovill, F. E., 434 
Sharp, W. E., 158 
Sheehan, D. P., 1062 
Sheldon, George R.,693 
Sherman, Albert, 147S 
Sfionts, Theodore P., 1305 
Sims, C. S., 613 
Skehan, E. J., 1121 
Sloan, M. S., *338, 1061 
Smith, Barrett, 385 
Smith, Charles Whipple, 799 
Smith, E. W. P., 852 
Smith, F. E., 1013 
Smith, W. N., 799 
Smithers, Earle, 1122 
Snow, F'. Herbert, 747 
Snyder, D. W., 1120 
Soencer, George, 285 
Sperling, K. FL, 1013, *1121 
Spoffard, R. W., 564 
Sprenckle, R. E., 613 
Sproul, William C, 901 
Squires, Grover, 434 
Stainer, M. A., 613 
Stangland, R. S., 563 
Stanley, Albert H., 1478 
Stephens, W. W., 158, 213 
Stillwell, Louis B., 1365 
Stivers, S. C, 1120 
Storey, William B., Tr., 747 
Stottsbury, E. T., 1120 
Stout, Tackson, 436 
Sturgeon, T. L., 852 
Sullivan, John FL, 852 
Sullivan, J. V., 1365 
Swain, J. G., 563 
Swain, Spencer, 1366 
Swift, H. F., 1061 



Talbot, F. H., 158 
Talbot, Richmond, 563 
Taylor, W. L., 385 
Tenney, A. B., 104 
Tenney, C. H., 104 
Tennis, Charles C, 613 
Theis, George, Jr., 799 
Thompson, Gavlord, 852 
Thomson, D. E., 693 
Thornton, Henry W., 435 
Thorrson, N. M., 285 
Tobin, Tohn G., 1305 
Tolberg, H. A., 1477 
Trask, VV. H., 799 
Treacy, John J., 951 
Trimingham, T. H., 693 
Tripp, Guy E., 950 



Utfert, John F., 285 



Valentine, A. L., 1305, 1365 

Van Stantvoord, Seymour, 500, 613 

Veser, L. O., 693 

Viles, Alden E., 694 

Vodges, Tacob M., 613 

Voight, George, 287 

Von Schrenk, Arnold, 285 

Vorce, C. B., 60 

Vreeland, IT. H., 104, 338 



Wakefield, W. T. C, 385 
Walker, Tames Blaine, 1120 
Wall, H. M., 1120 
Warner, H., 338 
Warren, D., 613 
Way, S. B., 950, * 1014 
Webster, Frederick E., 212 
Weeks, Edward Prescott, 1234 
Weld, F. M., 1477 
White, Elmer M., 159 
Whitridge^ F'rederick W., 852 
Whysall, George, 799 
Wickham, H. J., 1234 
Widenor, A. S., 285, 386 
Wilcoxon, C. N., 338, 1365 
Wilkie, John E., 1176 
Wilson, George P., 613 
Wilson, Hugh M., 563 
Wilson, J. R., 1421 
Wilson, W. L., 563 
Wirsching, Robert E., 60 
Witherwax, Charles L, *693 
Wood, B. F., 104, 564 
Wood, Robert Colgate, 1177 
Wood, William J., 212 
Woodroofe, W. T., 1176 
Woods, Robert Patterson, 1365 
Worman, P. A., 158 

Young, P. S., 1061 



Zech, N. P., 1477 



Denotes Portrait. 



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"ELECTRIC RAIL 
WAY JOURNAL" 
FOR 1914 



With this issue we begin the forty- 
third volume of the Electric 
Railway Journal. We also pre- 
sent our usual tables of statistics and publish as a spe- 
cial feature a number of interesting reviews of the in- 
dustry by outside contributors. This symposium should 
be found of especial value because all of the articles are 
on subjects of general interest. At the same time they 
relate so closely to the industry that there is hardly a 
single electric railway company to which each one of the 
topics considered should not appeal as a matter of purely 
local concern. We realize that many of our readers have 
given a great deal of attention to these and kindred 
matters, and as it was impossible to cover all phases of 
the industry in this number we cordially invite others to 
continue the discussion begun here in later numbers of 
this paper. Our statistics include as usual data in 
regard to orders during the past year for cars and new 
track and a list of foreclosures and receiverships among 
electric railway companies. We also present a list of 
the block signal installations during 1913, as this is a 
phase of the industry which is rapidly becoming more 
important. The statistics of cars ordered and built and 
miles of new track constructed during the year reflect 
conditions among electric railway companies with which 
most of our readers are well acquainted. The gross 
business of the companies is increasing and demands 
new rolling stock, but the low margin of profit at pres- 
ent deters capital from entering upon the construction 
of new lines. When the Empire State of New York 
shows added electric city and interurban mileage of 
only 40 miles, and New Jersey and Illinois can be cred- 
ited with only 12 miles and 25 miles of new track re- 
spectively, something must be wrong with the condi- 



s'ame co-operative help in its efforts toward improved 
conditions in the electric railway field. 

ELECTROLYSIS The report of two members of the 
MITIGATION VS. Bureau of Standards on the sub- 
^L NATION ject of electrolysis published else- 

where in this issue is perhaps one of the most compre- 
hensive, and certainly one of the most positive, state- 
ments on the problems which have ever been published. 
The authors take the general position that damage from 
electrolysis can be most successfully minimized by a 
process which is inherently one of elimination of the 
cause rather than one of mitigation of the evil effects, 
and it cannot be denied that they have made out a 
strong case. In the systems of mitigation which may 
be applied to the affected pipe lines they include the 
two best-known schemes, namely, the use of insulated 
joints and the installation of drainage connections to 
the pipes. Both are admitted to be of certain value as 
palliatives which may be properly introduced in excep- 
tional locations; but in the end the authors openly con- 
demn them for any further use. As the drainage sys- 
tem has been heretofore so generally commended and 
possibly put to wider use than any other, this conclu- 
sion must come as a distinct surprise, and the un- 
equivocal support accorded instead to the insulated 
return feeder system without boosters is certainly a 
warrant for most of us to revise or at least consider a 
revision of our ideas on the question of the preven- 
tion of electrolysis of underground metallic structures. 



STEAM BOILERS 
FOR LARGE 
TURBINES 



The new 30,000-kw turbines for 
the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company are a good example 
of the extraordinary progress made in power plant 
practice as well as in equipment design during the 
last decade. Each of these new units will displace 
an engine and generator about twelve years old and of 
7500-kw capacity, because, even with their auxiliaries, 
each machine will occupy less floor space — the reduc- 
tion in unit bulk being 75 per cent. At the same time, 
the boilers required for each will be only those orig- 
inally installed to supply steam to a 7500-kw engine. 
Obviously this condition could not have been brought 
about by a 75 per cent reduction in unit steam con- 
sumption, because the improved efficiency of the tur- 



2 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No., 1. 



bines over the best types of reciprocating engines is at 
most a question of fractions, which are important but 
small in actual amount. Instead, the condition which 
enables eight 520-hp boilers to supply steam for a 
30,000-kw turbine with a water rate of at least 11 lb. 
per kw has been produced by changes in power plant 
practices alone. Extremely thick fires subjected to a 
heavy blast pressure have so reduced the excess air once 
considered necessary for complete combustion that, 
with all boilers working and an evaporation of more 
than 8 lb. per square foot of heating surface, the flue 
temperatures are actually too low to permit the effective 
use of economizers. Except for the installation of high- 
capacity stokers the boilers have not been changed since 
the time when an evaporation of 4 lb. was considered 
excessive. It is true, of course, that superheaters are 
to be added, yet the additional heating surface thus 
provided constitutes but a small part of the total and 
is not applied for the generation of steam. Each boiler 
is to be taken out of service for cleaning the two bot- 
tom rows of tubes once every two months and for gen- 
eral cleaning and inspection once in eight months, so 
that at least once a week the battery of eight boilers 
for each 30,000-kw turbine is reduced in effective rated 
capacity to 3640 hp — more than 8 kw per boiler horse- 
power — a figure which is extraordinary even when 
judged by the practice of the past five years. 



TREND OF THE TECHNICAL BRANCHES OF 
THE INDUSTRY 



In 1913, as shown in the statistics published else- 
where in this issue, there has been a slight lull in car 
building. This may be in part the cause of the small 
number of new car designs brought out during 1913 as 
compared with 1912. However, judging by the relative 
number of cars of the new designs placed in service in 
cities other than those in which they originated, there 
seems to be little hope that they are going to be as 
potent an influence in operation as was at first expected. 

The fully inclosed vestibule with folding or inside 
steps seems to be coming rapidly into favor, the object 
being the reduction of boarding accidents as well as the 
superior degree of protection in cold weather. The elim- 
ination of bulkheads is a logical step beyond this, and 
more of such designs may be expected during the com- 
ing year. For city cars the use of the near-side stop 
seems due for very general adoption as it appears to 
meet with rapidly increasing favor from both operating 
men and the public, and as a corollary the increased 
use of the front platform by passengers seems also to 
be inevitable unless center-entrance cars should come 
into wide use. 

Lighting of cars will undoubtedly take a prominent 
place among the technical subjects receiving special con- 
sideration during the next few months. The recent 
commercial development of the tungsten lamp affords 
an opportunity for the application of scientific methods 
of illumination as it cuts the power required for light 
to less than half that required with the old carbon 
lamps, thus permitting the consideration of indirect 



lighting schemes which a year or more ago would have 
been prohibitively expensive. 

In motors and electrical equipment generally no 
marked changes nave taken place, although there ap- 
pears to be a tendency toward the use of indirect, or 
multiple-unit, control systems, even by railways which 
display no indication of trying two-car train operation. 
This lack of innovation is obviously due to the very 
thorough standardization which is being effected in this 
class of material. Mechanical features, however, have 
continued to display the gradual changes necessitated 
some time ago by the growing use of steel in place of 
wood. The use of steel for car wheels in place of cast 
iron is also increasing in certain localities, although 
there are numerous supporters of each type. Cars of 
light weight which have become a commercial possibil- 
ity through advanced ideas in design are, generally 
speaking, continuing to grow in favor, not only on ac- 
count of the consequent saving in power but also be- 
cause of the reduction in track maintenance. 

Few repair shops were built during the past year, and 
in view of the improved methods and equipment intro- 
duced on every hand it is hardly likely, without an 
extraordinary growth of business, that the necessity 
for more space will require many more shops to be built 
in 1914. Repair shop practice in many particulars has 
been undergoing rapid changes, and other modifications 
will no doubt continue to be developed. Welding proc- 
esses have made enormous strides in the past year, and 
it is safe to say that the use of this great labor saver 
and means for renewing scrapped apparatus will be- 
come nearly universal during the next twelve months. 
In the painting and washing of cars the way has been 
pointed out whereby material savings can be made, and 
the new processes, namely, baked enamel painting and 
automatic washing, may be expected to come into in- 
creasing use. 

In the field of operation it may be said that the use 
of trains in city service is still a moot question. How- 
ever, with the test which the Public Service Railway 
of New Jersey has so generously undertaken to run, it 
is likely that the coming year will see a final settlement 
one way or the other. The year has been a good one as 
regards block signaling on electric railways, and it is 
to be hoped that this tendency toward procuring auto- 
matic means for reducing accidents will continue. The 
development of schemes to provide track-circuit block 
signals and indicators with a directional sense was an 
important recent step in the art, and these cannot fail 
to play a prominent part in the installations for the com- 
ing year. 

The problems in generation of power have recently 
been characterized by a somewhat sudden awakening to 
the fact that steam boilers are capable of vastly in- 
creased outputs, operation without difficulty at 400 per 
cent of rating being an actual accomplishment. Turbo- 
generators are still growing, as exemplified by the new 
30,000-kw units for the Lriterborough Rapid Transit 
Company, and the fact that these machines are of the 
pure reaction type would serve as evidence that the 
advantages of low steam velocities were too great to be 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



3 



overlooked, in contradistinction to beliefs of the sup- 
porters of the combined type having reaction blading at 
the low pressure end and several impulse wheels with 
nozzles to handle high-pressure steam. 

Power station construction during 1913 has been sin- 
gularly limited, although part of this may be ascribed to 
the fact that comparatively few new roads have been 
built in this period. The compactness of new types of 
power units and their auxiliaries has also permitted ex- 
tensions to take care of increased service with little, if 
any, increase in building capacity. The purchase of 
power from outside sources is still growing gradually 
in popularity and shows every indication of continuing 
in that direction, the most notable recent event in this 
field being the revision after five years' operation of the 
Chicago contracts between the railways and the Com- 
monwealth Edison Company. 

The past year also has seen two important accom- 
plishments in the field of electric railway power trans- 
mission, namely, the adoption by the American Electric 
Railway Association of an approved overhead construc- 
tion for 600-volt lines, including a standard cap and 
cone, and the completion of a report on the joint use of 
poles, the latter to be considered at the midyear meeting 
of the association. It is possible in some cases that the 
problems of power transmission may be affected by the 
introduction in this country of the locomobile, or small 
self-contained engine and boiler, which has been used 
for many years in Germany. Indeed, the agitation over 
both this type of prime mover and the Diesel oil engine 
might indicate a belief in some quarters that these 
European methods were about to gain a foothold here. 

In steam railroad electrification the feature of the 
past year has been the large number of announcements 
of lines to be equipped. One of these lines, the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & Puget Sound Railroad, is undertaking the 
most extensive electrification project yet attempted out- 
side of the New Haven work by equipping 168 miles of 
single track. This installation naturally overshadows 
all of the others, but it does not necessarily detract 
from their importance, because its successful operation 
after completion cannot fail to drive many other lines 
into the fold. In connection with the Norfolk & West- 
ern electrification a new system of electric traction has 
been originated, current being collected from a single- 
phase overhead conductor and converted to the poly- 
phase form for use in induction motors, and as the in- 
stallation will be completed in 1914 its operation will be 
watched with a great deal of interest. The most notable 
electrification completed during the year has been that 
of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railroad — a 22-mile 
line handling heavy ore shipments from the mines along 
the route to the smelters in Butte, Mont. — because it is 
the first in this country to use direct current at 2400 
volts. Notwithstanding the high voltage, no difficulties 
of any kind have developed in the first months of 
operation. 

In regard to matters pertaining to maintenance of 
way it may be said that the division of opinion as to the 
advantages of concrete underneath the ties is still in 
existence. The use of stone ballast, sometimes with 



concrete above the ties and sometimes with it under- 
neath the ballast, seems to have a slight preference nu- 
merically, steel-tie constructions being very limited in 
number. The grinding of rail joints, the building up 
of cupped rails with the electric arc and, in fact, the use 
of every refinement available for making a perfectly 
smooth rail surface have progressed in favor to a 
marked degree. Finally, a great deal of attention has 
been devoted to the still unexplained phenomenon of rail 
corrugation, for which a number of plausible but di- 
vergent theories have been advanced. Indeed, the true 
economy of ample expenditures in the track department 
is now generally recognized, and during the coming 
year this work cannot fail to receive still greater atten- 
tion. 

THE RAILWAY BUSINESS SITUATION 

Conditions in the electric railway industry did not 
undergo serious change in their fundamental aspects 
during the year 1913. There was rather an extension 
of the same kind of problems that the preceding several 
years had seen. The questions of the times which were 
with us a year ago and are still prominent are mainly 
those of public relations, capital values, rates, regula- 
tion and high operating expenses. The labor problem 
was a little more insistent in 1913, but the pronounced 
development in welfare work on the part of some com- 
panies probably lessened the emphasis upon this feature 
of operation. The companies undoubtedly have a keener 
appreciation of the difficulties of their situation, and 
in many places corrective steps are being taken which 
would not have been thought necessary a few years ago. 

We speak of the general problems of the industry as 
serious, but in fact where they really seriously concern 
individual companies they threaten grave results. Only 
those officials of companies who have gone through the 
mill of great changes enforced by the drastic public de- 
mands of the last few years realize what can happen 
to them and to the properties in their care. There was 
an example in Chicago which antedated the era of 
regulation, but which included in its settlement some 
of the changes that would have been required under 
regulation. The shock of the New York receivership, 
although almost coincident with the commencement of 
public utility regulation in New York State, might have 
been hastened by the new law, as some people said, but 
it was inevitable anyway. There are still many troubled 
points in various parts of the country, and they appear 
to increase rather than to diminish in number. The 
problems thus are localized, although they have identify- 
ing features which show the close resemblance of one to 
another. 

It is impossible in any satisfactory survey to refrain 
from reference to Cleveland. The ideal conception of 
the ordinance there was that it would be automatic in 
action. When the interest fund increased the rate of 
fare would decrease; when the interest fund decreased 
the rate of fare would increase. The model of auto- 
matic action displayed for the admiration of beholders 
was very simple and attractive. In practice, however, 
the ordinance works automatically to reduce the rate of 



4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



fare when the interest fund increases. It does not work 
so smoothly and automatically to increase the rate of 
fare when the interest fund decreases. It is easier to 
let rates down than to force them up. The service can 
be disguised when the fare cannot. The public does not 
realize when the service is shaped to the end of a 3-cent 
fare. Its consciousness is keenly alert, however, when 
a change in the rate of fare is made. It is possible to 
make a change in service without public announcement. 
It is not possible to make a change in fare without im- 
mediate public notice. These considerations have fos- 
tered the low-fare experiment in Cleveland. How long 
they will be controlling, however, it is impossible to 
say. Unless in some way the influence of the increase in 
cost and the readjustment assured by the finding of the 
board of arbitration can be overcome, they point to a 
higher fare in the future. 

There is unrest in other cities also. In Toledo the finan- 
cially rehabilitated company is going ahead to render 
service without regard to the franchise situation. By so 
doing it should pave the way for an equitable settlement. 
The Detroit situation is still far from settlement. After 
long negotiation an ordinance providing for a new 
franchise for the Metropolitan Street Railway line in 
Kansas City has been introduced in the Council. It 
carries out many of the radical ideas advanced in the 
last few years in reference to public utility corporations. 
In Des Moines a new tentative franchise has been pre- 
pared. No solution of the San Francisco difficulties has 
been reached. In these cities there is a curious mixture 
of the old theory of operation under a limited municipal 
franchise with the modern theory of stringent regula- 
tion, except that one of the best features of the modern 
theory is lost to sight, namely, the elimination of the 
limited franchise and the substitution of a franchise 
that is indeterminate or perpetual if proper service is 
rendered. There are the cities fighting on the one hand 
for rigorous terms in municipal franchises, while on 
the other hand the modern policy of flexible regulation 
by state commission gains in strength. State regulation 
is greatly to be preferred to municipal regulation, and 
we believe that it is only a question of time when all 
states will assume full control. If time brings that 
about, one of the best of the results will be the elimina- 
tion of the continuous and paralyzing controversies be- 
tween city and company. The city electric railway is 
so easily the prey of politicians under the old-time con- 
ditions that effective state regulation would be a relief. 

There is a tendency to dwell upon this issue because it 
means so much to the companies and because it is ever 
prominently before them in these days. Both this ques- 
tion and the more internal one of higher operating ex- 
penses insistently confront the companies and demand 
settlement. The solution to the problem, unfortunately, 
is not one that is capable of standardization. Each 
company has the issue to meet for itself. It cannot 
avoid it but must do the best that it can to reach a 
settlement that will be fair to its security holders and its 
employees. In so doing, however, it needs to have the 
co-operation and not the antagonism of the public that 
uses its facilities. 



THE RELATIONS OF THE CITY AND THE 
PUBLIC UTILITY 

Practically the entire gamut of theories as to the re- 
lationship between public utilities and the public was 
traversed at the meeting of the American Economic 
Association in Minneapolis during the past week, and 
among the speakers were several outspoken advocates of 
municipal ownership and operation. No one can deny 
that during the past ten or twelve years a great change 
has taken place in the generally accepted ideas on the 
proper relations between the utilities and the state. 
Previous to that time, it is true, there had been a strict 
regulation of public utility capitalization in a few 
states, notably in Massachusetts, but generally through- 
out the country the public utilities and their franchises 
were held to be a class of property with which the owner 
could do about as he pleased. 

The development a few years later of the commission 
idea of regulation, under which the state began to take 
control over the rates charged and the services rendered 
by the utilities, was a logical outcome of the new the- 
ory of public regulation, which now gained tremendous 
impetus. This theory, if we define it briefly, is that 
while public utility enterprises are in a sense private 
property, they must be administered in such a way that 
the owners can obtain from them only a fair return 
upon a fair valuation and that all surplus from their 
operation above this amount should go in some form to 
the public. Hardly had this thought become generally 
accepted when the situation became complicated by a 
large and still growing demand for improvements and 
greater luxuries in the service required from the util- 
ities as well as an increase in the cost of labor and of 
all the materials which the utilities have to purchase to 
conduct their operations. If it had not been for these cir- 
cumstances, there would probably have been a country- 
wide demand for a great reduction in the rates charged 
by electric railways. But the cost of operation had gone 
up instead of going down, and the position of the elec- 
tric and steam railroads has changed from that of fight- 
ing a decrease to that of pleading for an increase. 

It would manifestly be impossible, in view of the com- 
plex nature of the question, to lay down any hard and 
fast rules which would apply in all cases, yet we believe 
that the main directions in which progress should be 
made can be determined to some extent at least by the 
process of elimination. Thus, one suggested solution 
which we believe should be discarded at the outset, cer- 
tainly so far as electric railways are concerned, is that 
of municipal operation. The actual management of the 
electric railways of the country should be in private 
bands, regulated so far as is necessary, if politics in 
our large cities are to be kept free from a great oppor- 
tunity to apply the spoils system upon a large scale. 
This danger alone would be sufficient to eliminate the 
possibility of municipal ownership from consideration, 
but it would also be the height of injustice to the in- 
dividual taxpayers to allow the city authorities to use 
the city credit to engage in a business involving such 
risk of financial failure as that of the construction and 
operation of electric railroads. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



5 



If, then, it is decided that the properties are to re- 
main in private hands, there remain for consideration 
three main questions, namely, the valuation to be placed 
upon the present business and property, the rate which 
the companies shall be allowed to make upon this valu- 
ation, and the status of the future relations between the 
two parties. If the problem is confined entirely to 
these points, we believe that it will not be difficult to 
reach a satisfactory agreement in individual cases. The 
rate of return will necessarily depend upon that which 
can be earned in other enterprises in the same locality 
involving a similar risk, for obviously if it is any less no 
more capital can be induced to engage in the business. 
Other conditions being equal, this rate would have to 
be higher in a rapidly growing community where there 
is greater demand for capital than in the older and 
more stable parts of the country. Again, where the city 
is a partner and the proportion of the returns to the 
city, taken either as service or as direct payments, are 
paid before the utility earns its return, the risk is in- 
creased and a higher rate would have to be allowed than 
if the property was first permitted to earn a specified 
rate of return and the profits were then divided. The 
first New York subway was built under the former plan, 
and the company took all the risk. The present exten- 
sions are being built under the second plan. There are 
a number of other precedents where different rates of 
return have been agreed upon, depending upon different 
degrees of risk. We ourselves believe that a profit-shar- 
ing plan between the company and the city, under which 
there is an incentive to the railway company to have an 
economical administration of its affairs, is far better 
than a fixed limit to the rate of return, as, for instance, 
in Cleveland. 

In regard to the amount of investment or valuation 
upon which this rate of return shall be estimated, we 
believe that in general it should not be less than the 
actual investment made in good faith in the property 
plus the accrued return on this investment not paid out 
to the security holders. We say "in general" because ad- 
verse business conditions in which the public has had no 
part have adversely affected many of these enterprises. 
In some cases they have been built in locations where 
the possible traffic did not warrant the construction of 
any line; in other cases there has been bad manage- 
ment, and in still others conditions which probably could 
not have been foreseen or avoided have made reorgan- 
ization and a reduction of capitalization necessary. But 
where a road has been encouraged by both the law and 
the public to install an electric railway and establish 
certain rates on a franchise presumably unchangeable 
in its conditions, and where it has been conservatively 
managed and has made such improvements as were re- 
quired from time to time by the progress of the art, its 
existing investment should be recognized. Then, if the 
community wishes to permit a higher rate sufficient 
gradually to amortize the difference between present 
value and present investment, such a plan can be inaug- 
urated. In the future we see no reason to expect sim- 
ilar problems to arise. With the valuation and rate of 
return fixed, the rate to be paid by customers for the 



service can easily be determined. These principles seem 
in general to be those which should be the controlling 
ones in the settlement of this question. 



INTANGIBLE VALUES IN SETTLEMENT CASES 

The propriety of assigning any value to the so-called 
intangible assets of a street railway at the time of sale 
or valuation is often assailed, one of the latest instances 
being in connection with the recent valuation for the 
proposed purchase of the Toronto Railway, which the 
city is thinking about taking over before the end of 
the franchise period. Just why the average layman 
should look with so much distrust upon the word "in- 
tangible" is not easily explainable, for the basic idea 
underlying intangible values is one that he can easily 
obtain if he wishes and, what is more, readily compre- 
hend. Intangible values may be roughly divided into 
two classes, one connected with the organization and 
maintenance of the company as distinct from the prop- 
erty, the other concerned with the building up of the 
business. The former include the preliminary tech- 
nical expenses, legal expenses during the formation of 
the company not connected with construction expenses, 
cost of consolidation and reorganization, reconstruction 
due to unforeseen contingencies, brokerage, discount on 
securities and a reasonable promoter's profit. All of 
these items represent expenditures that are not limited 
entirely in their application to the accounting or fiscal 
period in which they originate ; they are connected with 
the vital corporate being as long as it is in existence. 
The outlays for these items are therefore properly 
spread over the entire franchise period, and the pro- 
portion for the time unexpired is treated as a deferred 
charge to expense, an asset to the company. Now, 
when from any cause a company sells out before the 
expiration of its corporate right, the vendee, a munici- 
pality for example, should reimburse the company for 
these expenses that are applicable to the remaining 
period when the municipality and not the company is 
receiving the income. In other words, these assets rep- 
resent money values paid out the use of which has not 
been yet enjoyed — intangible values, in short, that must 
be recognized. 

As for the second class of intangible assets, fran- 
chise rights, these should be even clearer to the average 
citizen, for they are not so involved with accounting 
principles. The important points are two : An electric 
railway often begins its operations at a loss, and for 
some years the net earnings are likely to be meager 
indeed. In fact, a surprisingly large portion of a fran- 
chise period is spent in perfecting the organization, 
instituting economies and efficiencies and building up 
traffic and good will so that in the last years of fran- 
chise life a real substantial return on the investment 
may be secured. Hence, when a company, in the belief 
that it has a certain number of years of life remaining, 
has succeeded in laying the foundation for future prof- 
its it is perfectly justified in asking that a municipality 
desiring to purchase the property make up for these 
profits at their present value. 



6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



Problems of the Electric Railway Industry 



The Electric Railways Enter the Year of 1914 Facing Widely Diversified Problems, and Different Aspects of 
Many of These Are Discussed by Prominent Men in the Industry 



Opportunities Before the American Association 

By CHARLES N. BLACK, President American Electric Railway Association 



The problems confronting the electric railway inter- 
ests of the country to-day are many and varied, and 
there has been no more critical time in the history of 
the industry than the present. The remarkable growth 
of American cities and the demands of modern business 
have made the question of transportation one of the 
most important of those confronting our municipalities. 
While the solution of this question, even under the most 
favorable conditions and with the hearty co-operation 
of the public, the various commissions and other gov- 
ernmental agencies, would be far from simple, it is 
greatly complicated by lack of such co-operation, due in 
a large measure simply to ignorance. 

It is idle to waste time in arguments as to what 
causes brought about the present hostile tendency of 
the public to all public service corporations. We are 
confronted with a fact, not a theory, and the task be- 
fore the electric railway industry to-day is to clear 
away the ignorance which is so prevalent in all sec- 
tions of the country and among all classes of society 
and which must be dissipated before it is reasonable to 
hope for the establishment of any real and permanent 
progress. 

Isolated and spasmodic attempts have been made by 
some of the larger electric railways through the local 
press to dispel the prejudice which has arisen in the 
mind of the public and to give it a clearer conception 
of the many serious and difficult problems which have 
arisen, but apparently little real progress over the 
country as a whole has been made, and if we are to bet- 
ter these conditions concerted action on the part of 
every electric railway in the country will be required. 
No better tool for this work is available than the 
American Electric Railway Association, with its mem- 
bership extending into every state in the Union and 
controlling more than 80 per cent of the mileage of the 
country. 

While in the past the work of the association has 
been of inestimable value, it has been confined in a 
large measure to the technical side of the industry, 
and it has touched on the broader problems and public 
questions in more or less of a desultory fashion. A far 
wider and more important field of work now presents 
itself, and it is incumbent upon the association to 
undertake the solution of the present problems with the 
same energy and in the same broad-minded manner as 
it has taken up and solved many of the difficult tech- 
nical questions in the past. 

With this end in view, there has been appointed a 
committee on public relations, consisting of the ablest 
men in the industry, together with leading representa- 
tives from the principal manufacturing and banking 
interests which are closely allied with the electric rail- 
way companies. It is expected that this committee will 
formulate not only some comprehensive and effective 
publicity campaign but also a financial plan for carrying 
it out successfully, and it will then be the duty of every 
member of the association to lend most hearty and 
active co-operation. Upon the solution of this prob- 
lem depends the very life of the industry, for unless 
the prevailing ignorance and prejudice can be dispelled 



it will be absolutely impossible to secure capital for 
additions and betterments to existing properties, to say 
nothing of the necessities for the financing of new 
projects. 

During the past few years a large number of the 
states have appointed public service commissions, whose 
authority, generally speaking, is very broad. The mem- 
bers of these commissions have been recruited almost 
without exception from a class of men who have had 
no experience in the electric railway industry, and in 
order to avoid ill-advised and destructive orders from 
these commissions the task of educating the individual 
members has devolved upon the managers and opera- 
tors of the electric railroads. 

Generally speaking, this has been successfully accom- 
plished, with the result that it has been the exception 
where any really pernicious or unfair requirements 
have been promulgated. While local conditions natu- 
rally control in a large measure the policy of any com- 
pany in its dealings with a public service commission, 
the committee on public relations can advantageously 
study and discuss the effects on the industry as a whole, 
both financially and otherwise, of the appointment of 
these commissions. 

Another vital matter which is coming up more fre- 
quently every year is the question of the renewal of ex- 
piring franchises. Municipal ownership numbers 
among its advocates a large proportion in every com- 
munity, and unless a franchise can be drawn in such a 
manner as to be absolutely fair to the public, encour- 
age the settlement and building up of the outlying dis- 
tricts of a community and, at the same time, hold out 
such promise of financial returns as will encourage 
capital to embark in the electric railway industry, 
municipal ownership will receive a really tremendous 
impetus. 

These are but a few of the very important problems 
which are confronting the industry and will require the 
very best work of the ablest men connected with the 
association, if they are to be solved in a successful 
manner. 

The affiliated associations of the American Electric 
Railway Association carry on a work that is prac- 
tically continuous. The consideration of questions of 
technique and of operation is their province, and the 
constantly changing conditions incident to the marvel- 
ous progress in the science of transportation offer an 
opportunity for co-operative effort along the lines of 
their special activities which has been and is being 
taken advantage of in a most satisfactory manner. 
Among these may be mentioned the preparation and 
publication of the "Engineering Manual," which will 
undoubtedly prove of the very greatest use to the engi- 
neering staff of the various member companies of the 
association. 

Any description of the work of the association would 
be incomplete without reference to the Fare Research 
Bureau, which has recently been organized under the 
charge of a recognized expert and which promises to 
be of great value in the settlement of a very serious 
question. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



7 



How to Have Good Public Relations 

By C. LOOMIS ALLEN, of Allen & Peck, Inc. 



The problem of public relations has been discussed 
for a good many years as an abstract question. It is, 
however, an intensely practical question. The results 
that flow from the attitude of the company on this 
problem are tangible. There cannot be bad public rela- 
tions without a corresponding adverse effect upon the 
earnings and credit of a company. There cannot be 
good public relations without a favorable effect upon 
the credit and earnings. 

The wisest thing that each company can do is to 
face this problem squarely. It should analyze condi- 
tions in its community. There is no use in disregard- 
ing plain facts. Conditions in each community are 
either favorable or unfavorable. There is not a middle 
ground. If bad public relations exist, the reasons 
ought to be clear. Such relations cannot exist unless 
at some time in its history the company has been at 
fault. If the company is still at fault in its attitude 
in any respect, that attitude should be changed without 
delay. If other agencies than the public are at fault, 
the company should exert every honest effort to set 
them straight. How this can be done is a problem by 
itself in each case, but satisfactory general policies will 
always help. 

Suppose, for instance, the company has followed the 
policy of secrecy. It has not given information either to 
the public or the newspapers. It has the reputation of 
not giving satisfactory replies to inquiries. Neither the 
public nor the newspapers are met with courtesy when 
they ask fair questions about matters that ought to be 
of common knowledge. The way to overcome the re- 
sult of such a mistaken policy is to enforce rigorously a 
new attitude of publicity. Let the company welcome 
the newspapers and the public. If they learn more 
than they have a fair right to learn the harm done will 
not be nearly so great as if they learn less than they 
have a fair right to learn. Furthermore, when they 
find that they can get easily the information that they 
ought to have, the basis is laid for a new feeling toward 
the company. 

Public utility companies ought to make it possible 
for the newspapers to be their friends. They cannot 
expect the newspapers to have this attitude unless they 
try their utmost to solve the problems before them to 
the satisfaction of the public they serve. In their work 
of serving the public the newspapers seek the news in 
their communities. If they cannot get news worth 
printing about the company from its accredited offi- 
cials, they are likely to try to get it in other ways. 



They know that the company has news. If the com- 
pany makes it difficult or impossible for them to get the 
news, they try to get it through underground channels, 
and the result is a garbled report for which the com- 
pany is, in the main, responsible. 

There is plenty of legitimate news about an electric 
railway. The great difficulty is that the officials of the 
railway do not know what the newspapers would like 
to publish. The newspaper men on most papers want 
to be fair, and if the company is fair with them they 
will respect its confidences. No public utility official, 
however, can expect to treat newspaper men in the com- 
munity unfairly and receive from them that considerate 
treatment which he, as a representative of his com- 
pany, ought to have for the sake of his company as well 
as for his own sake. 

The best medium of communication and friendship 
between the railway and the newspapers which carry 
the news about the railway to the public is a trained 
newspaper man in the employ of the company. This 
does not mean that if a newspaper representative calls 
to interview the president or the general manager of 
the company he is to be told that that official is busy 
and be referred to the publicity agent. A trained news- 
paper man should be in the employ of the company, not 
as a substitute for the officials but to supplement all 
that they can do to tell about railway matters which 
are of interest to the public. Such a man, if worth his 
salt, will be on the lookout for items of news in every 
department that the newspapers will be very glad to 
print. 

He will write articles of the same kind that he would 
write if he were employed by the newspaper. When 
this is done he will, after discussing the items with the 
management of the railway company, offer them to the 
newspapers, always being careful to use the same judg- 
ment about news as a representative of the railway that 
he would use as a representative of the newspaper. He 
should not ask the newspapers to print what he knows 
they ought not to print. 

The adoption of this policy will help the railway in 
one of its main difficulties, that of teaching the public 
that there is a railway side to the great and serious 
problem of public relations which ought to be under- 
stood better than it has been in the past. A clear pub- 
lic understanding of what the railway side of the story 
really is will help to pave the way for good public rela- 
tions, which are absolutely necessary if the company 
is to become or remain prosperous. 



Increased Cost of Electric Railway Operation 

By CHAUNCEY ELDRIDGE, of Tucker, Anthony & Company, Boston, Mass. 



The most serious problem confronting the electric 
railway at present is the increasing cost of operation, 
including fixed charges and taxes. Interurban and city 
roads both feel the pressure of rising expenses, and 
the situation is rendered doubly difficult by tne demands 
of the investing public for higher returns upon capital 
— returns which would have been considered out of 
the question a few years ago. Hemmed in by the 
established 5-cent fare unit, the urban electric road is 
face to face with a financial problem of no small mo- 
ment. In the Middle West many interurban lines started 
operation on the basis of an average fare of l 1 / 2 cents 
per mile, with commutation and other reduced rates 



yielding only l 1 ^ cents. It has been absolutely demon- 
strated that an interurban road cannot be properly 
operated to-day, paying its running costs, fixed charges 
and allowing anything for depreciation, on the basis 
of a IVi-cent fare per passenger mile. On city lines 
the inflexible 5-cent fare unit with nothing less than 
extraordinary transfer privileges frequently permits 
a maximum ride of 20 miles, and everybody knows that 
it costs a company two or three times the nickel unit 
so to transport the long-distance rider. 

Analyses of the actual cost of operation in the city 
of Cleveland, Ohio, show that more than 4 cents per 
passenger must be collected if a reasonable amount is 



8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



to be laid aside for depreciation and maintenance, yet 
there is a constant cry from the public for decreased 
rates. The average community would embrace a propo- 
sition for a 2-cent urban car fare without regard to the 
actual cost imposed upon the operating organization. 
The 3-cent fare in Cleveland was undertaken by a 
former municipal administration as a temporary ex- 
pedient, but the whole policy of the present city govern- 
ment seems to be to cut its cloth to the 3-cent standard 
rather than to maintain the best service and ascertain 
the limits which that service sets. Such a policy, if 
persisted in, leads to the junk heap. 

The most apparent source of relief from the adverse 
conditions now bearing down upon electric railways is 
through the education of various state commissions to 
the point of appreciating the burdens imposed upon the 
companies, not only by popular demands for lower fares 
but by the growing costs of labor of material and of 
capital and by the urgent pressure upon railway man- 
agements for larger, faster and more luxurious cars 
and improved service in every Vvay. There is a tendency 
on the part of these tribunals toward according to the 
transportation companies a fairer hearing than has 
sometimes been the case in the past, and these boards, 
in many cases, are much less inclined to drastic action, 
biased by the popular appeal, than they were a few 
years ago. On a typical interurban road, charging the 
legal steam railroad rate of 2 cents per mile, under the 
jurisdiction of one of the newer commissions, the board 
has resisted a demand on the part of the public for 
reduced fares and increased stops, the latter having 
been granted in but two or three instances where an 
absolutely valid reason could be shown for such inter- 
ruption of the schedule. This commission has declared 



that the road has been in operation too short a time 
to justify any invasion of its charges along the lines 
proposed. Five years ago little likelihood of decisions 
of this kind existed in many states, and had the peti- 
tion been presented at that time the tendency of such 
boards to use their powers almost exclusively on behalf 
of the public would have militated against the equitable 
treatment of the problem. 

It is unlikely that the cost of operation can be reduced 
in any permanent way by electric railways, although 
there may be temporary decreases in the expense of 
labor and materials during periods of business reces- 
sion. There is some opportunity for adding to income 
by the development of electric express and freight serv- 
ice, but in the main the relief needed must be sought 
through the commission channel. Ultimately, it is pos- 
sible, the general public may awaken to the real situa- 
tion and co-operate to some degree at least with public 
utility managers handling transportation service along 
the line of conceding a fair return upon the capital 
invested in the enterprise; but the direct education of 
the public is very costly, and it is probable that only 
after several unfortunate examples will the people as a 
whole give the matter its due consideration. The in- 
terurban road stands in a somewhat better position in 
regard to fare matters than the city system. Its aver- 
age revenue per passenger may be five times that of 
the latter, and its management deals with a corre- 
spondingly small number of patrons. The existence of 
fare zones also affords a certain flexibility in the ad- 
justment of rates. The state commission is the con- 
trolling factor in the situation, however, and the imme- 
diate future of the industry rests very largely in its 
hands. 



The Central Electric Railway Association and the Interurbans 

By ARTHUR W. BRADY, President Union Traction Company of Indiana 



While the membership of the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association is made up of both urban and inter- 
urban companies, the principal work of the association 
has lain in the interurban field. In no part of the 
country has there been a greater development of inter- 
urban railways than in the Central West. This devel- 
opment has been due to several causes. The principal 
factors are found in physical conditions generally favor- 
able to construction, the lack of other means of trans- 
portation furnishing the frequent service required and 
desired by the public and a population of sufficient den- 
sity to appear to justify the necessary investments of 
capital. 

The interurban lines were built under varying con- 
ditions and according to varying standards. Some of 
them were built by street railway companies as exten- 
sions of their systems. Others were built as independ- 
ent railways, connecting perhaps at terminals and other 
points with street railway systems, over the lines of 
which the interurban cars were operated under trackage 
contract. Some of these lines were constructed out of 
funds furnished in ample amounts by strong groups of 
•capitalists, while others were built out of local contribu- 
tions, inspired by public spirit as much as the hope of 
profit and often made without knowledge of the re- 
quirements of railroad construction of any kind. It is 
not strange that the lines thus built differ greatly 
among themselves in the standards of construction em- 
ployed. Many builders adopted urban street railroad 
standards as the standards for interurban construction. 
A few adopted steam railroad standards. Between these 
extremes practices varied greatly. Because franchises 
over highways were in many instances freely granted to 



the projectors of a desired interurban line, the cost of a 
private right-of-way was sometimes avoided, and the 
line was built on a highway. Because street cars could 
be operated without regard to gradients or curves, in 
many of the earlier interurban lines the steepness of 
grades and the sharpness of curves were frequently 
looked upon as items of little importance. In the rails, 
joints, ties, overhead construction, cars, motors — in 
practically everything — widely diverse standards ruled. 

As it was with construction, so it was with mainte- 
nance and operation. Many of the operators and man- 
agers of the early interurban lines were men of little, 
if any, railroad experience. Some of the more ex- 
perienced ones had gained their experience in street 
railway operation, others in steam railroad operation. 
Here, again, methods varied almost in proportion to the 
number of lines. So it was also with practices involving 
the patrons of the lines. On one line every effort would 
be made to induce the use of tickets by the traveling 
public, while on other lines no tickets at all were sold 
and fares were collected in 5-cent zones, so that the 
passenger would be called upon to pay his fare a num- 
ber of times on a journey of any distance. On some 
lines baggage was carried in every car, while on others 
baggage was carried only on infrequent cars, if car- 
ried at all. On some lines baggage was carried free, 
while on others no baggage was carried without charge. 
Some lines carried freight in cars used also for the car- 
riage of passengers. On other lines all freight was car- 
ried on express cars used only for that purpose, while on 
still others no freight at all was carried. The ticketing 
of passengers, the checking of baggage and the inter- 
change of freight were practically unknown. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



9 



The lack of system and standardization which thus 
characterized interurban lines in the earlier develop- 
ment was largely due to the exceedingly rapid rate at 
which that development had proceeded. The resulting 
condition was serious. Several thousand miles of in- 
terurban railway existed in the Middle West, connected 
together at many points, but, because of diverse prac- 
tices and standards and lack of harmonious co-opera- 
tion, the lines were incapable of accomplishing for public 
or owners all that both could rightly demand of them. 

The Central Electric Railway Association, which in 
its origin was the successor to certain state organiza- 
tions, has a record of successful accomplishment in 
establishing order, system and standardization in place 
of the confused condition which formerly existed. The 
record thus made is not the work merely of the associa- 
tion named but also in large part that of its affiliated 
' associations, the Central Electric Traffic Association and 
the Central Electric Railway Accountants' Association. 
The meetings of the association bring together men 
active in all branches of electric railway work, including 
representatives of the principal manufacturing con- 
cerns connected with the industry. The papers read and 
discussions had are of a highly practical nature. It is 
safe to say that, taken as a whole, no better presenta- 
tions have been made at meetings of any other associa- 
tion of the best practices in electric railway construc- 
tion, maintenance and operation. No two successive 
meetings are held in the same state. Generally one or 
more special cars bring members from distant points. 
The result is that, instead of the state of isolation 
which formerly existed, the men in charge of operation 
and maintenance on one line have now a fairly good 
knowledge of what has been done and is being done on 
other lines throughout a wide territory. This oppor- 
tunity to make comparisons itself leads to improvement, 
as well as to uniformity and standardization, for what 
one line borrows from another almost universally means 
the displacement of an inferior by a better practice. 
The work of the active committee on standardization of 
the association has contributed greatly to the same 
result. 



Only a few years ago it was almost impossible to 
secure reliable information with reference to a journey 
of length by interurban railways. It will be remem- 
bered that one of the great newspapers of the country, 
being unable to ascertain the facts from the electric 
railways themselves, some years ago started a represen- 
tative from Chicago to New York to discover whether 
the through trip could be made by electric railway. So 
far as the territory of the Central Electric Railway As- 
sociation is concerned, such information is now easily 
accessible. 

Through the work of the Traffic Association, a well- 
engraved map has been published and widely distributed 
showing interurban lines between Chicago and eastern 
Illinois on the west and Pittsburgh and Buffalo on the 
east, taking in southern Michigan as its northern limits 
and northern Kentucky as its southern limits. Fur- 
thermore, elaborate tariffs for interurban traffic, 
freight and passenger, have been issued, and a con- 
venient means of filing changes with interstate and 
state commissions is supplied. Any interurban agent 
is now enabled quickly and easily to give information 
as to routes and rates between all points in the Central 
Electric territory. Moreover, baggage regulations have 
been standardized and simplified, and provisions have 
been established for the interchange of rolling stock. 
Thanks to the Accountants' Association, standard meth- 
ods of interline accounting have been adopted, so that 
the lines themselves are able to handle interline business 
without difficulty. It is now practically as easy and con- 
venient for one desiring to travel or to make shipments 
throughout the Central Electric territory to use the 
interurban lines as to use the steam lines. 

To the unification and standardization of the inter- 
urban railway work which has thus been brought about 
in Central Electric territory several factors have con- 
tributed. It may be safely affirmed, however, that one 
of the most potent of these factors is the continuous and 
energetic labors which the lines have themselves put 
forth through the Central Electric Railway Association, 
the Central Electric Traffic Association and the Cen- 
tral Electric Railway Accountants' Association 



Purchased Power an 

By CHARLES L. AYLING, of Bak 

The increased cost of operation on the modern street 
railway and the difficulty of offsetting it by raising the 
fare unit are fully appreciated in financial and admin- 
istrative circles to-day. To preserve net earnings so 
far as possible under these conditions it is a great ad- 
vantage to fix as many expenses as may be upon a defi- 
nite basis. By such a policy the margin of a reasonable 
return from an established fare unit may be to some 
extent safeguarded. Could the cost of transportation as 
measured in wages have been fixed five years ago, con- 
ditions in the industry would have been very different 
to-day. Economies are being sought in many direc- 
tions, however, and among these the use of purchased 
power is a positive factor in standardizing the expenses 
of operation. 

Every probability points to a material increase in the 
cost of coal in the not distant future, and it is unlikely 
that station labor costs will be reduced per employee as 
time passes. The latter item has risen in parallel with 
platform costs in the last few years, not only through 
reductions in the length of shifts from twelve to eight 
hours in many plants but through direct increases in 
wages. 

The production of power by large steam and hydro- 
electric stations is attaining new importance in 



[ the Street Railway 

, Ayling & Company, Boston, Mass. 

many localities, however, and the street railway is be- 
ginning to realize that in most cases at any rate it 
cannot produce energy as cheaply as these large plants 
can supply it, thanks to the diversity factor resulting 
from non-coincident peaks. Investigations by the Com- 
monwealth Edison Company of Chicago have shown that 
the combination of manufacturing, trolley and lighting 
loads saves certainly 20 per cent in plant capacity and 
hence in investment and corresponding fixed charges. 
Centralized power supply reduces the ultimate cost of 
electric transportation to everyone who may be con- 
cerned. 

The Connecticut River Transmission Company and its 
affiliated organizations, with which the writer is most 
familiar on account of the financing of their develop- 
ments through Baker, Ayling & Company and their 
management by Chace & Harriman, furnish a sugges- 
tive example of power supply for economical reasons to 
street railways in central New England. The high-ten : 
sion steel tower lines of this system extend from Pitts- 
field and Adams on the west to Worcester, Marlboro and 
the Rhode Island line on the east. 

During a period of operation which has covered less 
than four years these companies have been established 
and are now delivering power at the rate of 150,000,000 



10 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



kw-hr. per annum, an output in excess of the combined 
production of all the central stations in those portions of 
Massachusetts inclosed by their lines. Power is sup- 
plied to the Worcester Consolidated Street Railway at 
three important points ; the Massachusetts Northern 
Street Railways are operated entirely by hydroelectric 
service from Gardner to Athol; power is being deliv- 
ered to the Springfield Street Railway at Palmer, and a 
contract for a large block of power has lately been 
closed with the Berkshire Street Railway. Arrange- 
ments have also been made to furnish power to the 
Boston & Maine Railroad at Zylonite, Mass., for the 
operation of the heavy electric locomotives in the 
Hoosac Tunnel. 

One feature of operation which has been of much 
advantage to street railways purchasing power from 
large plants is the improved voltage regulation secured 
under traffic peak conditions. This results in a material 
betterment of the running time of the cars, especially 
on holidays and Sundays, and it cuts down wear on the 



motors as well. Again, the making of power contracts 
for a long period, often from ten to thirty years, defi- 
nitely fixes the price of electricity and rids the oper- 
ating company of this element of uncertainty in its 
running costs throughout the entire life of the agree- 
ment. 

In other words, such a program gives stability to net 
earnings, and it does it by virtue of the economic 
advantages of wholesale power production and distri- 
bution. The cost of attendance in a steam generating 
plant in a large power system may be 20 per cent of the 
gross income, whereas in the hydroelectric plant it runs 
from 5 to 10 per cent of the gross. In the production, 
transmission and distribution of electric power from 
large hydroelectric plants with supplementary steam 
equipment, used only when water is short, unit costs 
tend to run low, permitting the quotation of favorable 
rates and offering the street railway at least a measure 
of escape from the conditions which at present heavily 
oppress it. 



Rolling Stock Design 

By E. W. HOLST, Superintendent of Equipment Bay State Street Railway 



The selection of rolling stock for street railway serv- 
ice is pre-eminently a problem whose solution depends 
upon local conditions, and the design of passenger cars, 
particularly for operation in cities, is therefore a mat- 
ter which cannot be settled in an off-hand way. To the 
layman the task of transporting the public on an urban 
street railway doubtless appears much the same in one 
place as in another. Most thickly populated communi- 
ties have their rush hours and midday traffic, substan- 
tially all are served by electric roads upon the basis of 
the 5-cent fare with more or less liberal transfer privi- 
leges; the use of tracks laid in the public thorough- 
fares is universal, and there are other features of the 
service which make the passenger feel at home aboard 
a street car entirely apart from the city in which he 
happens to be traveling. From the popular viewpoint, 
therefore, it would seem to be a simple matter to provide 
an increase in rolling stock when the growth of traffic, 
existing or anticipated, exceeds the capacity of the 
operating equipment. 

In reality, the ideal car for city service, the standard 
design which is capable of meeting local requirements 
pretty much anywhere, does not exist. One has only to 
review the tendencies in car-body design of the past 
five years to realize that the more local conditions are 
studied the less becomes the possibility of ordering cars 
from stock and putting them into service with the ex- 
pectation that they will meet the approval of the trav- 
eling public and afford the most economical operation 
and maintenance. Each case must be studied on its 
merits. 

A glance at some of the factors influencing car design 
will show why a single type or standard of construction 
cannot fulfil the requirements of diversified service in 
dissimilar communities. Were all cities alike the prob- 
lem would be fairly simple, but each town has character- 
istics from the street railway point of view which indi- 
vidualize its transportation conditions. The width of 
streets, use of single-end or double-end operation, spac- 
ing of tracks, limitations of overhang, curvature of the 
line, presence and character of grades, bridge, station 
and platform clearances, facilities for loading and un- 
loading passengers, strength of bridges, and the type 
of rolling stock units already in service, together with 
the schedule speeds and stop requirements in force or 
contemplated, are some of the features external to the 
car itself which influence the design. 



Inside the car a still greater number of conditions 
must be taken into account before the best rolling-stock 
type can be determined in a given instance, and even 
here the test of actual service on a limited scale is gen- 
erally desirable before large investments are committed 
to radical departures in design. The reason is not that 
the engineering features of a car may require modifi- 
cation but that the actual fitness of the equipment in 
caring for the comfort and convenience of the traveling 
public are best demonstrated by the use of the car 
by the passengers and operating crews. An inch or two 
added to the width of a seat or an aisle may be a power- 
ful factor in deflecting traffic to an operating company 
under competitive conditions. The location of heaters, 
effectiveness of the interior illumination, shape of seat 
backs, width and length of window sills or arm rests, 
the percentage of the car side occupied by window 
glass — these and many other details bear upon the 
popularity of a car type. 

In addition to these considerations the problem of 
fare collection, the desirability of keeping the conduc- 
tor at work at a fixed point, the expediency of the cen- 
ter entrance, the disposition of seats and location of the 
aisle space, the proportion of standing space which 
should be allowed in specific instances, the necessities 
of internal circulation on the part of passengers after 
boarding the car and on approaching stops, the adapta- 
bility of the prepayment feature and the effectiveness 
of moving the passengers in a general forward direc- 
tion through the car as a means of reducing congestion 
are all points whose importance varies not only in dif- 
ferent cities but frequently on different divisions and 
routes of the same railway. 

Methods of operation long accepted in one community 
may be most unfavorably received in another. In one 
case a desire to preserve the lowest possible fare may 
result in a density of car loading which would be re- 
garded as abnormal elsewhere. In another adherence 
for local reasons to single-ended operation and the con- 
centration of boarding and alighting at a single door 
may yield satisfactory service despite the fact that it 
pockets the passengers and possibly renders the col- 
lection of fares in rush hours a good deal of a problem. 
Local traffic regulations affect car design, as do also 
the character of patronage handled, the relation of mid- 
day to rush-hour travel, the motor equipment required 
to maintain the desired schedule and the limitations of 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



11 



wheel diameter, truck design and requirements in 
heights of car steps. 

In the development of different types of cars to meet 
the foregoing varied conditions in combinations pecu- 
liar to each community can be seen the advance of the 
industry toward the more scientific treatment of its 
transportation questions. There is little doubt that for 
city service the prepayment type of car bids fair to 
increase in popularity among electric railway managers, 
and in forms specially designed to prevent acidents due 
to improper boarding or alighting. Obviously, the re- 
duction of car weights in new designs demands the 
attention of all those who appreciate the economies of 
such a program, and there is no question that this phase 
of car development is viewed with much greater inter- 
est than a few years ago. Again, the close attention 
now given to motor selection for stated service and the 
recognition by many of the wisdom of occasionally 
studying the fitness of such equipment to handle 



changed traffic conditions bear witness to improved con- 
ceptions of engineering responsibility. 

With regard to the widely discussed question as to 
the use of all-steel or wooden construction, the writer 
is of the opinion that for a surface car designed for 
local operation all-steel construction will not be so 
desirable in the long run, for the reason that the metal 
post, roof, sash and fittings, whether riveted or braced, 
are in time subject to damage through jarring and 
loosening at joints, resulting in rusting, increased 
wear and excess maintenance besides having a ten- 
dency to be cooler in winter and noisier in operation. 
Better flexibility of construction is obtained by the use 
of combinations of wood and steel, the latter being par- 
ticularly useful in underframing and side construction 
up to the window sills. To low cost of maintenance 
and economical operation must be accorded due consid- 
eration in the design and selection of every important 
detail of car equipment. 



European Railway Electrification 

By GEORGE GIBBS, Consulting Engineer, New York 



In the summer of 1913 I spent about two months in 
a visit to Europe for both pleasure and professional 
purposes. On this trip I enjoyed the opportunity of 
discussing electrification problems with such men as 
Charles H. Merz, consulting engineer for the Melbourne 
electrification; Philip Dawson, consulting engineer for 
the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway, both at 
London; Dr. W. Reichel, director Siemens-Schuckert 
Works; G. Wittfeld, Geheimer Oberbaurat, in general 
charge of the Prussian State Railways electrification, 
and the managers of the Allgemeine Company, all at 
Berlin. In Paris I met M. Jullien, chief engineer of the 
electrification work of the Midi Railway in the Py- 
renees. Every facility was offered to me to obtain in- 
formation, and at Berlin, particularly, I had the pleas- 
ure of going through the works of the two great elec- 
trical manufacturing companies mentioned. On a 
previous visit to Europe I had inspected the Dessau- 
Bitterfeld line, but lack of time prevented a trip to the 
newly opened Lotschberg Railway during the course of 
this visit. 

A study of the work done on the Continent shows that 
all of the electric railway engineers have followed the 
same principles as their steam brethren, namely, their 
constructions are very light as compared with Ameri- 
can standards, even for like conditions. Line and equip- 
ment are much more complicated and refined than would 
be considered desirable for the rough-and-tumble con- 
ditions of America, but unquestionably the work done 
in Europe is beautifully designed and conscientiously 
maintained. 

So far, the Dessau-Bitterfeld line has been used prac- 
tically as an experimental ground. Every suggestion 
for the improvement of line and locomotives is being 
tried out there. The authorities now have an immense 
mass of data which still remains to be sifted out and 
classified for practical deductions. Mr. Wittfeld in- 
formed me that, although the Dessau-Bitterfeld side- 
rod locomotives looked so very light, almost flimsy in 
fact, the only trouble of consequence given by them had 
been the breakage of the forked ends of the main rods. 
Forged solid ends had been substituted, and he felt that 
the end of locomotive troubles was in sight. The main- 
tenance of these and other foreign electric locomotives 
is so systematic and thorough that they do not carry 
protective devices against short-circuits, like slip joints 
between the armature and shaft, such as are considered 
recessary on American locomotives. 



The electrification of the Berlin Stadtbahn is a proj- 
ect much favored by the public, but it has made its way 
to official adoption very slowly, partly on account of the 
opposition of steam interests and partly on account of 
the probability that electrification, while increasing 
capacity, will not be profitable at the present ridicu- 
lously low fares. To reduce the cost of electrification 
it was first proposed to use front and end locomotives 
in order to retain the passenger coaches, which are of 
special type and not readily available for use on other 
steam lines. Now the electrical interests appear to 
appreciate that motor car operation would be far bet- 
ter than the clumsy locomotive arrangement, but many 
lack the courage to recommend the former because of 
the additional expense. When locomotives were sug- 
gested, single-phase was proposed for their propulsion, 
for the reason that some of the trackage forms part 
of trunk lines. The whole question has now been re- 
opened, however, and the authorities may decide to use 
another system for suburban work exclusively. 

On the Continent generally, however, there is no ques- 
tion that single-phase is in the ascendant. In Germany 
all the authorities seem to be agreed upon it, and the 
same fact holds true of Austria and Switzerland. Both 
of the great manufacturers, the Siemens-Schuckert and 
Allgemeine companies, consider the single-phase sys- 
tem the proper one for heavy work, although these com- 
panies also build high-tension direct-current equipment 
for lines of interurban character. Both deprecated the 
controversial character of American discussions on 
choice of systems. In Italy the three-phase system is 
favored by the Italian State Railways, more particu- 
larly because of the mountainous character of so many 
lines, such as the present Valtellina and Giovi electri- 
fications. 

In France not much is going on at this time except 
the electrification of some suburban lines out of Paris 
and the experimental single-phase line of the Midi Rail- 
way. The latter is a forerunner for an ambitious elec- 
trification of some 250 miles of mountain branch rail- 
ways which are to receive energy from hydroelectric 
sources. The types of locomotives have already been 
selected. 

The confidential data on the London, Brighton & 
South Cost single-phase electrification show most satis- 
fying results. The only electrical trouble of importance 
was a faulty design of brush holder, and this defect has 
since been corrected. 



12 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



The Distribution of Power for Traction 

By LOUIS BELL, Ph.D., Consulting Engineer, Boston, Mass. 



The past year has shown singularly little development 
in the methods of transmission and distribution applied 
to electrical traction. There are interesting promises 
for the future, but for the present there is not much to 
boast about. So far as the pure transmission side of 
the work goes, railway working both here and abroad 
is on a comfortably conservative basis of voltage. There 
is not much occasion for going to extreme pressures. 
The Oregon Electric Railway and one or two others in 
this country take advantage of transmission at 60,000 
volts or thereabouts, and the Dessau-Bitterfeld single- 
phase road in Germany transmits at 66,000 volts and is 
actually working underground cables at this pressure. 
Most electric railway transmissions are, of course, less 
than half such figures as these. On a few recent lines 
suspension insulators are in use, but for the most part 
pressures are not high enough to call for this type of 
construction, and railway transmission lines as a whole 
are of rather commonplace construction, such as has 
been long familiar in this country. 

Abroad, steel poles are very much more freely used 
than here, and one interesting innovation in transmis- 
sion line construction along railways is the use of a 
solid drawn tubular steel pole. These poles are about 
40 ft. high and look as if made in three or four sections. 
They are, however, integral Mannesmann steel tubes, 
and the apparent joints are merely reductions in diam- 
eter. The poles start at the bottom at about 8 in. in 
diameter and are reduced to a scant 4 in. at the top. 
They are quite thin and are set in concrete bases a cou- 
ple of feet square, more or less. Such poles are spaced 
at 150 ft., or a little more, and carry usually two cir- 
cuits, one on each side. They are very strong and re- 
liable and take up extremely little space above the 
ground on the right-of-way as compared with the ordi- 
nary square latticed construction used on the Continent 
for such cases. The tubular poles cost perhaps half as 
much again as the lattice, but they give great promise 
of durability and are extremely convenient, inasmuch 
as the danger of rusting and the care required are a 
minimum. 

The distribution of the working current displays 
more interesting novelties than the distribution itself 
in recent railway practice, especially abroad. The work- 
ing conductors on recent Continental lines are nearly 
always suspended from a catenary carried either by 
brackets or on the more important lines by overhead 
bridges, and late constructions generally show two trol- 
ley wires in the same horizontal plane, a few inches 
apart, the spacing being regulated according to con- 
venience on curves and sidings. The trolley wires are 
very commonly of figure 8 form and of cross-section 
equivalent to something like 000 B. & S. The advan- 
tage seems to be threefold, namely, first, added conduc- 
tivity; second, added collecting surface for heavy work, 
and, third, the lessened wear on the bow collectors, 
which are universally employed on recent European 
roads. The supports of the catenary are 150 ft. to 175 
ft. apart commonly, and where steel bridges are used 
they are of very light and graceful construction, which 
might be followed to very good advantage by builders 
in this country. 

There does not seem yet to be very much change in 
the trolley voltages either abroad or here. There are a 
few excellent examples of 1200-volt practice on a large 
scale scattered over this country and over Europe, and 
a very few at higher voltages. Twenty-four hundred 
volts is a pressure frequently talked about, but it is not 
much beyond the experimental stage at present any 



more than it has been in the past. Nearly all these 
high-voltage d.c. lines are, as the readers of the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal well know, of substantially 
standard apparatus with the motors running in series 
at the higher voltage. The Midi railway in France is 
trying some 850-volt motors on a three-rail system, and 
a few experimental machines of still higher voltage are 
in use elsewhere. 

On the other hand, in the case of single-phase lines, 
there seems to be a distinct upward tendency in the 
working pressure, taking full advantage of the trans- 
formation on the locomotive. Ten thousand volts is 
frequent enough. The Midi railway before referred to 
is working its a.c. electrified line at 12,000, and the 
Mittenwald railway running out from Innsbruck has 
gone to 15,000 on the working conductor. Experience 
seems to show no particular difficulty in collecting at 
these voltages. Indeed, the experiments tried a decade 
since on the Zossen line made it very evident that high- 
voltage collection is on the whole rather easy. Of 
course, for such voltages as those referred to, the mat- 
ter of insulation is comparatively simple, and if one is 
going to transform on the locomotive it can be done just 
as comfortably from 15,000 as from 5000, with mate- 
rial gain in the conducting system. 

It is worth noting that on recent European roads the 
locomotives are quite generally made with coupled driv- 
ing wheels driven from a jackshaft with a single gear 
reduction by herringbone gears from the motor or 
motors, an arrangement which the Continental engi- 
neers believe gives considerable advantage from the 
standpoint of motor construction and operation. Mean- 
while, at engineering meetings this year, both at home 
and abroad, there have been most vigorous, not to say 
violent, discussions regarding the relative methods of 
a. c. and d.c. operation. It is very doubtful whether 
anybody has really been converted from either system 
to the other by any of the arguments advanced, as the 
differences of opinion seem to be constitutional. It is 
extremely easy to estimate on hypothetical cases which 
favor one or the other construction. Meanwhile the a.c. 
traction motors seem to be "making good" from a prac- 
tical standpoint and retain a very considerable advantage 
in the matter of cheap distribution and easy collection of 
energy. 

The writer would very much like to see, however, 
the d.c. contingent break away from conventional 
motor voltages and push on to much higher pressures 
on the working conductor than have yet been tried. 
With the positively coupled motors used on Continental 
locomotives there ought to be no particular difficulty in 
going up to 5000 volts on the trolley wire, which would 
put quite a different phase on the relative costs of dis- 
tribution. Anyone who has seen the big Thury ma- 
chines in actual operation ceases to worry about the 
difficulties of commutation in such a case, particularly 
since the Thury commutators are quite short, and there 
seems to be no difficulty whatever in increasing the 
output of the machines so far as amperage may be 
concerned. 

It is very evident that the last word has not been said 
on high-voltage d.c. work for traction. Nor is there any 
difficulty in building the motor generators necessary to 
supply such a line as that here considered, and it is an 
open question whether the motor generator very com- 
monly used in Europe for supplying railway circuits 
from transmission lines does not gain in the stability 
of operation all that it loses through its inherently 
lower efficiency. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



13 



The Design of Electric Locomotives 

By A. H. ARMSTRONG, Railway and Traction Department General Electric Company 



Many years of experience in the operation of steam 
locomotives have resulted in the recognition of more 
or less standard designs of its running gear and super- 
structure. Minor difference may exist as to wheel 
arrangement and valve gear, but the side-rod drive 
common to all steam locomotives is the natural means 
of transmitting the power of the expanding steam in 
the cylinder to the rotating drivers. 

The electric locomotive, on the contrary, presents a 
wide diversity in methods of drive. The extreme flexi- 
bility of the electric motor and its adaptability to many 
successful forms of construction account in part for 
the many experimental locomotives built. It is also 
undoubtedly true that the type of motor adopted, 
whether alternating or direct current, may impose its 
limitations upon the mechanical design of the locomo- 
tive structures. For example, the simplicity of gear- 
less construction used in the New York Central direct- 
current motor locomotives can be approximately 
reached with alternating-current motors only by re- 
sorting to an undesirable combination of quill and 
spring drive. We may, therefore, in some cases, look 
for the reason for unusual forms of construction not to 
any mechanical superiority or excellence offered by the 
design adopted but rather to the type of motor used, 
the limitations of which may enforce a departure from 
simpler and more familiar methods of drive. 

It was natural that the earlier design of electric loco- 
motives should follow the construction found successful 
in the operation of double-truck motor cars with four 
motors which drive the four axles through single gear- 
ing. Many locomotives of this design, weighing 40 to 
60 tons total, have given long years of satisfactory 
service, and it cannot be doubted that this type of con- 
struction constitutes commonly accepted practice for 
moderate operating speeds. With the need of heavier 
freight locomotives it was found desirable to introduce 
twin-gear drive between motor and driving axles in 
order to equalize stresses. There also came the intro- 
duction of the hinged joint between the two trucks con- 
stituting the running gear of the locomotive, and this 
found expression in the forms of construction evidenced 
in the Detroit tunnel, B. & 0. tunnel, Great Northern, 
and Butte, Anaconda & Pacific locomotives. All of 
these locomotives comprise the same general design of 
twin-geared drive and bogie trucks connected by articu- 
lated joint, and all are operating with unqualified suc- 
cess at the moderate freight speeds for which they were 
designed. Two of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific loco- 
motives are equipped for passenger service with a gear 
ratio that permits reaching a speed of approximately 
50 m.p.h., and the riding qualities of the locomotive at 
this speed appear to be entirely satisfactory. 

Judging from the success attending the operation of 
twin-geared motor drive, it appears justifiable to look 
upon this form of construction as well adapted to meet 
the requirements of moderate-speed freight locomotive 
service. It would appear also that locomotives of the 
large capacity demanded for the heaviest freight serv- 
ice can be built with this type of construction without 
exceeding accepted practice of weight limitations per 
axle. This statement applies, however, only to electric 
locomotives equipped with direct-current motors, as the 
alternating-current motor locomotive design must make 
adequate provision for a transformer and possibly a 
phase converter in addition to the motor and control 
equipment. It is evident that a combination locomo- 
tive comprising both driving motors and substation 



equipment cannot be worked out so satisfactorily as 
the simpler direct-current type equipped with motors 
and control only. The locomotive cab provides none too 
ample space in which properly to install direct-current 
motor control, air compressor, blower, etc. When, in 
addition, space must be provided for the transformer 
and possibly the phase converter required with alter- 
nating-current motors which themselves may project up 
in the cab if side-rod drive is used, then the limited 
cab space available makes it extremely difficult to locate 
the several pieces of apparatus so as to afford conveni- 
ent access for inspection and repairs. Very large alter- 
nating-current motor locomotives will probably require 
idle axles to carry the additional weight of auxiliary 
control apparatus. The use of guiding axles on freight 
locomotives therefore may become more a question of 
type of motor used, whether alternating or direct cur- 
rent, rather than be due to any necessity to use such 
guiding axles for moderate-speed freight locomotives 
in order to get good riding qualities. 

It may sometimes be overlooked that the whole 
argument for electrification rests upon the superior 
qualifications of the electric over the steam locomotive. 
The fundamental principle of design should therefore 
provide for the greatest simplicity of motor construc- 
tion and drive as well as afford ready access to wearing 
parts. Simplicity and accessibility both contribute to 
the reliability, high efficiency and low cost of mainte- 
nance characteristic of the direct-current motor loco- 
motive, and two general types of construction appear 
to have demonstrated their fitness for freight and pas- 
senger service respectively. 

Heavy freight service seems to demand a locomotive 
weighing approximately 200 tons upon the drivers and 
capable of delivering continuously a tractive effort of 
16 per cent of the weight on drivers, or 64,000 lb., at 
a speed of approximately 15 m.p.h. For convenience in 
making shop repairs it seems desirable that this locomo- 
tive shall comprise two half units of 100 tons each, 
carried on two four-wheel bogie trucks connected by a 
hinged joint. The motors will, of course, be cooled by 
forced air and will drive through twin gears Usually 
such a locomotive may conservatively have a trailing 
tonnage rating of 1300 tons on 2 per cent ruling gradi- 
ents where curves are compensated and should also be 
capable of hauling 2600 tons on level tangent track at a 
maximum speed of 30 m.p.h. In general, these are the 
locomotive requirements upon mountain grade divi- 
sions, and they can be admirably met by direct-current 
motor locomotives of similar type but somewhat larger 
capacity than those now in successful operation on the 
Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway. 

For high-speed passenger service it is desirable to 
provide a locomotive having superior riding qualities 
at maximum speeds approaching possibly 75 m.p.h. It 
is in this class of service that the simplicity of gearless 
construction is more fully appreciated, as evidenced in 
the latest New York Central type of locomotive, which 
is capable of hauling a 1000-ton train at a speed of 60 
m.p.h. with an efficiency averaging 90 per cent through- 
out its operating range. The direct current is the only 
type of motor possessing the inherent qualifications 
necessary for gearless construction, and the direct-cur- 
rent gearless motor locomotive of low or high voltage 
may be looked upon as particularly adapted to meet the 
requirements of high-speed service. 

One of the serious problems of mountain division 
operation is the matter of braking heavy trains on 



14 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



down grades. During the past year a method of motor 
control has been perfected which will permit the motors 
to reverse their function, act as generators driven by 
the descending train and return electric energy to the 
trolley distributing system. This so-called "regenera- 
tive electric braking" feature of the electric locomotive 
should insure greater safety in handling heavy trains 
on down grades and effect some economy by reason of 
power returned to the system. 

American practice in electric locomotive construction 
differs materially from that abroad, as has been very 
well brought out in the editorial columns of the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal. This is partly due to the 
necessities of train operation, but also in some measure 
to the methods obtaining in shop practice and in round- 
houses. The electric locomotive in America should not 



only be designed of proper capacity for the service to 
be performed but should be of such simple, rugged 
construction as to minimize its liability to break down 
as well as its cost of upkeep with the character of labor 
available. 

The two types of locomotives briefly touched upon in 
this article, twin-geared construction for freight serv- 
ice and gearless construction for high-speed passenger 
service, both reflect the greatest simplicity in the char- 
acter of the direct-current motors and control used as 
well as mechanical transmission of power from the 
armature to the driving wheels. While other forms of 
construction may show special merit in some particu- 
lars, it is safe to say that these two types of construc- 
tion are capable of meeting all requirements of main- 
line freight and passenger train haulage. 



Correction of the Street Railway Situation 

By E. H. GAY, Banker, Boston, Mass. 



The present street railway situation parallels that of 
the steam railroads in that the need of increased reve- 
nue for the service performed applies equally to both. 
In Massachusetts, despite conservative capitalization 
represented by issues composed of one-half bonds and 
one-half full-paid capital stock, the margin of surplus 
earnings over fixed charges is so narrow, owing to in- 
creasing cost of operation and especially because of 
growing demands of labor, that the only salvation of the 
roads, both urban and interurban, lies in higher fares. 
This situation is shown in the fact that the street rail- 
ways of this state whose bonds are eligible for savings 
bank investments may be counted on the fingers of one 
hand, all the other companies having failed to earn the 
necessary 5 per cent dividends upon their stock for the 
period prescribed by law, although that stock represents 
$100 paid in for each share of the same face value. 

The situation of the Boston Elevated Railway Com- 
pany is typical of the inability of the 5-cent fare to meet 
the demands of the public for extended service on the 
one hand, of labor for increased compensation on the 
other, and the reasonable return to the investor as the 
third party in interest. Here is a great system upon 
which fall the heavy burdens of constantly increasing 
fixed charges resulting both from the enlarged demands 
of labor and the necessity of building subways costing 
in the vicinity of $1,000,000 a mile, and which neverthe- 
less result in carrying the passenger far beyond the 
profitable limits of the 5-cent fare, with a freedom of 
transfer which would be difficult to parallel, either in 
this country or abroad. It would seem that ultimately a 
fare unit in excess of 5 cents must be adopted under 
such conditions and that sooner or later the transfer 
privileges must be curtailed, since it has been figured 
that barely 2 mills out of each nickel are left the com- 
pany after the cost of operation, fixed charges and inter- 
est are met. It seems to be clear that the city road must 
ere long depart from the rigid 5-cent fare unit and that 
some measure at least of increased income must be ac- 
corded it by regulating authorities. The city of Cleve- 
land is an example in point, where the late Mayor John- 
son's pet theory of a 3-cent fare was put into practice 
by the authorities on certain of the city lines, only to be 
abandoned after a few months' trial when it was ascer- 
tained that heavy losses in operation were resulting 
from it. 

Those who look to municipal ownership as the panacea 
for the present difficulties of the street railway may not 
be aware of the findings of the independent experts of 
the National Civic Federation, who discovered in ex- 
amining the accounting methods of municipally owned 



systems abroad like that in Glasgow, Scotland, that 
wholly inadequate provision had been made for de- 
preciation, with the result that a serious situation will 
soon confront these enterprises. Comparing services in 
Boston and Glasgow, one finds that the zone system in 
use in the latter city is not so cheap as the single-fare 
unit of the former, outside a very limited radius. 
Again, the incompetency of applicants for responsible 
positions under the political conditions of municipal 
ownership as they would exist in America is not a thing 
to view with complacency. Abroad, the public service is 
considered from an entirely different angle than here, 
and the usual conditions of American politics are for- 
eign to the situation. 

There are many splendid street railway properties in 
this country, and if encouraged to develop upon the 
basis of a reasonable return to the investor, great good 
will result. One of the most important ways in which 
the street railway situation can be bettered is by co- 
operation on the part of municipal authorities in grant- 
ing long-term franchises — an action which encourages 
the spending of money for facilities not now available 
under limited franchise concessions. The twenty-five- 
year limit of Ohio, for example, greatly handicaps the 
sale of bonds whose customary term of life expires 
with the franchise or close to the time when the latter 
is yielded up. Under such conditions there is a strong 
tendency to strip a property of its needed facilities as 
the term of the bonds approaches its end, whereas with 
a long-term franchise the very opposite practice would 
be encouraged. Funds would be put into the property 
for its constant betterment, and an assured length of 
years accorded in a long-term agreement would go far 
to insure first-class facilities as well as to maintain the 
investment on a sound basis. Experiences in Detroit 
and Minneapolis illustrate this point. In Detroit, an 
otherwise excellent street railway field, expiring fran- 
chises on a portion of the lines have led to such uncer- 
tainty between the city officials and the company's offi- 
cers that further development and improvement of the 
lines affected are at a standstill pending the final settle- 
ment of the terms of extension. In Minneapolis and St. 
Paul, on the other hand, we find the premier street rail- 
way system in America, if not in the world, largely at- 
tributable to the company's franchises having been de- 
clared by the courts in effect perpetual, which furnishes 
a constant incentive to the company to furnish to the 
riding community the ideal transit facilities which they 
now enjoy. 

The legitimate economies of street railway operation, 
like those of the steam roads, appear to have been 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



15 



worked close to the limit, notwithstanding the pro- 
nouncements of Messrs. Brandeis et al. Nearly every- 
thing but labor has been liquidated in the transportation 
world, and sooner or later the great laws of supply and 
demand will accomplish this unfinished task. Conditions 
are by no means hopeless in the electric traction indus- 
try, but unless the communities served show more dis- 
position to recognize a reasonable return upon the capi- 
tal invested, both through the sanction of a higher fare 



commensurate with the increased demands of labor and 
greater cost of all materials entering into the cost of 
operation and by the granting of more liberal fran- 
chises for the encouragement of permanent improve- 
ments, the development of street railways with all the 
benefits which they confer in assisting to develop cen- 
ters of population will be held back to the lasting injury 
of the public welfare, to the employees themselves and 
to private enterprise. 



Buying and Building Cars 

By JOHN J. CUMMINGS, President M'Guire-Cummings Manufacturing Company 



During the past few years sharp competition in many 
lines of enterprise has been eliminated, but this condi- 
tion in no wise applies to the manufacture and sale of 
street cars. The manufacturer of such equipment must 
figure very closely indeed to secure a sufficient business 
to maintain the requisite volume of work in his plant 
in order to minimize his overhead expense and fixed 
charges, and it is evident that this competition is of 
great benefit to the purchaser of such products. 
Nevertheless, the length to which competition can go 
and still benefit business is sharply defined. 

In drawing up specifications covering the construc- 
tion of street cars the purchaser may work a severe 
hardship on the manufacturer with no resultant advan- 
tage, because the desire on the part of the buyer 
for opportunities is an ever-present menace to the 
wholesome benefits of reasonable competition. When 
buying reaches the point of bargaining alone on prices 
computed on cold and rigid specifications, the transac- 
tion is not mutually satisfactory, and the best specifi- 
cations are those which can enlist the skill of the manu- 
facturer in full and place upon his shoulders the burden 
of responsibility for ultimate values. Indeed, the ten- 
dency of to-day among buyers is to take more advan- 
tage of the manufacturer's ability, his character and 
his reputation, and the wisdom of this tendency is evi- 
denced more and more in the actual values delivered for 
the purchase money and the better satisfaction of both 
parties to the transaction. There are qualities in the 
products of street car manufacturers over and above 
those which can be produced under the specifications 
alone. It is the latent and ultimate value put into the 
product that has made the industry of street car manu- 
facture worthy of its present high place. 

To argue for loosely drawn specifications would be as 
unwise as it is unbusinesslike. Specifications should be 
comprehensively drawn, it goes without saying, but 
room should be left for letting in the knowledge, skill 
and experience of the manufacturer. The plain argu- 
ment of this is that specifications may be too good. 
They may be too specific. They may be so exact and so 
finely detailed and so comprehensive in their minute- 
ness that nothing is left to the genius of the manu- 
facturer. 

If certain materials made by others than the car 
builder are specified and if no deviation is allowed 
therefrom, it effectually forbids the car builder to reap 
any benefit from that competition which the purchaser 
has himself used to his great advantage. If it is 
deemed advisable by the railway company to insist upon 
certain specialties being used, it should contract for 
such material from the maker and ship to the car build- 
er's plant, allowing him a fair cost and margin of profit 
for the handling and installation and for assuming the 
responsibility for delays in shipment and the possible 
errors in manufacturing such specialties; in fact, such 
delays and errors might seriously hamper the work at 
a great cost to the car builder, tying up the facilities of 



his plant to such an extent that other work could not 
proceed on its scheduled time. 

While sharp buying may result, as it sometimes does, 
in picking up opportunities, the wisest buyers of to- 
day are realizing that the manufacturer must have a 
living profit if a real bargain is to be obtained. Buying 
at the expense of the manufacturer rather than to the 
mutual advantage of both manufacturer and user is a 
makeshift in business and is not of any permanent 
value. 

The history of companies that have been engaged in 
the manufacture of street cars does not show the re- 
ceipt of abnormal profits. On the other hand, the busi- 
ness has been fraught with peril; and certainly, taking 
into consideration the value of the plants, the necessary 
working capital involved and the special knowledge and 
ability required to operate successfully in this business, 
the manufacturer should be allowed an equitable profit 
over and above his cost. Moreover, consideration must 
be given to those dull periods that invariably overtake 
even the most successful business every few years, and 
for which provision must be made. 

If the manufacturer is called upon to furnish equip- 
ment of a highly complicated nature and of a small vol- 
ume, which requires considerable original thought and 
research, or if he must procure special machinery or 
erect or install additional apparatus, he is then entitled 
to a special profit. 

The tendency of railway companies has been to dis- 
continue the manufacture of their own equipment, as 
the apparent savings thus obtained have been offset by 
costs and problems that were not realized at the out- 
set. Many things have to be taken into account in the 
manufacture of street cars, and it is not unreasonable 
to believe that many such things were overlooked in 
the beginning, because, in order to manufacture eco- 
nomically, large sums of money have to be invested in 
the erection of special plants, and their direction and 
supervision have to be accompanied by special knowl- 
edge. Deficiency at any point means either loss of 
quality in the product or unexpected and oppressive 
increases in the initial costs. The managements have 
also been confronted with the problem of keeping the 
men in the new departments engaged in work that 
would give the full productive value of their efforts and 
skill, insuring maximum productive efficiency, and thus 
keep the capital invested at a reasonable figure. 

Another disadvantage experienced by the railway 
companies in the manufacture of their own equipment 
has been the consequent detraction from attention in 
the operation of their properties. The officials of such 
companies were already heavily burdened by their 
duties, and they found themselves engaged in two dis- 
tinct undertakings, neither of which received the atten- 
tion it required. 

In the matter of purchasing materials the railway 
companies did not enjoy the advantage of the car 
builder. The one bought at wholesale, the other at re- 



16 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



tail. To illustrate the point — the car manufacturer 
bought for the full capacity of his plant, which was 
necessarily greater than that of the individual railway 
company's shops, so that the latter were restricted to the 
purchase of materials in comparatively small quantities 
in accordance with their limited requirements. The 
manufacturer is also in position to dispose of his over- 
plus of material, inasmuch as he has diverse outlets, 
while the railway company has only its own needs to 
take up its manufacturing output. 



The railway company is not, therefore, to be regarded 
as a serious competitor of the car manufacturer. There 
will be railways now and then which will insist on hav- 
ing the experience before being convinced, but in the 
main the car manufacturer will continue to be the great 
source of production, and the railways will best be 
served by leaving the manufacture of cars to the car 
builder, whose knowledge and experience and desire 
really to give value received work to improve quality 
of product at a lessened cost. 



The Design of Rapid Transit Cars 

By F. M. BRINCKERHOFF, of L. B. Stillwell, Consulting Engineer, New York 



The success which has attended the use of "stepless" 
or center-entrance cars in city service has been of great 
interest to car designers as well as to operating offi- 
cials, whose common problem has been the rapid and 
safe loading and unloading of passengers with a mini- 
mum of platform expense. Combined with the prepay- 
ment system of fare collection, the center-entrance car 
seems to be making a favorable record. The low-step 
feature of this type of car permits a loading and un- 
loading rate approximating that of cars at elevated sta- 
tion platforms, and the access to the doorway from both 
directions when within greatly facilitates passenger 
movement. 

Similarly, when designing cars for use in rapid tran- 
sit or subway service, full consideration must be given 
to their ability to develop the full capacity of the ex- 
ceedingly costly right-of-way upon which they are to be 
operated. As the permissible headway fixes the num- 
ber of train units per hour, it is obvious that in order 
to handle the maximum number of passengers per hour 
the cars composing the trains not only must be as com- 
modious as possible but must be arranged also for rapid 
loading and unloading of passengers and their free 
circulation when within the car. 

For rapid transit cars the two matters of seating 
arrangement and door arrangement are so interdepen- 
dent that they must be treated together. In arranging 
the seats the designer of to-day endeavors to strike 
such a balance between maximum seating capacity and 
maximum total capacity that the cars will be effective 
during periods of extreme congestion but will not fail 
to provide a large number of seats under the ordinary 
conditions of traffic. Obviously, the longitudinal seat 
gives a minimum seating capacity and a maximum of 
standing room. On the other hand, and especially 
where the cars are wide, in accordance with the recent 
tendency in subway design, the transverse seat gives 
a very high seating capacity but a limited standing 
room; moreover, transverse seats interfere seriously 
with the opportunity for providing freedom of move- 
ment inside of the car. A combination of transverse 
and longitudinal seats, therefore, seems to be desirable 
under many conditions. 

The most important requirement for the location of 
door openings is that they shall be accessible from both 
directions inside of the car. The old-style end door for 
cars used in dense passenger service is, in many in- 
stances, being displaced by center-entrance doors, and 
where the requirements of the service warrant the use 
of large cars more than one door is necessary. The 
result is that the unit method of seat and door arrange- 
ment seems to be most desirable. By the unit arrange- 
ment is meant the division of each car into a series of 
practically similar units, each unit or section having 
one door and a carefully determined number of longi- 
tudinal and transverse seats, the relative number of the 
two types depending upon the relative importance, 



under the existing conditions, of total capacity and 
seating capacity. Involved in the design of each unit 
are numerous other problems mainly surrounding the 
question of passenger movement inside of the car. A 
sufficient open space must be provided in front of the 
doorway to avoid interference between passengers be- 
cause the impatience of passengers desiring to enter 
the car often leads to a certain amount of crossing of 
the lines of movement inside the car. This condition 
makes advisable the use of stanchions, preferably 
grouped near the door of each unit, but so spaced that 
persons holding to the stanchions will not interfere 
with the movements of passengers desiring to enter or 
leave the car. 

Hand straps, it may be said, do not afford the same 
degree of confidence and sense of security that is in- 
herent in the vertical stanchion, which offers a firm 
hand hold to invite passengers to approach the exit 
door while the car is still in motion. The tendency in 
this direction is displayed even in surface-car design, 
as most of the new center-entrance types have stanch- 
ions near the door rather than hand straps along the 
aisle. 

With the arrangement of doors and seats is involved 
to a considerable extent the matter of framing, because 
when the doors are placed in the sides of the car be- 
tween bolsters it is, of course, necessary to provide 
means for carrying the load strains across the door 
openings. Some form of truss-type side framing is 
becoming the rule in the present-day car. By carrying 
the load upon the side-framing of the car, which acts 
as a truss, the weight of the structure is minimized' 
and the cost of maintenance is very greatly reduced. 
When the entire car body, including sills, side frame 
and roof, acts as a whole in developing the structural 
strength of the car to support the load, there will be a 
notable reduction in weight of structure and a very 
desirable stiffness will be secured. 

In the day of wooden cars the type of framing which 
included a heavy supporting structure below the car 
floor and a light roof above it was permissible because 
the wood had sufficient inherent elasticity to permit 
considerable deflection without destructive motion at 
the joints. This is not the case with steel. 

A seating and door arrangement as outlined above 
naturally obviates any necessity for vestibules at the 
ends of the car, the units at the ends having their side- 
doors located near the bolsters, with provision as re- 
quired for a motorman's cab. For cars which have to 
operate in the open, as on an elevated structure, in dis- 
tinction from a subway, the closed vestibule has a cer- 
tain value as an aid in keeping the car warm in cold 
weather. In many cases, however, the loss in seating 
capacity will overbalance any advantage gained in this 
way. 

With regard to car flooring, it may be said that the- 
present state of the art of car design takes full cog- 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



17 



nizance of all sanitary considerations. Non-absorbent 
material for car floorings and non-corrugated surfaces 
are the rule, and every effort is made to avoid abrupt 
changes in outline which might form pockets for col- 
lecting dirt. Such fundamental considerations are im- 
posed by the desire for improved appearance as well 
as to reduce the cost of car cleaning. The actual mate- 
rials used for the floors of rapid transit cars are of 
various compositions, of a cement-like nature, applied 
upon a metal sub-flooring. The surface can be re- 
duced during the process of setting to any desired de- 
gree of smoothness, although a high polish for a car 
floor, while greatly aiding in the work of cleaning, is 
obviously not desirable. All of the composition floor- 
ings in general use are of such a character that no 
slipping is likely to occur. Carborundum as an admix- 
ture has been tried as a means for producing an anti- 
slip tread together with increased life, but has been 
given up because it has been found that part of the 
carborundum ultimately became freed from the cement 
in which it was embedded, acting in the loose form as 
an abrasive of the floor itself. 

Car roofs are changing rapidly from the monitor- 
deck type with movable deck sash, which provided as 
much ventilation as was formerly considered necessary. 



To-day a great number of cars with plain arched and 
compound arched roofs are being constructed, although 
with the plain arch it is, of course, necessary to use 
some form of the projecting type of ventilator. Abun- 
dant ventilation is difficult of attainment in winter 
without a cooling effect upon the air in the car, so that 
it is interesting to note the recent experiments which 
demonstrate that agitation of the air in a closed com- 
partment eliminates much of the mental and physical 
effect of insufficient ventilation. It might be said that 
approved practice is for a car design such that ample 
ventilation can be secured even at the most congested 
periods, the amount of air actually admitted being mod- 
ified by shutters to suit the requirements of the periods 
of ordinary traffic. With regard to lighting, the in- 
troduction of the tungsten lamp has made indirect and 
semi-direct schemes of illumination at least a possi- 
bility, and much thought is being given to perfecting 
systems which avoid the unpleasant effect of the direct 
rays from high-power incandescent lamps. Many ex- 
periments are now being made to determine the com- 
mercial advantages of both indirect and semi-indirect 
lighting, and it is not impossible that the practice in 
lighting cars will be revolutionized within the next year 
or two. 



Street Railway Motor Control Systems 

By CLARENCE RENSHAW, Railway Engineering Department, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 



In the persistent search for operating economies 
which has become one of the important activities of 
most railway companies, the cost of power offers a 
shining mark. Unit costs of power, as a rule, afford 
little opportunity for economizing, but the amount con- 
sumed is usually susceptible to reduction. Decreased 
weight was the first means proposed for taking ad- 
vantage of this opportunity, and drastic requirements 
that apparatus must be light in weight are, on occasion, 
still written into the specifications of railway com- 
panies with this idea in mind. However, the fact that 
high service efficiency rather than mere reduction in 
weight is the real object to be sought is now being 
more generally recognized, and there is much less talk 
than formerly of the 5 cents per pound per year which 
reductions in weight are supposed to effect. On ac- 
count of this awakening to the true conditions, the ad- 
vantages of slow-speed motors and field control are re- 
ceiving more attention. 

A full year's service has now been obtained in vari- 
ous parts of the country with considerable numbers of 
field control equipments. These cover a wide range of 
sizes and have been operated under a variety of condi- 
tions, both in city and interurban service, and the re- 
sults have fully confirmed the claims made as to the 
importance of this innovation in railway engineering. 

In city service the combination in one equipment of 
the equivalent of a low-speed gearing for efficient ac- 
celeration with a high-speed gearing for free running, 
as secured by field control, results not only in economy 
of power but in many cases enables a smaller size of 
motor to be employed than otherwise would be neces- 
sary. 

In interurban service the effective action of this com- 
bination has permitted the more general employment 
of a common-standard equipment for both local and 
limited service. In one instance, on certain cars for 
fast limited service, a number of equipments of quad- 
ruple 125-hp non-field-control motors were replaced by 
quadruple 100-hp motors with field control. The new 
motors in this case were able not only to handle the 
limited service equally Well with the old, but on ac- 



count of the superior starting characteristics, due to 
the field control, were able also to operate local trains. 
This the larger motors had been unable to do. 

The results which have been secured with field con- 
trol and its adoption in New York, Brooklyn, Chicago, 
Indianapolis, Rochester, Elmira and other places as- 
sure its standing for city service. The use of nearly 
200 equipments by the Michigan United Traction Com- 
pany, Pacific Electric Railway, British Columbia Elec- 
tric Railway, Public Service Railway, Maryland Elec- 
tric Railways and others indorses its superiority for in- 
terurban service. 

One of the most noticeable points in the general 
control situation is the tendency to seek simplicity and 
reliability rather than refinements and to omit every 
piece of apparatus and all complicating features which 
are not absolutely necessary. This is evidenced in the 
line of drum control by the omission of the bridging 
feature from some of the latest forms of standard con- 
trollers. Instead of the bridging transition, a return 
has been made to the simpler shunting method, and this 
has been found entirely satisfactory for traction pur- 
poses. 

The large proportion of equipments which are now 
supplied with indirect or multiple-unit control has been 
due apparently to the production of equipments such 
as type "HL" in which the principle referred to above 
has been followed. In doing this many of the desirable 
but not absolutely necessary features which compli- 
cated former equipments have been rigorously excluded 
in the interest of simplicity and reliability. 

Although a number of equipments for the smaller 
sizes of motors have been installed, the general use of 
multiple-unit control has been confined largely to equip- 
ments of quadruple 40-hp or 50-hp motors or even 
larger. For such sizes its weight has been less, or at 
least no greater, than that of the corresponding drum- 
type equipment. The many advantages which this con- 
trol has shown in such applications have now led to the 
production of similar equipments for less powerful mo- 
tors, and in these the fundamental pieces of apparatus 
have been made smaller and lighter. This has been 



18 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



done without sacrificing the ruggedness and reliability 
of the larger type, and while the small multiple-unit- 
control equipments have not been on the market suffi- 
ciently long to have come into wide use, it seems prob- 
able that they will play a considerable part in extend- 
ing the use of train operation. 

An interesting innovation in the field of train con- 
trol has been the new type applied to the stepless cars 
of the New York Railways. In these equipments mul- 
tiple-unit operation has been obtained not by the use 
of power-operated switches or contactors but by the 
synchronous movement of drum-type controllers on the 
various cars in a train by pneumatically operated driv- 
ing heads. This arrangement is a return to the same 
general principle in use on the earlier types of equip- 
ments of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. As 
compared with these early types, however, the mechan- 
ism of the new equipment has been greatly simplified. 
Just what place it will assume in the general scheme 
of railway control it is, as yet, too early to predict. 
It offers, however, many interesting possibilities. 

In view of the general effort which is being made 
to improve the service to the public, it is not surprising 
that train operation has been discussed more actively, 



perhaps, than any other single subject. Comprehen- 
sive tests in city service made by one large company 
have shown conclusively that, when operated in a train, 
two cars could clear a congested crossing in 80 per cent 
of the time required when operated singly. This means 
that under some conditions 25 per cent more cars can 
be operated during rush hours. The tests also seemed 
to indicate that many other advantages could be 
secured. 

In theory, at least, the use of the multiple-unit train 
for interurban service has generally been indorsed 
without question. On account of the simple and reliable 
character of the apparatus now available few equip- 
ments are being sold for such service which do not pro- 
vide for train control. Even for strictly city service, 
cars are being equipped with it in many cases, regard- 
less of whether train operation is contemplated im- 
mediately or not. This is shown by the latest orders 
from Boston, Brooklyn, New York and elsewhere, and 
the fact that control of the multiple-unit type was 
furnished with over 40 per cent of the total number 
of railway equipments sold by one of the large manu- 
facturers during the year is an even stronger indica- 
tion of the tendency of the times. 



The Manufacturer and the Industry 

By GUY E. TRIPP, Chairman Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 



As the electric railway industry is generally described 
it includes only the companies directly conducting elec- 
tric railway operation. There is, however, a larger 
electric railway industry which is much greater in the 
number of its employees and the totals of its investment 
responsibilities than the statistics shown by the electric 
railway companies alone. In this larger industry the 
manufacturers of electric railway apparatus have an 
important place. They are part of the great body of 
people of this country that in whole or in part are de- 
pendent directly or indirectly upon the prosperity of the 
electric railway industry. The prosperity of electric 
railways affects them just as surely as it does the fami- 
lies of employees of electric railways and holders of 
stock and bonds of the railways. The manufacturers, 
as large employers, have a responsibility for the suc- 
cess of their own properties and for the welfare of their 
employees and the families dependent upon them. They 
cannot discharge this responsibility properly without 
doing what they can to make the consuming part of the 
electric railway industry prosperous and to keep it in 
that condition. 

The bond between the manufacturer and the railway 
is necessarily much closer than that of the ordinary 
seller and buyer in many walks of life. It should be a 
co-operative relation. If in the past this co-operative 
relation has not been as close as it ought to have been, 
there is every reason why we should make a fresh start 
and have it well defined and developed in the future. 
The electric railway cannot solve its problems alone. 
It needs the help of friends. It needs to have voices 
raised not only in its defence but in its praise where 
praise is due. Manufacturers understand the problems 
of the electric railway company. They have helped to 
solve many of them. To the extent that they have done 
so they have indirectly helped their own business. To 
the extent that they have failed to do so they have in- 
directly hurt their own business. 

Manufacturers have used their best efforts and the 
efficiency of their organizations in order to solve 
mechanical problems confronting electric railways. At 
present the chief problems of the railways are not 
mechanical in nature. They are more serious. They 



are partly financial but more largely of the nature of 
public relations. If the manufacturers could apply the 
same energy and ability to aiding in the settlement of 
the public relations problems of their customers that 
they have in settling the mechanical problems, they 
would help to turn the current of public opinion. It 
is not so easy for the manufacturers to do this as to 
study and settle the problems they find within their 
own establishments, but it is a task that they have no 
right to ignore. They make up a large and influential 
element of the community and their views on public 
questions concerning the railways will be heard with 
respect. 

The duty of the manufacturers, then, should be to 
do what they can to create a favorable sentiment on 
the part of the public toward the electric railways. 
They can help to explain what the railways are trying 
to do and why it is necessary for them to have adequate 
earnings in order that they may provide such enlarge- 
ments of facilities as are constantly needed in a grow- 
ing community. They can help to show what the rail- 
way will do if it is permitted to have the prosperity 
which it needs in order to attract investors to its securi- 
ties. 

The manufacturers have so intimate a knowledge of 
the affairs of most of the companies with which they 
come in contact that they may be able in some cases to 
give advice as to ways and means of solving the prob- 
lems that create the present unrest in relations with 
the public. I believe that executives of the railway 
companies will find the great body of the manufactur- 
ers sincerely anxious to do all that they can to promote 
the welfare of the industry. If the manufacturers 
who are especially familiar with railway conditions 
are asked individually to point out conditions which 
in their judgment might be remedied in the interest of 
a better understanding of railway affairs, they will be 
glad to comply. This is a part of the service that the 
manufacturer ought to render the railway. Serving 
and speaking from the outside, he can often do for the 
railway company what it cannot do for itself. In so 
doing he promotes the stability of the industry and thus 
promotes the stability of his own business. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



19 



> The Manufacturer's Relation to the Industry 

By CORNELL S. HAWLEY, President of the American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Association 



The manufacturers of electric railway equipment and 
material are among the best friends of the industry. 
They occupy a vantage point from which the work of 
the transportation companies is far better understood 
than when viewed by the man in the street or by the 
ordinary passenger on the cars. Many of the manu- 
facturers' representatives are technically trained men; 
others formerly were engaged in operating work or 
some branch of electric railway activity closely related 
to their present business connections, and few em- 
ployees of traction companies better appreciate the 
conditions under which the service is conducted. All 
this means that when unfair or uninformed criticisms 
are raised in the hearing of the manufacturer or his 
alert representative the railway company's side of the 
case is often quietly but effectively put forth, hasty 
opinions being discarded and a measure at least of un- 
derstanding being inculcated regarding the obstacles 
which the electric transportation system is constantly 
trying to overcome. In guiding public sentiment into 
the channel of truth the manufacturers of the country 
are not only helping their customers to obtain the 
"square deal," but they are indirectly putting their own 
industry upon a sounder foundation. 

On the engineering side the interests of the manu- 
facturers and the operating companies are constantly 
growing closer. The former are earnestly striving to 
eliminate equipment defects and are naturally very 
much alive to possible improvements brought to their 
attention by operating or other railway officers. The 
thorough study given in many cases by manufacturers 
when new or modified equipment is placed in service is 
not always realized, but it is frequently true that the 
detection of minor difficulties during service "try-outs" 
is brought about as a result of a patient and inconspicu- 
ous program of investigation which now and then 



keeps a man traveling about on a road for weeks and 
even months after the apparatus has been delivered. 
When research work is undertaken at the initiative of 
the railways, the manufacturers practically without ex- 
ception are glad to co-operate in the undertaking, real- 
izing that whatever benefits the operating companies in 
the long run is good for themselves. Progress in de- 
sign and construction of equipment depend largely upon 
the freedom with which the apparatus user makes his 
desires known to the manufacturer, but the latter is 
doing a large amount of original work which is of value 
to the industry as a whole, based simply upon his 
observation and that of his representatives in the try- 
ing domain of practical service. 

The manufacturers are co-operating along broader 
lines, also, as illustrated in the coast-to-coast trip with 
representatives of the American Electric Railway As- 
sociation in 1912. The good results of this trip, which 
contributed to bring about better public relations every- 
where between public utilities and the inhabitants of 
their respective territories, are due to both branches of 
the industry's greatest organization. More advanced 
standards of equipment are sought, with correspond- 
ingly better service plans as an outcome of this co- 
operative work. It was an excellent thing for local 
boards of trade and other business organizations to see 
the unanimity of purpose among all the interests rep- 
resented on this trip and to realize that the railways 
and the equipment shops are mutually related in their 
general views as well as in the roles of buyers and sell- 
ers. In brief, the Manufacturers' Association and all 
its individual members stand in somewhat the same re- 
lation to the electric railways and the public as the 
Railway Business Association does in the steam rail- 
road field, and will not be found wanting whenever the 
need for real co-operation arises. 



Municipal Ownership Versus Private Enterprise 

By EVERETT W. BURDETT, General Counsel of the National Electric Light Association, Boston, Mass. 



In the operation of public utilities there are two 
extremes to be avoided. The first is the exploitation 
of public services by irresponsible and unchecked pri- 
vate enterprises, left unrestricted as to the methods 
they employ, the service they give or the rates they 
exact. The selfishness and cupidity of men is such 
that they cannot generally be trusted to promote or 
even regard the rights of others in connection with 
their endeavors to promote their own interests. To 
give to private bankers or promoters a free rein in 
the capitalization of agencies for public service and 
in the exaction of the rates thereby made necessary 
for such service as they see fit to give is to make the 
interests of the public entirely subservient to those 
of private persons. It cannot now be tolerated, al- 
though it has not been long since that condition pre- 
vailed in this country. And it was largely, perhaps 
principally, because of that fact that the movement 
for municipal ownership and operation of public util- 
ity agencies acquired its greatest momentum here. 

No such condition now exists, and therefore no such 
basis can now be claimed for the establishment of 
municipally owned and operated public services. 

The other extreme condition to be avoided is that 
of municipal ownership. While this is open to none 
of the objections attaching to unrestrained, and unreg- 
ulated private enterprise, it involves difficulties and 



disasters all its own. Good public service is one 
which not only adequately meets present necessities 
but has an eye to the future, and it grows and expands 
and improves with the increases of the demands laid 
upon it. Such a live, progressive, expanding and ever 
out-reaching policy can rest upon only one foundation 
■ — individual initiative and enterprise. Men must have 
some reward in sight to excite their best efforts and 
achieve the best results. Bureaucracy never invents, 
initiates or expands in business matters. In the na- 
ture of things it cannot achieve the best results, be- 
cause it lacks the incentive to bring them about. It 
has no interest it must earn, no dividends to pay, no 
salaries to raise. In municipal work it is the position,, 
not the man, which fixes the compensation. In private 
enterprise it is the position and the man which deter- 
mine the compensation. And it is not stagnant or 
stationary. The manager who is engaged at $5,000 a 
year may be found to be easily worth twice or thrice 
that sum. And if he is, he gets it; because if one pri- 
vate enterprise will not pay him what he is worth 
another will. The great difficulty is to find the men— 
not to fix or pay their salaries. 

There is a middle course between the two extremes 
which have been mentioned, which best solves the 
problem under the conditions existing in this country. 
It is the employment of private capital under private 



20 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



management but subject to such restrictions and reg- 
ulations as may be imposed in the public interest. 
This course preserves the advantages of private en- 
terprise and prevents the abuses which the unre- 
stricted exploitation of private business is almost cer- 
tain to create. It avoids the stagnation and lack of 
initiative which make the results of municipal opera- 
tion so unsatisfactory and yet safeguards the inter- 
ests of the public in the only particulars in which the 
public is legitimately interested — namely, in the qual- 
ity and adequacy of service and in the rates exacted 
for it. Fortunately, this is the principle which has 
now been accepted nearly everywhere in this country, 
the practical application of which will (or ought to) 
deprive the theory of municipal ownership of the ad- 
vocacy of all intelligent persons not bent on the ap- 
plication of a theory without reference to its results. 
Of course, the latter kind of people will follow their 
theory, right or wrong, and no effort need be wasted 
to convince them of the practical fallacy inherent in 
their ideas. 

I am not saying that municipal ownership and op- 
eration cannot succeed under bureaucratic conditions. 
I think it does succeed under such conditions in Ger- 
many and measurably in Great Britain, although it is 
attended with results to private enterprise and initia- 
tive which are most unfortunate, especially in Great 
Britain. But, assuming all one pleases in favor of 



municipal enterprises in those countries, it is no argu- 
ment for the trial of the experiment in the United 
States. The conditions are so totally different in the 
different countries that no conclusive argument cam 
be drawn from one to the other. The burgomaster of 
a German city is an expert on municipal problems 
and administration, obtained wherever he can be> 
found, just as a railroad president is in this country.. 
He is surrounded by other experts, and so far as. he 
is controlled by the popular voice at all, it is through 
a municipal council chosen principally by the tax- 
paying members of the electorate. 

In Great Britain the scheme of municipal adminis- 
tration is entirely unlike that in Germany, but it has 
peculiarities of its own which are highly calculated 
to produce good results. Space does not here permit 
of even the briefest analysis of these conditions, in- 
teresting as it might be. 

Suffice it to say that neither the German nor the 
British methods or ideals prevail in this country, and 
— what is more important — they cannot be made to 
prevail here until there has been a radical and com- 
plete change both in our theories respecting municipal 
activities and in the methods of working out those 
theories in practice. That day, alas ! is far away. 
Until it comes, if it ever does, the wise thing to do Is 
to accept and promote publicly regulated private en- 
terprise. 



The Advantages to the Public of Centralized Management of 

Public Utilities 

By EDWIN S. WEBSTER, Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass. 



A great deal has been said in regard to the ad- 
vantages to the investor of centralized management in 
public utilities. A phase of the question which is not 
so well understood is the benefits which are enjoyed 
by the general public through this plan of operation. 
They are equal to those derived by the stockholders, 
if, indeed, they are not of greater magnitude. 

The first benefit which we might consider is that 
which results from expert ability in engineering and 
management. A centralized organization, while re- 
taining the best features of local administration, per- 
mits the local railway company or lighting company, 
•>s the case may be, to utilize the technical experience 
of the home office and the services of a corps of engi- 
neers, operating men and accountants in a way im- 
possible to a single and isolated property. The econo- 
mies of construction and operation in this manner en- 
able the local company to render a better service for 
a given price than would otherwise be possible. To 
refer to the question of engineering only. A great 
deal depends upon proper engineering in these days 
of rapid technical progress, not only as regards the 
financial success of the enterprise but in the safe- 
guarding of the public against the installation of 
unsuitable types of apparatus and the use of equip- 
ment of uncertain reliability and of doubtful efficiency. 
The same is true in regard to the business manage- 
ment of the affairs of the company. The past con- 
tains too many examples of properties built where the 
demand for service was insufficient to warrant the in- 
vestment, of existing properties unwisely extended 
and developed, of defective bookkeeping methods and 
consequent failure to appreciate the real financial 
conditions, of inadequate provision for maintenance 
and physical renewal. Faults of judgment like these, 
if they impair the ability of the company to give 
proper service or make necessary extensions, are no 
less serious to the community than to the company. 



Again, no more important service is rendered in 
consolidated management than the handling of the 
securities which are usually placed in its charge. In 
this connection a large organization with important 
banking and financial relations throughout the con- 
tinent can do a great deal in broadening the market 
for such securities, in distributing information to 
bankers, institutions and investors, and in providing a 
recognized channel through which individual pur- 
chasers and sellers may be brought together. Here, 
again, the advantage to the public is as great as that 
to the company because if it is unable through in- 
ability to raise capital to keep pace with the demands 
for service, the public interests suffer. It is not too 
much to say that there are many towns in this country 
enjoying electric light and power as well as railway 
service which would have been without these con- 
veniences if it had not been for the activities and 
enterprise of those managing a group of such proper- 
ties. 

A consolidated management with large financial re- 
sources can afford to build for the future and provide 
a larger and better service than a purely local man- 
agement. This is partly because it can obtain the 
necessary capital more easily and partly because 
through its greater facilities for analyzing the tech- 
nical and business conditions surrounding enterprises 
of this kind it can determine where extensions will 
be profitable and can act promptly upon such con- 
clusions. Few isolated companies are in as good a 
position to make these decisions or to take as favor- 
able advantage of the conditions in the material and 
equipment market as the centralized organization to 
which such action is a matter of daily experience. 

It is sometimes maintained that the cost of cen- 
tralized management is an obstacle to its adoption, 
but experience has shown that the increased financial 
stability resulting, the conservative yet healthy de- 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL I •* 21 



| > <• 3 | 



JANUAKY 3, 1914.] 

velopment encouraged, the savings in running ex- 
penses frequently effected and the economy brought 
about in the application of capital to the needs of the 
property are worth far more than the moderate per- 
centage of revenue which represents the compensa- 
tion of the administering organization. The larger the 
property, the less this percentage should be, since the 
cost of management does not increase in proportion 
to the gross volume of business. Neither can the 
tendency apparent in some industries toward decen- 
tralization be urged as an argument against the 



consolidated management of public utility companies. 

This kind of management does not exist for the 
purpose of monopoly or to acquire one property for 
the sake of its effect on another. It is not even neces- 
sary that the ownership in the different properties 
managed be the same. Frequently different properties 
under central management are quite separate and dis- 
tinct in their operation, ownership and finances, and 
the benefits that accrue are those that apply in other 
cases where things are done in a large way by those 
who have the training and experience to do them well. 



Is Regulation by Commission a Permanent Part of Our 

Economic Scheme ? 

By J. D. MORTIMER, Vice-President the North American Company 



The recollection of the attempt in the seventies by 
granger legislatures to regulate railroad rates and 
operation, its failure and its subsequent revival through 
the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
and state railroad and public service commissions 
naturally lead us to examine the causes of the present 
movement and inquire as to whether there is reason 
to expect any cyclic changes in this present popular 
economic principle. This inquiry may further be justi- 
fied by the murmur of discontent that is heard at in- 
tervals, arising from other cults, when a commission's 
decision does not satisfy the supposed popular appetite 
or when the expense of sustaining commissions is 
brought into sharp relief with the apparent results 
achieved. 

The popular economic theory upon which public util- 
ity laws are based is that the utilities are enjoying 
valuable franchises granted by the people for which the 
latter receive nothing compared with the values given, 
while the corporations are earning large dividends on 
franchises by charging exorbitant rates or overcrowd- 
ing the straphangers. In point of fact, the only bases 
upon which regulation can be justified are: 

(a) That rates of charge for service shall be based 
on the cost of production, and the minimum produc- 
tion costs and lowest rates can be obtained only with 
maximum output and density of business, that is, 
through monopolistic production ; but monopolistic pro- 
duction is detrimental to the interests of the public, 
unless owned or controlled by the state. 

(b) That the services rendered by public utilities 
are necessary for the maintenance of the present system 
of distribution and mode of living of the people ; that is, 
they are of the same general nature as streets, parks, 
police protection, tribunals of justice, etc., and as such 
so seriously affect the social welfare of every being 
that they must be placed at the disposal of each under 
like conditions and be subjected to special treatment in 
law to attain this end, pending the actual merger into 
the general functions of the state. ] 

The knowledge that rates in turn depend upon re- 
quirements in the way of service caused the framers 
of the public utility laws to vest in the regulating com- 
missions some control over service rendered by the 
utilities, and the belief that rates might in some way be 
affected by the issue of capital obligations or tend to 
impair the ability of the utility to perform its public 
duty led to the control of new issues of securities. In 
the desire to control rates, the theory of a regulated 
monopoly has in large part been recognized, and most 
statutes give to the commissions power to determine 
whether there should be monopoly or competition. 

Concurrently with the development of the theories of 
regulation and their enactment into laws or their ap- 



pearance in decisions, a school of municipal govern- 
ment has been developing the principles of municipal 
"home rule." The demand for "home rule" comes from 
those most strongly supporting initiative and referen- 
dum and principally from the largest urban centers of 
the state. They express a dislike of having the country- 
folk legislators frame the general laws for their metro- 
politan cities. The growing concentration of population 
in the larger cities does not make it appear that the 
"home rule" movement is being opposed by many strong 
natural economic forces. 

In the ultimate development of "home rule" powers, 
there is necessarily a sharp conflict as to where the con- 
trol of municipal public utilities shall lie. Thus there 
appears to be a movement which, if continued, may re- 
sult in breaking down in places the principles upon 
which state-wide regulation is now being prosecuted. 
The municipal control of public utilities would bring 
with it a return to the politics of the past, and much 
harm may arise from ignorance and impelling political 
motives on the part of the electric regulators, be they 
commissioners or aldermen. 

On the other hand, the more thoughtful students and 
people of every urban community appreciate the fact 
that few municipalities are so organized in the way of 
government that the same can be said to be other than 
most inefficient. The more general recognition of this 
fact has brought forth many suggestions, the most 
promising of which in theory proposes the conduct of 
municipal affairs along lines which would guide any 
well-organized business. 

Although experience may develop isolated instances 
where successful municipal government will from time 
to time obtain, it is unsafe to predict that the adminis- 
tration of municipalities can be placed on a business 
basis so long as the personnel of the municipal govern- 
ment is in large part determined by popular suffrage. 
However, with an increasing efficiency of government, 
ii: ; is not unreasonable to expect a lessened desire on the 
part of municipal officials to regulate privately owned 
utilities. Should these very marked improvements in 
municipal government come to pass, the day of munici- 
pal ownership and operation of public utilities will 
probably draw nearer. In the advent of general mu- 
nicipal ownership, state regulation would be almost 
entirely excluded from the cities, unless it were vested 
with new functions not now developed. 

The economic principles underlying the theory of 
vesting in the state the right to regulate public utili- 
ties have not been completely developed or adequately 
recognized. With the more complete recognition of 
these principles there will be changes in the theory of 
law, and there will naturally follow changes in the law 
itself. That there will be different schools of economics, 



22 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



with different resulting theories and consequently varia- 
tions in the principles of law, seems certain, but in the 
long run and to the extent that regulation becomes a 
part of our permanent economic scheme, there will be 
a stronger association of legal responsibility and 
authority that is or may be administrative in its nature. 
The lack of responsibility and absence of any real 
sobering influence on the individual members of regu- 
lating commissions are serious defects in the economic 
structure of regulation. While time works changes and 
mistakes eventually produce competent commissioners, 
the general knowledge of these facts does not seem to 
prevent each new commissioner from undertaking his 
office in the firm conviction that he has been specially 
chosen to right in one year all the imagined wrongs of 
eons gone by. 

In developing the economic structure it seems desir- 
able that the laws should give to the regulating body all 
the authority necessary to perform all the acts required 
in the complete scheme. That this authority will come 
in time, no one can, with any certainty, deny, and until 
this condition does obtain, regulation will not have a 
fair trial as the panacea for the ills it is hoped to cor- 
rect thereby. And if with increased authority there 
comes a feeling of responsibility, what may now seem to 
some as the worst that could possibly happen may, in 
this event, prove to be the best. 

Commissions in determining their courses of action 
naturally, in many cases, are influenced by conflicting 
emotions. On the one hand, they may fear popular 
clamor in case of a decision adverse to the end sought 
in the name of the people, and on the other hand they 
are often impressed with the necessity of preserving 
the integrity of the capital invested in the utility under 
review. While commissions must be guided by the laws 
granting them their powers, most of the problems pre- 
sented to them cannot be solved by reference to the 
present statutes but require consideration and recog- 
nition of many other factors and usually the exercise of 
broad judgment. This permits widely different de- 
cisions under substantially similar sets of facts and 
conditions, varying with the mental attitude and capac- 
ity of the individual commissioners. That an attempt 
will be made to make more definite the principles of law 
governing commissions seems certain, if regulation by 
commission is to be long continued. 

A regulating commission to perform its functions 



requires a rather extensive staff and office organization. 
The annual cost may vary from a few thousand dollars 
to in excess of $1,000,000, depending upon the scope of 
the work undertaken by the commission. 

It is true that in almost every state there has been a 
rapid increase in the state tax burden. While this is in 
part due to expenditures which naturally fall within the 
scope of the old-time activities of the state, it seems cer- 
tain that important increases have come through the 
recent multiplication of the functions of the state gov- 
ernment. Most of these newer functions were begun in 
the anticipation that they would be self-supporting, but 
from various causes such has not proved to be the case. 
Among these functions assumed by the state and calling 
for support by taxes is that of regulation of the public 
utilities. 

There are many people who, in these days of declining 
purchasing power of money, seriously complain of in- 
creased taxes and are prone to question whether these 
new state functions are attaining the end which at first 
seemed to justify their undertaking. It is not improb- 
able that in many states reform administrations will 
seriously curtail the activities of the regulating com- 
missions by reducing the appropriations for their opera- 
tion. With decreased activity and the lengthening of 
the time required to reach decisions on complaints, 
there will be an increase in the dissatisfaction with 
this branch of government. Whether this will result 
in the enactment of radically different legislation de- 
pends upon the circumstances that obtain in the par- 
ticular case. In fact, it seems probable that all these 
various forces are self-corrective in the long run and 
an extreme tendency either of the law or the practice of 
regulation will subsequently be followed by a reversion 
to conservatism as the apparent need therefor de- 
velops. 

After the foregoing review of the causes leading to 
the enactment of laws, providing for the regulation of 
public utilities and an examination of the popular forces 
which are working for and against the continuation of 
these laws it seems a reasonable conclusion that, while 
regulation may form a part of our permanent economic 
scheme, it will be subject to cyclic changes, either in 
law or practice, arising from requirements for political 
issues and from forces which cannot be controlled but 
must be permitted to expend their energy or otherwise 
prove self-corrective. 



Management by Large Operators 

By ARTHUR ST. GEORGE JOYCE, E. W. Clark & Company 



There are many reasons why the management of pub- 
lic utilities on a large scale brings about economy in 
operation and better service. 

Large operators in any line of business can usually 
do everything a little better and a little cheaper than 
small operators, and this is particularly true of such ' 
public utilities as electric railway, light and power 
companies. 

In the first place money must be raised, and here 
large firms constantly in touch with the market have 
great advantages. They know exactly how and when to 
finance any proposition and through their high stand- 
ing can secure money at lower rates of interest than 
would be possible for a local concern. This question of 
raising money is of particular importance in the public 
utility business, because the investment and conse- 
quently the interest charges are so great in comparison 
to gross earnings. The development of water-powers 
frequently depends primarily on the rates which must 
be paid for money, and this is true to a less extent in 
other branches of the business. 



When the money has been raised, large operators turn 
the work over to their own construction departments. 
On account of their wide experience all over the coun- 
try, they are able to do any kind of construction much 
better and more economically than it could be handled 
locally. 

; By purchasing in the wholesale markets the materials 
needed by all their companies for either construction or 
operation the very lowest prices are obtained, which in 
the aggregate produce a large saving. In this way the 
individual companies have the advantage of the best 
materials at bottom prices. 

In operation the large scale of doing business makes 
it possible to secure and hold the very best managers 
and engineers for the benefit of the various properties. 
In legal matters, also, large operators have advantages 
for they are able to secure the services of attorneys of 
the widest experience in many states. Just at the pres- 
ent time, for instance, this is of special advantage in 
connection with rate and valuation cases before pub- 
lic utility commissions. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



23 



Where the properties are in the same general region 
or are simply a consolidation of street railway and elec- 
tric light companies, additional saving can be made 
through the construction of a large central power sta- 
tion. Such a plant is generally cheaper to construct 
per kilowatt of capacity and also requires a smaller pro- 
portion of reserve than would be necessary in a number 
of local stations. Then, of course, the operating ex- 
penses per kilowatt-hour would be decreased. If the 
properties are in the same locality, the system can be 
tied together with transmission lines and the old power 



stations may then be shut down entirely or used only 
for reserve. 

Greater efficiency in transmission of electrical power 
is resulting all over the country in the development of 
large water-power plants and steam stations, which sup- 
ply the electrical requirements within a very wide 
radius. 

There are many other ways in which the large opera- 
tor can make economies, which at the same time im- 
prove service and leave a reasonable return for stock- 
holders. 



Public Relations 

By FRANK W. ROLLINS, of E. H. Rollins & Sons, Boston, Mass. 



The serious situation which confronts the rail- 
ways of this country at present is due to two primary 
causes— constantly rising cost of operation in the face 
of a fixed fare unit and a one-sided regulation. The 
latter makes it extremely difficult for properties to 
charge an adequate price for the service rendered, and 
the public demands the best possible facilities with 
little appreciation of their real cost. Unless the trans- 
portation industry is permitted to readjust its rates 
and schedules to meet present conditions, it appears 
that government ownership, with all its possibilities of 
inefficiency and demoralization of initiative, will be the 
only outcome. 

I do not believe in public ownership except in the 



case of such enterprises as water-works and sewers, 
and in common with many other observers of industrial 
conditions in the United States, I look to a wise pub- 
licity on the part of the burdened railways as the 
"way out" of the present unsatisfactory situation. 
Certainly it is not unreasonable to ask for rates which 
will enable the best service to be rendered, pay its 
entire cost of operation and fixed charges, and include 
a fair dividend of say 6 per cent upon the investment. 
The good sense of the American people ought to respond 
to a clear presentation of the street railway's case and 
enable the industry to push forward to a larger useful- 
ness and a more enduring reward for its broadened 
services to civilization. 



The Holding Company — Its Advantages and Disadvantages 

By FRANK R. FORD, of Ford, Bacon & Davis, Consulting Engineers, New York 



The holding company to-day is politically and popu- 
larly under suspicion. It is not so much a question as to 
whether its field of activities will be enlarged as whether 
it will survive the present attack and continue as a part 
of the economic machine. Therefore it is of interest to 
consider the extent that this corporate device has been 
used in the electric railway industry and to weigh its 
advantages and disadvantages from the standpoints of 
both the public and the share owners. 

The development of the holding company as applied 
to electric railways took place largely in the decade from 
1895 to 1905, following immediately the period of elec- 
trification of horse car lines and during the period of 
rapid financial development of these properties. 

Among other public utilities the great development 
of the holding company within the past six or eight 
years has been in the lighting and power field, during 
which time electric railways have been considered either 
as a positive disadvantage to holding companies formed 
mainly to acquire lighting or power companies or have 
been taken in under sufferance because already con- 
solidated with lighting companies. 

Consequently, the electric railway holding company of 
to-day is usually of a more settled character than the 
newer public utility holding company, and while its diffi- 
culties are more evident, it may be only because they 
are better understood. 

STATISTICS OP ELECTRIC RAILWAY HOLDING COMPANIES 

As far as the limitations of published reports render 
it possible, information has been obtained of the electric 
railway companies of the United States concerning their 
relationship to holding companies. As of June 30, 1912, 
or Dec. 31, 1912, there were 951 companies operat- 
ing 41,754 miles of track. Of this total 27.1 per cent, 
which operated 49.5 per cent of the mileage, were con- 
trolled by holding companies. The tabulation of operat- 
ing companies is summarized as follows: 



Table I. — Proportion of Operating Electric Railway Companies 
Held or Independent 
Number of 
Operating Per Cent 
Companies of Total 



Held operating companies. 
Ind. operating companies. 



257 
694 



Total 951 



27.1 
72.9 



100 



Miles of Per Cent 
Track of Total 



20,717 
21,037 

41,754 



49.5 
50.5 



100 



In the following statistics a holding company is con- 
sidered as one which does not of itself operate a rail- 
way but has control of one or more operating companies 
through the medium of stock ownership. If such con- 
trol is also through a lease, the lessee company is con- 
sidered as an operating company. In cases where the 
operating company controls another operating company 
through ownership of stock the former is considered 
as an operating company. Elevated railways, subways 
and interurban electric railways are included. Elec- 
trified steam railroad mileage is omitted, but electric 
railway companies controlled by steam railroad com- 
panies are included. 

KINDS AND DEGREES OF CONTROL 

The character of the holding organization may be 
subdivided into: 

1. Incorporated holding companies. 

2. Steam railroads. 

3. Voluntary associations or trusts. 

4. Management associations. 

The first class is further differentiated into (a) hold- 
ing companies controlling one connected operating sys- 
tem of electric railways, even though a number of other 
kinds of business in the same place or in other places 
are also controlled, and (b) holding companies con- 
trolling more than one separate operating electric rail- 
way system, these being generally located in several 
states. These two classes are referred to as holding 
companies controlling single systems and holding com- 
panies controlling two or more systems. 



24 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



The steam railroads referred to control in some in- 
stances one company and in others more than one. In 
the case of one operating electric railway company at 
least there is a joint control by two railroads. 

The voluntary associations are almost entirely the 
Massachusetts form of trust, managed by trustees and 
issuing certificates of ownership in the securities con- 
trolled by them. 

Management associations denote those banking or en- 
gineering firms, corporations or organizations holding 
either directly or indirectly through affiliated companies 
a stock control of the subsidiary operating companies. 
In some cases such control may be only through manage- 
ment contracts. In many instances the method or extent 
of such control is not contained in published reports 
and undoubtedly a number of cases of such control are 
not included as they are not evidenced by public records. 

A summary of these various kinds of control is as 
follows: 



Table II — Kinds op Control 

Number of 
Primary 
Holding 

Character of Holding Concern Concerns 

Incorporated holding companies (single system) 60 

Incorporated holding companies (two or more systems) .... 27 

Steam railroads 10 

Voluntary associations or trusts 9 

Management associations 10 

Total holding concerns 116 



In many instances the holding company whose secur- 
ities are owned by the public controls the operating 
electric railway company through one or through sev- 
eral holding companies in succession, and in some cases 
the succession of control is from a holding company 
through an operating company to one or more operat- 
ing companies. These degrees of control are shown in 
the following table: 



Table III — Degrees of Control 



Degree Number of Concerns Total 

First 66 holding companies 66 

Second 35 holding companies 

153 operating companies 188 

Third 14 holding companies 

76 operating companies 90 

Fourth 1 holding company 

21 operating companies 22 

Fifth 6 operating companies 6 

Sixth 1 operating company 1 

Total 116 holding companies 

257 operating companies 373 



Explaining the figures given in Table III and the 
various degrees of control, it may be stated that the 
sixty-six primary holding concerns control thirty-five 
underlying holding companies and 153 operating com- 
panies, or a total of 188 companies. Part of these com- 
panies in turn control fourteen holding companies and 
seventy-six operating companies, or a total of ninety. 
Part of these in turn control one holding company and 
twenty-one operating companies, or a total of twenty- 
two. Some of these in turn control six operating com- 
panies, and one of these in turn controls one separate 
operating company. There is, therefore, one operating 
company which is five degrees removed from the pri- 
mary holding company, while there are, as shown, a 
number of operating companies or holding companies 
that are several degrees removed from the primary 
holding company which controls them directly or in- 
directly. 

CENSUS STATISTICS 

Unfortunately the United States "Census of Electric 
Railways" for 1912 has not yet been published, as doubt- 
less it will contain reliable information and statistics on 
the subject of the holding company. 

The 1907 "Census of Street and Electric Railways" 
reported upon seventy financing or holding companies 
having a total capitalization outstanding of $954,695,- 



373, but these figures and the few details published were 
not complete. 

STATE OF INCORPORATION 

The three most popular states of incorporation of 
the holding company are New Jersey, Maine and Dela- 
ware, these comprising over one-half of the incorporated 
holding companies. The following table gives the state 
of incorporation of various holding organizations, in- 
cluding not only the sixty-six primary holding concerns 
but also holding companies of the other degrees of con- 
trol shown in Table III. The state containing the prin- 
cipal office of the management firm or association is 
given in some instances instead of the place of incor- 
poration. 

It is of interest to note that two of the holding com- 
panies are incorporated in Canada, although, as stated, 
the operating electric railway company in each case is 
located in the United States. 



Table IV — State of Incorporation op Holding Concerns 
Incorporated 
Holding Com- 
panies Controlling Manage- 
Two or Steam Voluntary ment 

More Single Rail- Associ- Associ- 



States Systems System roads ations ations Total 

New Jersey 9 11 . . . . . . 20 

New York 4 3 2 . . 5 14 

Massachusetts 2 1 8 2 13 

Maine 3 9 . . . . . . 12 

Delaware 2 9 . . . . . . 11 

Pennsylvania 1 3 2 .. 1 7 

Illinois 1 2 .. 1 2 6 

Connecticut 2 1 1 .. .. 4 

California 4 . . . . . . 4 

Virginia 1 2 .. .. .. 3 

Colorado 1 1 .. .. .. 2 

Indiana 2 . . . . . . 2 

New Hampshire. ...1 1 .. .. .. 2 

Georgia 1 . . . . . . 1 

Kansas 1 . . . . . . 1 

Louisiana 1 . . . . . . 1 

Montana 1 . . . . . . 1 

North Carolina 1 . . . . . . 1 

Ohio 1 . . . . . . . . 1 

Texas 1 . . . . . . 1 

West Virginia 1 . . . . . . 1 

Wisconsin . . 1 . . . . 1 

Kentucky 1 . . . . . . 1 

Minnesota . . 1 . . . . 1 

Utah . . 1 . . . . 1 

Washington . . 1 . . . . 1 

Arizona 1 . . . . . . 1 

Canada 1 1 .. ... .. 2 

Total 27 60 10 9 10 116 



KINDS OF BUSINESS DONE 

There are many varieties of business other than the 
electric railway business done both by the holding com- 
panies and by the operating electric railway companies. 
Of the sixty-six primary holding concerns only fourteen 
do exclusively an electric railway business. Of the re- 
maining fifty-two concerns a large proportion do an 
electric light, power and gas business, these being ap- 
parently the natural adjuncts to the electric railway. A 
summary of these kinds of business is as follows: 



Table V — Kinds op Business Done 



Primary Held Independent 
Holding Operating Operating 
Concerns Companies Companies 



Total number of concerns 


66 


257 


694 


Deduct those doing electric railway 










14 


177 


576 


Remaining concerns doing other 








business of following kinds : 


52 


80 


118 


Electric light and power 


44 


80 


118 




33 


40 


29 




14 


10 


7 




12 


4 


8 




9 








3 


'2 


3 




2 








2 








1 




4 


Oil 


1 




1 




1 












'2 



CONTROL OF LARGE CITY RAILWAY SYSTEM 

Of the twenty-eight cities of over 200,000 population 
in the United States, the principal electric railway sys- 
tems may be classified as in Table VI. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 25 



January 3, 1914.] 

It is interesting to note that of these twenty-eight 
cities there are only four which contain more than one 
principal operating system, and of these there are prob- 
ably only two cities which can be said to have separate 
and independent ownership. It thus appears that the 



Table VI — Kind of Control of Large City Railway Systems 

Number of Miles 
Character of Control Companies of Track 

Held operating companies (single system) 7 3,123 

Held operating companies (two or more systems) 12 4,968 
Independent operating companies . 14 5,079 

Total 33 13,170 

street railway industry in large cities in the United 
States has become a natural monopoly, subject as a gen- 
eral rule to the regulation of a public service commis- 
sion. 

ADVANTAGES OP THE HOLDING COMPANY 

A list of the principal advantages of the holding 
company follows : 

1. Financial. 

(a) Better market for construction securities of sub- 
sidiary companies on account of the wider market and 
also of the larger and more regular supply of securities 
for the banking outlet. 

(b) More stable and larger market for stock of hold- 
ing company than for smaller issues of the independent 
operating companies. 

(c) Holding company can finance temporarily with 
its own surplus funds or through the large metropoli- 
tan banks, as well as the local banks, thus providing 
reserve financing until the securities of the subsidiary 
companies can be marketed. 

(d) Holding company can finance the subsidiary com- 
panies with the proceeds of its own collateral trust bonds 
based on securities of subsidiary companies, or with 
its own debentures, notes, preferred or common stocks. 

2. Operating. 

(a) Holding company has a wider field for selection 
of local officers and can also promote from its own 
and the subsidiary companies' trained organizations. 

(b) Holding company can, with its more experienced 
and more complete organization, efficiently supervise 
the operating results of the subsidiary companies, draw- 
ing comparisons between them and with other proper- 
ties, and can apply remedies for conditions that are out 
of line. 

(c) In case of local calamity or extraordinary difficul- 
ties the holding company can assist with all of its or- 
ganizations or furnish a financial reserve to be drawn 
upon. 

(d) Holding company can standardize operating 
methods and policies, thus securing greater economy 
and higher efficiency for the company and better service 
for the public. 

3. Engineering. 

(a) Holding company can standardize its designs and 
methods to the benefit of the public and also of financial 
results. 

(b) On larger volume of work holding company can 
employ more experienced and efficient engineers for gen- 
eral supervision of the construction work. 

4. Purchasing. 

(a) Owing to purchases on a large scale, holding 
company can buy more cheaply the construction and 
maintenance materials, machinery and supplies. 

(b) Holding company can standardize specifications. 

(c) Holding company can purchase in larger markets 
and keep more closely in touch with current prices. 

5. Accounting. 

(a) Holding company can supervise and audit ac- 
counts of the subsidiary companies, besides bringing to 
bear upon the problems arising more experienced men. 
It can also standardize accounting and statistical forms 



and methods and can assist the operating officials to 
establish proper policies as to depreciation and other 
reserve funds, insurance, damages, etc. 

6. Legal. 

(a) Corporate and general legal matters can be bet- 
ter cared for by the holding company, whose legal de- 
partment is usually of larger experience than is or- 
dinarily found in a small local company. 

(b) Services of trained engineers and attorneys are 
always available for testimony and counsel in cases be- 
fore courts and public service commissions. 

7. General. 

(a) The combination of revenue and earnings of 
widely separated properties produces an assurance of 
normal income. 

(b) Various economies of production on a large scale 
are secured. 

DISADVANTAGES OF THE HOLDING COMPANY 

1. Financial. 

(a) Overcapitalization of the holding company. While 
this has been the case with some holding companies, 
it is not believed to be a general condition of these con- 
cerns. In many cases it is the subsidiary company that 
is overcapitalized. On the other hand, objection has 
been raised that through moderate stock capitalization 
and large collateral trust bond issues of some holding 
companies control of large and valuable equities is ob- 
tained through a small investment by a few persons. 

(b) Opportunity for general misapprehension by the 
public as to the character and value of the collateral 
trust bonds and notes of the holding company and the 
preferred and common stocks following such debt by 
reason of complex intercorporate relationships. 

(c) The minority stockholders of the subsidiary com- 
panies generally have no market for their securities 
and little if any voice in the company's management. 

(d) Tendency to monopolize industry. There is a 
distinct tendency toward the control by one or more 
large interests of such a considerable group of public 
utility companies as to influence a large section of this 
field, and thus possibly to prevent fair competition 
in various departments of the business and to favor 
affiliated banking, manufacturing and other interests to 
the disadvantage both of the utilities controlled and of 
fair competition in those lines. 

2. Operating, engineering, purchasing. 

(a) Operation of subsidiary companies from a dis- 
tance is not desirable. To obviate this disadvantage as 
far as possible, the local management and organization 
should be autonomous and conducted by the best obtain- 
able talent. The directors should be strong local men 
who would not hesitate to direct the affairs of the com- 
pany, although not largely interested financially. More- 
over, the central organization of the company should be 
experienced, capable and competent to supervise the 
operations of the subsidiary companies. If this work 
is not properly looked after and if all centralized serv- 
ices for which charges are made, such as financing, pur- 
chasing, etc., are not efficiently performed, the holding 
company develops merely into a device for collecting 
tribute from minority stockholders of the subsidiary 
companies, or from the public. On the whole, notwith- 
standing the possible disadvantage of foreign control, it 
is believed that where the holding company's manage- 
ment is efficient, benefits to the public have always re- 
sulted. 

(b) Loss of initiative of subsidiary officials. It is 
a question in some cases whether the officers of the sub- 
sidiary companies do not lose initiative and individuality 
by leaning too much upon the organization of the hold- 
ing company and failing to take their proper re- 
sponsibility. Experience shows, however, that if the 
supervision of the holding company is properly exercised 



26 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



and the subsidiary officials are men of ability, they will 
feel that their work is being compared with that of a 
number of other organizations, and that they are being 
held responsible for results. 

3. Accounting. 

(a) The revaluation of assets is sometimes subject to 
abuse. This method has been used at times to misrepre- 
sent profits or to conceal losses. 

4. General. 

(a) Profits of subsidiary companies are sometimes 
impossible to realize in cash, so that there should always 
be a large margin between book profits and dividends 
paid. 

(b) Multiple taxation of the assets and income of 
holding companies and their subsidiaries is a serious 
problem of increasing importance. 

CHARGES FOR SERVICES OF HOLDING COMPANY 

It is interesting to note various methods which have 
been employed to charge the subsidiary companies for 
the services of the holding company or its officials. In 
some cases these charges are made by management 
associations of engineers or bankers and in some cases 
by the holding company itself acting in such capacity. 
Usually the purchase by the holding company of the 
issues of securities of the subsidiary companies is the 
subject of a special arrangement for each instance with 
varying compensation in addition to the payments re- 
ferred to below. 

Some holding companies make no charge whatever for 
their services to the subsidiary companies, making no 
profit out of their control and meeting their own operat- 
ing expense from dividends and interest received from 
the subsidiary companies. Others, while making no 
profit upon the operation, apportion part of their operat- 
ing expenses to the subsidiaries. Others again charge 
the entire amount of such expenses to the subsidiary 
companies. 

Those making charges for services which represent 
more than the expenditure by the holding company do 
this by one or more of the following methods : 

1. A fee is charged for management supervision based 
on a percentage of the net earnings of the subsidiary 
companies. In this case the percentage fee for super- 
vision covers the cost of purchasing. No charge is made 
for engineering except in special cases where large con- 
tracts are entered into. 

2. A fee is charged based upon a percentage of the 
gross earnings of the subsidiary companies. This 
charge includes supervision of management, auditing 
and some legal work. In addition a percentage engi- 
neering fee is paid on all construction charges by the 
subsidiary companies and a percentage fee is also 
charged for all articles purchased by the holding com- 
pany organization. 

3. A fee in round amount is charged each subsidiary 
company both for management and central accounting 
by the holding company, with an additional percentage 
fee for articles purchased. No additional charge is 
made for supervision of engineering. 

4. Each subsidiary company is charged a salary for 
the president of the holding organization, who is chair- 
man of the board of directors of the subsidiary com- 
pany, the total of such charges being a reasonable 
amount and paid direct to the said president. In this 
case no fee is charged for management supervision but 
a separate fee of a percentage of construction expendi- 
tures of the subsidiary companies is charged for en- 
gineering supervision. 

5. A fee is charged the subsidiary companies of a per- 
centage of the gross earnings for management and each 
subsidiary company is also assessed for the direct ex- 
penses paid for its benefit by the holding company. In 
addition for engineering services a percentage fee is 



charged upon all construction items of the subsidiary 
company together with reimbursement for expenses of 
the engineering organization of the holding company. 

6. Various representatives of the holding company 
are elected to executive positions in each of the sub- 
sidiary companies, each position paying as large a salary 
as the company can afford or as it should pay if the 
same position were filled locally. The salary checks 
from the local companies are taken possession of by 
the holding company and its officials paid at merely 
their market value by the holding company. In this 
way the excess of these salaries defrays the other gen- 
eral expenses, clerk hire, rent, etc., of the holding com- 
pany. In addition the subsidiary company is charged a 
percentage on all construction expenditures. 

Unless in the division of traffic, business or rates, in 
general it may be said that steam railroads and indus- 
trial holding companies have not gone nearly so far in 
the matter of making a profit from charges for the 
management of the subsidiary companies as have some 
of the public utility holding companies. The usual prac- 
tice is to prorate the actual expenses of the holding 
company among the subsidiary companies. This condi- 
tion is due probably to the more compact and inter- 
related organizations or physical connection of railroad 
and industrial properties rather than the widely sep- 
arated company units common in the electric railway 
holding organizations. 

While the holding company has within its power the 
possibility of securing much improved results for the 
securities of the subsidiary companies and for the local 
public, worth generally much more than its charges, in 
some cases the reverse is undoubtedly true. Here the 
holding company may be merely a device to secure un- 
earned profits through a stock ownership controlling 
both parties to the management or engineering contract. 
In the latter cases doubtless the stockholders and the 
public will eventually correct the situation. 

SOME LEGAL LIMITATIONS 

As shown in the above statistics, the favored states 
for the incorporation of holding companies are New 
Jersey, Maine, Delaware, Massachusetts, Connecticut 
and Virginia. New Jersey has always been in the lead, 
but the recent passage of what are known as the "Seven 
Sisters" laws through the efforts of former Governor 
Wilson has changed the legal status of these companies. 
It is now probably unlawful for them to enlarge their 
stock ownership or to purchase the stock of other com- 
panies, which with other disabilities hamper their 
operations. Consequently, it is believed that a number 
of these corporations will re-incorporate in other more 
favorable states in spite of the difficulties of this course. 
At least one of these New Jersey companies has already 
proposed this reincorporation to its stockholders. 
Another is contemplating the same course, for which it 
has greater facility due to having originally incor- 
porated in its charter a "migratory clause" permitting 
it, with the consent of a majority of the stockholders, 
to liquidate and re-incorporate in another state. 

Some states, notably New York, have of recent years 
amended their corporation laws so as not to permit the 
incorporation of holding companies which may control 
operating electric railway companies. The same result 
is secured in a number of states under public service 
corporation laws which prevent the acquisition of more 
than a small percentage of the stock of a street railway 
company by any other corporation. 

Owing to the popular objection that the corporation 
of one state is largely relieved from responsibility or 
from supervision in another, legislation may later be 
secured permitting holding companies doing business 
in more than one state to secure a federal charter so 
that all subsidiary companies could become merely local 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



27 



branches of the main company but subject to federal 
regulation. 

While the laws of few if any of the states permit 
local street railways to be physically owned and op- 
erated by a foreign corporation, this is usually not the 
case with manufacturing companies, a number of which 
while incorporated in one state own and operate sep- 
arate properties and plants in several other states. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

In general the holding company in some form is be- 
lieved to be an approved, economic device for insuring 
financial results, standardizing operations and strength- 
ening financial, operating and engineering methods and 
organizations, and while it is susceptible to misuse it 
has also, as stated, definite economic advantages and has 
come to stay. 

MEETING OF AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR 
LEGISLATION 

The annual meeting of the American Association for 
Labor Legislation was held in Washington on Dec. 30 
and 31. Among the subjects discussed were "Admin- 
istration and Industrial Relations," "Sickness Insur- 
ance" and "Working Hours in Continuous Industries." 

One of the papers presented before the association 
was by Charles H. Crownhart, chairman Wisconsin 
Industrial Commission, on the subject "Labor Laws — 
Enforcement Through Administrative Orders." In his 
paper Mr. Crownhart said in part: 

"The Wisconsin Legislature of 1905 enacted the rule 
as to railroad rates that 'all such rates should be rea- 
sonable.' What is a reasonable rate is a question of 
fact. The Legislature created the Railroad Commission 
to determine the fact in the first instance and to es- 
tablish that fact by order. This act has been sustained 
in the courts. 

"Following this, in 1911 the Legislature applied the 
same principle to labor legislation. It has been found 
impracticable, if not impossible, for the Legislature 
to keep abreast of the times in safety legislation. The 
elements of safety in industry are so many and so com- 
plex that details could not be expressed in the law with- 
out vital omissions and often without bad mistakes of 
inclusion. Safety in industry was found to be an ex- 
pert's problem quite as much as fixing rates of public 
utilities. So the Legislature laid down the simple rule 
that all places of employment must be safe, and 'safe' 
was defined to mean 'such freedom from danger to the 
life, health or safety of employees or frequenters as 
the nature of the employment will reasonably permit.' 
Then the Legislature created the means appropriate for 
enforcing the rule. It created an Industrial Commis- 
sion, with the duty of determining the facts as to safe- 
ty and promulgating such facts by order. The order 
is really the declaration of the legislative rule as ap- 
plied to the particular fact found. 

"The Wisconsin commission has the authority to 
publish bulletins for the information of all concerned. 
In this way it is able to bring home to those affected 
by its orders knowledge of the orders and of the duty 
of the employer and employee under them. The orders 
are direct, simple and easily understood. When people 
understand the justice of laws it is not hard to secure 
enforcement. The commission does not require any 
safeguard which cannot be proved to be practical, nor 
does it require any which the commission cannot show 
how to install. 

"The Wisconsin commission has representatives of 
employers' associations, workmen's associations, insur- 
ance companies and experts from the department, se- 
lected as a committee on safety to draft tentative or- 
ders. The members of the committee are clean-cut, 



practical men of affairs. They approach the subject 
earnestly and devote much time and attention to it. 
The tentative orders are drafted, printed, submitted to 
all employers and others interested and criticisms in- 
vited. 

A hearing is granted where any interested party 
may make objections. The tentative orders are then 
revised and adopted by the commission. Additions 
and alterations are made from time to time as neces- 
sity requires. We now have twenty general orders 
common to all industries; five general orders applica- 
ble to woodworking establishments; five as to safety 
in laundries; three as to sanitation in laundries; fifty- 
three as to safety of elevators; eighteen as to ventila- 
tion and exhaust systems ; six as to shop lighting, and 
twenty as to toilet rooms and general sanitation. Or- 
ders are in course of preparation covering the sub- 
jects of a building code, outside construction work, 
electrical construction and boiler manufacture, installa- 
tion and operation. 

"The result of this plan of enforcement of safety 
orders has been excellent. No prosecutions have been 
necessary in a period of two years. Extensions of 
time to comply with the orders have been granted by 
the commission as the occasion required. Employers 
and employees have actively co-operated with the com- 
mission to secure safety, and the standard of safety 
in Wisconsin is now higher than it has ever been in 
its history, and yet the employees are but obeying and 
carrying out the details of law which they have been 
largely instrumental in creating and making. 

"With us the workmen's compensation act is an added 
incentive for a high standard of safety. The act is ad- 
ministered by the Industrial Commission. Not only 
does the employer have to pay compensation where his 
employee is accidentally injured, but if the injury re- 
sults from failure to conform to the commission's 
orders, 15 per cent is added to the injured workman's 
compensation as a penalty. Likewise employees are 
required to obey the commission's orders on pain of 
15 per cent reduction of compensation if injury results 
from their failure." 

One of the sessions was a joint meeting with the 
American Political Science Association. Prof. W. W. 
Willoughby, of Johns Hopkins University, president 
American Political Science Association, addressed this 
meeting on "The Individual and the State." Prof. W. 
F. Willoughby, Princeton University, president Ameri- 
can Association for Labor Legislation, addressed the 
meeting on "The Philosophy of Labor Legislation." 

At the annual business meeting reports were pre- 
sented by the following committees: workmen's com- 
pensation, industrial hygiene, women's work, enforce- 
ment of labor laws, one day of rest in seven, social in- 
surance, standard schedules and tabulations and the 
New York legislative committee. 

A paper on "The Practicability of Compulsory Sick- 
ness Insurance in America" was read by Joseph P. 
Chamberlain, Legislative Drafting Association, New 
York. The leading points in the paper were that the 
present insurance of the poor is enormously and hope- 
lessly expensive and promotes extravagant funerals; 
that workmen do not oppose compulsory insurance, and 
that contribution by employers is already accepted in 
principle; that the enormous value of the organization 
of hospital funds, fraternal society and trade union 
benefits, so that their combined force can be brought 
to bear upon the problems of sickness, on the spread 
of information, on the enforcement and improvement 
of legislation, is at present entirely dissipated, and 
finally that the problem of sickness insurance through 
legislation is the problem of the immediate future in 
America. 



28 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 

New Electric Railway Track Built in 1913 

A Compilation of Statistics on New Track Made Up from Reports Received from the Different Electric 

Railway Companies in the United States and Canada 



The new track built and placed in service during 
1913 by city systems, interurban lines and electri- 
fied steam railroads is tabulated in the accompanying 
lists. The statistics were compiled from reports re- 
ceived from the railway companies themselves, and the 
record is complete except in the case of a few of the 
smaller properties whose replies were not received in 
time for inclusion in the list. All items which appear 
are, of course, accurate. It is possible, however, that 
there may be some omitted mileage, either because of 
the failure of the companies to report it or because the 
construction was reported during 1912 and hence ap- 
peared in the statistical table published in the issue of 
this paper for Jan. 4, 1913. 

The following summary shows the electric railway 
mileage built or put into operation each year since 1907 
in the United States and Canada: 



1907 1.880 miles. 

1908 1,258.5 miles. 

1909 887.1 miles. 

1910 1,397.2 miles. 

1911 1,191.5 miles. 

1912 950.2 miles. 

1913 1,018.9 miles. 



Texas heads the list of states with 177.77 miles re- 
ported. This total includes the longest interurban 
railway built in the United States during 1913, namely, 
the Southern Traction Company, which built 154 miles 



ALABAMA Miles. 
Alabama City, Gadsden & Attalla Ry. — Between Gadsden 

and Noccalula Falls 3.10 

Birmingham, Ensley & Bessemer R. R. — Birmingham 6.00 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co 6.20 

Mobile Light & Railroad Co 1.25 

16.61 

ARIZONA 

Phoenix Railway 3.50 



3.50 

CALIFORNIA 

City Railway Company of Los Angeles 12.80 

Crescent City Railway — Between Bloomington and Rialto.. 3.43 
Glendale & Eagle Rock Ry. — Between Olendale and La 

Cresenta : 4.00 

Petaluma & Santa Rosa Ry. — Between Liberty and Two 

Rocks 5.37 

San Diego Electric Railway — San Diego 0.50 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys 9.02 

Santa Barbara & Suburban Ry 0.63 

Stockton Terminal & Eastern R. R 3.20 

United Railroads of San Francisco 2.25 

41.20 

COLORADO 

Denver City Tramway 0.85 

Denver & Northwestern Ry 1.15 



2.00 

CONNECTICUT 

Connecticut Co 1.4fi 

New London & East Lyme Street Ry 13.20 

Shore Line Electric Ry. — Between Deep River and Chester. 4.66 
Waterbury & Milldale Tramway 3.60 

22.86 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 
Washington Utilities Co. — Between Clarendon anrl Arling- 
ton Junction, Va 2.25 



2.25 

FLORIDA 

St. Johns Electric Co. — Between South Beach and Chau- 
tauqua Beach 1 50 

St. Petersburg & Gulf Ry.— Davista 7.00 



8.50 

GEORGIA 

Georgia Railway & Power Co. — In Atlanta and between 

Decatur, Clarkston and Stone Mountain 14.50 

Rome Railway & Light Co 0.75 

Waycross Street & Suburban Ry. — Waycross 2.92 



18.17 

IDAHO 

Caldwell Traction Co., Ltd. — Between Summit, McCrory, 
Lake Lowell, Divide, Homestead, Sunnv Slope and 
McNeil 3.50 



of track connecting Waco, Dallas and Corsicana, Tex. 

Missouri is second with 74.52 miles of track con- 
structed. The largest part of this mileage is repre- 
sented by the Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 
Railway, which was completed and placed in operation 
during the past year. This line is 69.17 miles long 
and extends from Kansas City to Liberty, Excelsior 
Springs, Dearborn and St. Joseph. 

Pennsylvania with 55.79 miles is third, of which 
the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company built 21.58 
miles. The Hershey Transit Company completed a 
10-mile line connecting Hershey and Lebanon. 

In Minnesota, which has a total of 54.22 miles, the 
Electric Short Line Railway and the Minneapolis, St. 
Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric Traction Company 
built 25 and 18 miles of track, respectively. Two long 
extensions were built in Iowa. The Iowa Railway & 
Light Company completed a 17-mile line between Cedar 
Rapids, Bertram, Mount Vernon and Lisbon. A 20-mile 
line was built by the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern 
Railway between Laporte City, Brandon and Urbana, 
la. In Massachusetts the majority of new track is 
credited to the Berkshire Street Railway, which com- 
pleted a 24.44-mile line connecting Lee, Becket, Otis, 
Blandford and Huntington. The electric railways of 
Canada built 147.86 miles of track, compared with 
78.37, or an increase of 47 per cent over 1912. 



IDAHO {Continued) Miles. 
Idaho Railway, Light & Power Co. — Boise 3.50 



7.00 

ILLINOIS 

Centralia Traction Co. — Between Centralia and Waraac. 3.00 

Chicago City Ry 9.50 

Chicago & Joliet Electric Ry 0.85 

Chicago Railways — Chicago 2.00 

Decatur Railway & Light Co 0.70 

East St. Louis Ry 1-50 

Freeport Railway & Light Co 100 

Kankakee &--Urbana Traction Co 0.75 

Quincy Ry. — Quincy 4.00 

Rock Island & Southern Ry 1-50 



24.80 

INDIANA 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Ry. — South Bend. 1.00 
Union Traction Company of Indiana — Between Cowan, 

Oakville, Springport and Mount Summit 16.90 



17.98 

IOWA 

Cedar Rapids & Marion City Ry 4.00 

Clinton Street Ry 3.00 

Iowa Railway & Light Co. — Between Cedar Rapids, Ber- 
tram, Mount Vernon and Lisbon 17.00 

Tri-Clty Ry 1.54 

Union Electric Co 1.00 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. — Between Laporte 

City, Brandon and Urbana, la 20.00 



46.54 

KANSAS 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Ry. — Between Newton and 

Bethel College 2 00 

Joplin & Pittsburg Ry 1.61 

Manhattan City & Interurban Ry 2.50 

Salina Street Ry 1.50 

Topeka Ry. — Topeka 1.50 



9.11 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge Electric Co. — Baton Rouge 2.31 

New Orleans Railway & Light Co 0.72 



3.03 

MAINE 

Aroostock Valley R. R. Co. — Between Carson and West 

Caribou 7.13 

Banqor Railway & Electric Co. — In Bangor and through 

Hampden 1.33 

Rockland, South Thomaston & St. George Ry 1-25 



9.71 

MARYLAND 

United Railways & Electric Co. — Baltimore 0.33 



0.33 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC 



RAILWAY JOURNAL 



29 



MASSACHUSETTS Miles 

Bay State Street Ry 1-86 

Berkshire Street Ry.— Between Lee, Becket, Otis, Bland- 
ford and Huntington 24.44 

Interstate Consolidated Street Ry 0.13 

Nahant & Lynn Street Railway Co 0.50 

Northampton Street Railway Co 0.25 

Oak Bluffs Street Ry 0.60 

Springfield Street Ry 1.62 

Union Street Ry 0.55 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry.— In Tatnuck and Wor- 
cester 2.28 



MICHIGAN 

Benton Harbor-St. Joe Railway & Light Co. — Between 

Coloma and Watervliet 

Escanaba Traction Co 

Michigan United Traction Co 

Saginaw-Bay City Railway 



OREGON 

Oregon Electric Ry. — A 5-mile line from Orenco to Bowers 
Junction and a 5-mile line from Gray to Corvallis . . . . 
Portland Railway, Light & Power Co 



32.23 



2.50 
1.00 
1.80 
1.00 



6.30 

MINNESOTA 

Electric Short Line Ry. — Between Minneapolis and Minne- 

tonka 25.00 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric Trac. 

Co 175 

St. Paul Southern Electric Ry. — Between St. Paul and 

Hastings 18.00 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co 9-47 

54.22 

MISSISSIPPI 

Hattiesburg Traction Co 2.00 

Meridian Light & Railway Co 0.93 

2.93 

MISSOURI 

City Light & Traction Co. — Sedalia 1.50 

Grand View Railroad — Between Luxemburg, Point Breeze 

and Continental 1.50 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Ry.— Between 
Kansas City, Liberty, Excelsior Springs, Dearborn 

and St. Joseph 60.17 

St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & Power Co 1.51 

United Railways Company of St. Louis 0.84 

74.52 

MONTANA 

Billings Traction Co 100 

Butte Electric Ry.— Butte 0.75 

Great Falls Street Ry 0.75 

Missoula Street Ry. — Missoula 0.56 

3.06 

NEBRASKA 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry 100 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Ry 0.75 

1.75 

NEVADA 

Fallon Electric R. R. — Between Fallon, Stillwater, Harri- 

gan and Harrigan South 20.00 



20.00 

NEW JERSEY 
Atlantic Coast Electric Ry. — Through New Jersey State 

camp grounds 0.76 

Cape May, Delaware Bay & Sewell's Point R. R. — 

Through East Cape May 1.00 

Jersey Central Traction Co 0.50 

Public Service R. R. — Between Elizabeth, Linden Town- 
ship, Roosevelt Borough and Woodbridge Township.. 5.93 
Public Service Ry 4.25 

12.44 

NEW YORK 

Black River Traction Co 0.30 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co 0.14 

■Cortland County Traction Co 0.28 

Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery R. R 0.46 

Elmira Water, Light & Railway Co 0.38 

Hornell Traction Co 100 

International Ry 2.68 

Jamestown Street Ry. — Jamestown 0.84 

Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent Line — New York 2.00 

Manhattan & Queens Traction Corporation — New York.. 13.62 

New York, Auburn & Lansing R. R 0.40 

New York & Queens County Ry 1.92 

New York State Rvs., Rochester Lines 3.42 

New York State Rys.. Utica Lines — In Utica and through 

German Flatts, Ilion and Mohawk 6.06 

Suffolk Traction Co. — Between Blue Point and Bayport... 0.50 

Union Ry 2.14 

Westchester Electric R. R 0.77 

Yonkers R. R 3.14 

40.05 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Charlotte Electric Ry.— Charlotte 5.00 

5.00 

OHIO 

Dayton. Covington & Piqua Traction Co 1.14 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co 17.00 

Ohio River Electric Railway & Power Co : 0.60 

18.74 

OKLAHOMA 

Oklahoma Ry. — Between Moore and Norman, Okla 9.00 

Sand Springs Ry 5.50 



14.50 



10.00 
12.67 



PENNSYLVANIA Miles 

Altoona & Logan Valley Electric Ry. — Altoona 0.77 

Butler Passenger Ry. — Butler 0.50 

Conestoga Traction Co. — In Lancaster and "between Lan- 
caster and Rohrerstown 1.77 

Harrisburg Rys. — Harrisburg 0.50 

Hershey Transit Co. — Between Hershey, Hummelstown, 

Campbellstown, Mount Pleasant and Lebanon 10.00 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. — Allentown 2.50 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. — Philadelphia and between 

Philadelphia and Chester 21.58 

Pittsburgh Rys 6.04 

Pottstown & Phoenixville Ry 2.50 

Scranton Ry. — Scranton 1.94 

West Side Electric Street Ry. — Between Ellsworth, Bent- 
ley ville, Weaver and Jonestown 6.00 

York Rys 169 

55.79 

RHODE ISLAND 

Rhode Island Co 2.96 

2.96 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston- Isle of Palms Traction Co 0.25 

0.25 

TENNESSEE 

Chattanooga Railway & Light Co 1.00 

Knoxville Railway & Light Co 8.73 

Lookout Mountain Ry 6.00 

15.73 

TEXAS 

Corpus Christi Street & Interurban Ry 2.00 

El Paso Electric Ry 2.33 

Houston Electric Co 5.24 

Northern Texas Traction Co 6.50 

Port Arthur Traction Co 0.50 

San Antonio Traction Co 1.70 

Southern Traction Co. — Between Waco, Dallas and Cor- 

sicana 154.00 

Texas City Street Ry. — Texas City 3.00 

Uvalde & Leona Valley Interurban Ry 2.50 

177.77 

UTAH 

Ogden Rapid Transit Co. — Ogden 4.00 

Utah Light & Railway Co. — Between Salt Lake City, 

Bountiful and Centerville 10.30 

14.30 

VIRGINIA 

Charlottesville & Albemarle Ry 0.25 

Norfolk & Southern R. R., Electric Div. — From Lake Sta- 
tion to State Rifle Range 2.50 

Virginia Railway & Power Co. — In Richmond and Peters- 
burg 1.86 



4.61 

WASHINGTON 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co., Bellingham Div. 9.87 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co., Seattle Div... 3.01 

Seattle Municipal Ry. — Seattle 7.67 

Washington Water Power Co 0.27 

Willapa Harbor Ry 0.20 

Yakima Valley Transportation Co. — Between Selah and 

Taylor, Wash 6.60 

27.62 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Charleston-Dunbar Traction Co 2.50 

Charleston Interurban R. R 0.32 

Monongahela Valley Traction Co. — Between McWhorter, 

Lost Creek, Janelew and Weston 18.00 

Ohio Valley Electric Ry 1.00 

Parkersburg, Marietta & Interurban Ry 0.60 

22.42 

WISCONSIN 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co 7.33 

Southern Wisconsin Ry 0.38 

7.71 

CANADA 

Berlin & Waterloo Street Ry. — Berlin 1.50 

British Columbia Electric Railway Co.. Ltd. — Includes 

new track in Vancouver and suburban system, also 

Victoria City system Saanich interurban line 36 07 

Calgary Street Ry 12.00 

Edmonton Radial Ry 13.67 

Hull Electric Co. — Extension to Connaught Park Jockey 

Club 1.50 

International Transit Co 0.50 

London Street Ry. — London 1.74 

Montreal & Southern Counties Ry. — Includes electrification 

of 18-mile section of Central Vermont Rv. between 

St. Lambert and Marieville 21.50 

Montreal Tramways 8.00 

Niagara, St. Catharines <£. Toronto Ry. — Through St. 

Catharines 12.00 

Ottawa Electric Ry. — Ottawa 5.00 

Port Arthur & Fort William Electric Ry 5.00 

Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co 1.54 

Regina Municipal Ry 3.25 

Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg Ry 1.32 

Saskatoon Municipal Ry. — In Saskatoon and extension 

to Sutherland 7.00 

Toronto Ry. — Toronto 2.21 

Trans St. Mary's Traction Co 0.08 

Winnipeg, Selkirk & Lak° Winnipeg Ry. — Includes a new 

line between Middle Church and Stony Mountain.... 13.98 



22.67 



GRAND TOTAL 

United St-ites rnd Canada 



147.86 
1,071.94 



30 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 

Electric Rolling Stock Ordered in 1913 

A Tabulation Showing the Number, Type, Length and Manufacture of All Cars Built During the Year 
Compiled from Official Returns Made by the Railway Companies 



The tables below show in detail the number of cars 
of all kinds as well as electric locomotives which were 
either purchased by electric railways or else built in the 
companies' shops during the past year. The total num- 
ber of rolling equipments of all kinds was 5514, a de- 
crease of approximately 8 per cent from the number 
listed for the previous year. The tables, in accordance 
with the usual procedure, have been made up from the 
orders noted from week to week in the rolling stock 
columns of the Electric Railway Journal and from 
returns made at the close of the year by the electric 
railways of the United States, Canada and Mexico. 
These figures were checked against reports received 
from practically all of the car builders, and every effort 
has been made to make the record complete, although 
there may be some omissions of a minor character. 

The following summary shows the records in con- 
densed form for the past seven years, and gives the 



number of cars, classified in accordance to the service in 
which they are used, from 1907 to 1913. 







Interurban 


Freight & 




Year 


Citv Cars 


Cars 


Misc. Cars 


Total 


1907 


3483 


1327 


1406 


6216 


1908 


2208 


727 


176 


3111 


1909 


2537 


1245 


1175 


4957 


1910 


3571 


990 


820 


5381 


1911 


2884 


626 


505 


4015 


1912 


4531 


783 


687 


6001 


1913 


3820 


547 


1147 


5514 



The number of electric locomotives ordered was sixty- 
eight, as against sixty-five in the preceding year. The 
largest order is that of the Norfolk & Western Railway 
which has placed an order for twenty-four electric loco- 
motives for freight service. The New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad ordered fifteen locomotives. 

The total number of cars of all types built in com- 
panies' shops was 772 as compared with 429 cars in 
1912, or an increase of 44 per cent. 



Purchaser No. Class Length 

Ala. Cy., Gads'n& AttallaRv.. lOpen 34-0 

1 Closed 39-0 

Albany Southern R. R 1 El. Loco. 34-7 

Alton, Granite & St.L. Tr. Co . . 7 Closed 33-4 

10 Closed . . 26-0 

Altoona & Logan Vy. El. Ry. . . 1 Sweeper 28-3 

Amarillo St. Ry 2 Closed 20-8 

Asheville & East Tenn. R. R. . . 1 Closed 41-0 

Asheville Pwr. & Lt. Co 6 Closed 20-8 

Ashtabula R. T. Co 1 Closed 25-4 

Athens Ry. & Elec. Co 1 Closed 39-6 

1 Closed 28-6 

Aurora, Elgin* Chicago R.R.. 6 Closed 53-8^ 

4 Closed 28-0 

Austin St. Rv 4 Closed 23-0 

Bangor Ry. & Elec. Co 3 Closed 30-8 

1 Ex.&Ft. 35-0 

Bartlesville Int. Ry 1 Closed 21-0 

Bay State St. Ry 50 Closed 28-0 

12 Express 39-0 

Belt Line Ry 79 St.Bat. 18-0 

Berkshire St. Ry 1 Substa. 38-0 

Berlin St. Ry 1 Flat 30-0 

Billings Trac. Co 1 St.Bat. 18-0 

2 St.Bat. 27-6 

Binghamton Ry 2 Open 41-4 

Birmingham, Ens. & Bes. R.R. 5 Closed .... 

20 Dump 21-0 

6 Flat 40-0 

Birmingham Ry. L. & P. Co. . . 3 Closed 

1 Express 45-0 

Black River Trac. Co 1 Sweeper 28-3 

Boston Elevated Ry 30 Closed 37-2 i 

25 Closed 37-2 1 

100 Closed 34-4 

Boston & Worcester St. Ry . . . . 2 Closed 36-0 

4 Express 40-2 

Brandon Munic. Ry 1 Sweeper 46-0 

Bristol Trac. Co 2 Closed 

Brit. Columbia Elec. Railway . . 3 Closed 43-4 

2 Closed 38-0 
30 Ft., Box 40-0 
30 Ft., Flat 41-0 

3 Sweeper 28-3 
15 Logging 42-0 

Brooklyn R. T. Co 2 El.Loco. 34-7 

100 Clo-ed 67-3.1 

Burlingame Elec. Co 1 St.Bat. 27-6 

Butte Elec. Ry 4 Closed 40-6 

Caldwell Trac. Co 1 Closed 44-6 

Calgary St. Ry 6 Pass.Tr. 44-0 

1 Flat 44-0 

2 Sprinkler 30-0 

California St. Cable R.R 3 Closed 30-0 

Canadian Northern Railway. .. 6 El.Loco. 37-4 

Canadian Pacific Ry 4 El.Loco. 38-4 

Cape Breton Elec. Co., Ltd 3 Closed 31-4 

Cape May, Del. Bay & Sew. 

Point R.R 2 St.Bat. 21-0 

Capital Trac. Co 5 Closed 30-8 

Cedar Rap. & Marion Cy. Ry . . 10 Closed 44-8 

Centerville Lt. & Traction Co.. 1 Closed 20-8 

Central Illinois Pub. Ser. Co . . . 4 Closed 30-0 

Charleston Con. Ry. & Ltg Co 1 Closed 20-8 

Charleston- Dunbar Trac. Co . . 1 Closed 52-0 

4 Closed 45-0 
Charleston Int.R . R 4 Closed 35-0 

2 Closed 35-0 

Charleston- Isle of Palms Trac. 

Co 2 Ft., Flat 30-0 

Charlotte Elec. Railway 20 Closed 40-0 

Charlottesville & Albemarle Ry. 5 Closed 21-0 

Chattanooga Trac. Co 4 Closed 45-i 

1 Bag.&Ex. 40-0 

Chicago City Ry 100 Closed 32-0 

1 Sweeper 28-3 



Serv. Truck Builder 

Int. Brill Pullman 

Int. Brill Pullman 

Fght. Was'n Gen. Elec. 

Int. Brill American 

City Brill American 

City M'G-C. McGuire-C. 

City Brill American 

Int. Tav. Southern 

City Brill Brill 

City Brill Kuhlman 

City Brill Southern 

City Dup. Southern 

Int. Bald. Jewett 

City Bald. St. Louis 

City Brill American 

Int. Brill Wason 

Int. Brill Wason 

City St. L. St. Louis 

Int. St. L. Laconia 

Int. Bald. Laconia 

City Brill Brill 

Int. M'G-C. McGuire-C. 

Int. Lacon. Laconia 

City Brill Brill 

City Beach Ry.St.Bat. 

Int Jones 

Int Southern 

Constr. Oliv. Oliver 

Const. Oliv. Oliver 

City Co. Shops 

City M'G-C. McGuire-C. 

City M'G-C. McGuire-C. 

City Brill Pr. Steel 

City Brill A. C. & F. 

City Tay. Jewett 

City Wason 

Int Osg.-Brad. 

City M'G-C. Preston 

City Southern 

Int. Std. Co. Shops 

Int. Std. Co. Shops 

Int. Seat. Seattle 

Int. Seat. Seattle 

City Otta. Ottawa 

Int. Seat. Seattle 

Swit'h Wason Gen. Elec. 

Sub. A. C. & F. 

City Beach Ry. St. Bat. 

City Co. Niles 

Int. Bald. Niles 

City Brill Brill 

City Brill Co. Shops 

City Brill Preston 

City Co. Co. Shops 

Term. G.E. Gen. Elec. 

Main G.E. Gen. Elec. 

City Bald. Cincinnati 

City Brill St. Louis 

City Std. Brill 

City St. L. St. Louis 

City Brill American 

City Brill Brill 

City Brill Cincinnati 

Int. Brill Jewett 

City Bald. Niles 

Int. Std. Jewett 

Int. Std. Jewett 



Purchaser 

Chicago Elevated Rys. 



Chicago & Joliet Elec. Rv . . . 
Chicago & West Towns Ry . . 
Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry 



Chicago Rys . 



Cin., Milf'd & LovTd Trac. C 

Cincinnati Trac. Co 

City Railway, Dayton, Ohio. 
City Ry. Co. of Los Angeles. . . 
Cleveland Ry 



No. Class Length 
. .62 Closed 48-0 

66 Pass. Trail. 48-0 
.10 Closed 28-0 
.30 Closed 
. 4 Closed 

3 Closed 

4 Pass.Tr. 
2 Work 

.50 Closed 
50 Closed 
lOOClosed 

1 Sn.-Plow 
6 Sweeper 

). 4 Work 

.60 Pass.Tr. 43-0 
.20 Closed 29-6 
.75 Cent.Ent. 46-7 
100 Closed 35-5i 

2 Closed 35-5^ 
100 Pass.Tr. 

2 Sweeper 
10 Dump 



45-0 
57-0 
28-0 
57-0 

32-5 
32-5 
32-5 

28-3 



48-0 
28-3 
33-6 



Clinton St. Ry . 



Int. Co. 

City Brill 

City Brill 

Int. Brill 

Int. Brill 

City Brill 

City M'G-C 



Co. Shops 

Southern 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

McGuire-C. 



Serv. 
Elev. 
Elev. 
City 
City 
Int. 
City 
City 
Int. 
City 
City 
City 
City 
City 
Int. 
City 
City 
City 
City 
City 
City 
City 
City 

City 
City 
City 
City 
City 

Int. 
Int. 
City 
Both 
City 
City 
City 
City 
City 

City 
Int. 
City 
City 
City 
Tun. 
Tun. 
City 

Int. 

City 
Int. 
Int. 
City 

Duluth St. Ry 2 Closed 27-9 City 

Easton Rapid Transit Co 6 Closed 20-8 City 

E. St. L„ Col. & Waterloo Ry . . 3 Closed 55-0 Int. 

2 Pass.Tr. 40-0 Int. 

East St. Louis Ry 5 Closed 28-8 City 

East St. Louis & Sub. Railway. 3 Closed 33-4 Int. 

Edmonton Int. Ry 1 Gasoline 48-6 Int. 

Edmonton Radial Ry 35 Closed 23-3| City 

1 Closed 48-0 Int. 
1 Sprinkler 30-6 City 
1 Dump .... City 
1 Line 38-0 City 

Electric Short Line 1 Gasoline 56-0 Int. 

1 Gas.-El. 50-0 Int. 

Emigration Canyon R. R 2 Closed 47-0 Int. 

Ephrata & Lebanon St. Ry . . . . 1 Sto.Bat. 27-6 City 

Evanston Trac. Co 1 Sweeper 28-3 City 

Five-Mile Beach Elec. Ry 2 Open 34-0f City 

Ft. Dodges, Des Moines & 

Southern R.R 500 Ft., Box 36-0 Int. 

Fort Wavne & No. Ind. Tr. Co . 1 Closed 55-0 Int. 
Fox & Illinois Union Ry 1 Substa. 27-0 Int. 



7 Closed 26-6 

1 Sweeper 28-3 
1 Sprinkler 25-6 
Columbia Ry., Gas. & El. Co. . . 1 Closed 45-0 
1 Closed 53-0 

Columbus, New Albany & 

Johnstown Trac. Co 1 Closed 50-0 

1 Express 40-0 
Columbus Railway & Light Co. 1 D'le-deck 45-6 

Connecticut Co 5 Dump 48-10 

Connecticut Vallev St. Ry 1 Open 41-7 \ 

Cumberland Co. Pwr. & Lt. Co. 10 Closed 30-8 
Dallas Consol. Elec. St. Ry . . . . 23 Closed 26-6 
1 Closed 26-6 
1 Const 

Davton, Springfield & Southern 

Xenia Southern Ry 2 Closed 30-0 

Dayton & Troy Elec. Ry 2 Trail.Bx. 46-0 

Decatur Rv. & Lt. Co 4 Closed 28-0 

Delta Elec.Lt.,Pwr.& Mfg.Co... 11 Closed 16-0 

Denver City Tramway 26 Pass.Tr. 38-0 

Detroit River Tunnel Co 4 El.Loco. 39-6 

1 Wr'ckCr 

Detroit United Railway 50 Closed 23-1 \ 

Dominion Pwr. & Trans. Co., 

Ltd 3 Closed 56-0 

12 Closed 43-0 

2 Ft. Ex. 59-0 
2 Ft. Ex. 59-0 
2 Dump 35-0 



Truck 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Brill 
M'G-C. 
St. L. 
St. L. 
St. L. 
St. L. 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 

M'G-C. 
War. 
Bald. 
Std. 
St.L. 
Brill 

Brill" 
M'G-C. 
Std. 

St.L. 
M'G-C. 
M'G-C. 
Brill 
Bald. 

M'G-C. 
M'G-C. 
Brill 
Wason 

Brill" 
Brill 
Bald. 
St. L. 

M'G-C. 
B.&S. 
St.L. 
Peck. 
Woeb. 
G.E. 
Ind.Wk. 
St'd. 

Bald. 
Brill 
Tay. 
Tay. 
Std. 

Co. 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
M'G-C. 
Std. 
M'G-C. 
M'G-C. 
Can. 
Bern. 
St. L. 
Was'n 
Bald. 
Beach 
M'G-C. 
Brill 

H&K 
Bald. 
M'G-C. 



Builder 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
St. Louis 
McGuire-C 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
Southern 
American 
Co. Shops 
.Wason 
McGuire-C. 
Warner 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
St. Louis 
Kuhlman 
.Kuhlman 
Kuhlman 
McGuire-C. 
Oren. -Ar- 
thur Koppel 
St. Louis 
McGuire-C. 
McGuire-C. 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 

McGuire-C. 
McGuire-C. 
Brill 
Wason 
McGuire-C . 
Wason 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
American 

McGuire-C 
Bar. & Sm' 
St. Louis 
Jones 
Woeber 
Gen. Elec. 
Gen. Elec. 
Cincinnati 

Preston 
Preston 
Preston 
Tillsonburg 
Oren-Ar- 
thur Koppel 
Co. Shops 
Brill 

American 

American 

American 

American 

Drake 

Preston 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

Canadian 

Co. Shops 

Drake 

Gen. Elec. 

Niles 

Ry. St. Bat. 
McGuire-C. 
Brill 

Hask.&Bar. 
Co. Shops 
McGuire-C. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



31 



Purchaser No 
Frankford, Tao. & Holmes. St. 

Ry 2 

Gary & Int. Rv 4 

Gastonia (N. C.) Trac. Co 2 

Georgia Ry . & Pwr. Co 25 

6 
2 
1 
2 

Grand Rapids, Hoi. & Chic. Ry. 4 

6 

Great Falls St. Railway 4 

Greenville, Spartanburg & An- 
derson Ry 6 

Guelph Radial Ry 3 

Gulfport & Miss. Coast Trac. 

Co 1 

Hagerstown & Frederick Ry ... 7 

Halifax Elee. Tram 6 

Ham. Whiting & East Chi. Ry. 1 
1 

Hattiesburg Trac. Co 3 

2 
1 

Harrisburg Railway . .' 7 

Hershey Transit Co 2 

1 

Hillsboro Ry 2 

Holyoke St. Railway 5 

Hornell Trac. Co 1 

Houston Elec. Co 10 

Hudson Valley Railway 3 

Hull Elec. Co 4 

Illinois Trac. System 6 

6 
4 
1 
1 

Indianapolis & Cin. Trac. Co. . . 3 
Indianapolis Trac. & Term. Co. 25 

International Ry 100 

12 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
10 



Class Length Serv. Truck Builder 



Inter-Urban Ry 

Interurban Ry. & Term. Co. . 



5 
2 
1 

Iowa Ry. & Lt. Co 2 

5 
6 

Jackson Lt. & Trac. Co 3 

Jacksonville Trac. Co 10 

1 

Jefferson County Trac. Co ... . 4 

4 
1 

Jefferson Trac. Co 2 

Jersey Central Trac. Co 1 

Johnstown Pass. Railway 5 

Kankakee Elec. Ry 1 

Kankakee & Urbana Trac. Co . . 2 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co 6 

3 
6 

Lewiston, Augusta & Water- 
villeSt. Ry 3 

1 

Lewiston & Reedsville El. Ry . . 3 

London St. Ry 6 

Long Island R. R 12 

58 
20 
3 

Lookout Mountain Ry 10 

Los Angeles & San Diego 

Beach Ry 2 

3 

Louisville Ry 10 

Lynchburg Trac. & Light. Co . . 1 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & 
Lt. Co 2 

Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent 
Liae 6 

Manhattan & Queens Tr. Corp . 25 
1 
1 
1 

Marine Ry 1 

Maryland Elec. Co 12 

Mason City & Clear Lake R.R.. 1 
Meridian Lt. & Ry. Co 8 

2 
2 

Mesaba Ry 5 

Metropolitan St. Ry 2 

Michigan United Trac. Co 6 Closed 

7 Closed 
10 Closed 
4 Pass.Tr. 
4 Baggage 
4 Express 

Middle West Utilities Co 1 Exhib. 



Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Pass.Tr. 

Express 

Sand 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

El. Loco. 
Closed 

Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Sweeper 
Sprinkler 
Closed 
Closed 
Work 
Closed 
Closed 
Sprinkler 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Pass.Tr. 
Closed 
El. Loco. 
Work 
Parlor 
Sleeping 
Express , . 
Closed 
Closed 
One-Man 
El. Loco. 
Derrick 
Trail Flat 
Flat 
Supply 
Dump 
Express 
Closed 
Freight 
Sweeper 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Sprinkler 
Closed 
Pass.Tr. 
Baggage 

Closed 

Sn.-Plow 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Exp. Car 
Flat 

Flat 
Work 
Closed 
Closed 
Pass.Tr. 
Closed 
Baggage 
St. Bat. 
Closed 



33-4 
44-0 

40-6 
47-0 
40-0 
42-0 
25-0 
50-0 
61-0 
25-9 

37-4 
46-6 



34-6 
21-0 

28- 3 

29- 6 



30-8 

30-8 

18-0 

30-0 

30-8^ 

28-0 

26-6 

38-61 

43-0 

57-0 



57-0 

56-6 

33- 2| 

34- l§ 
21-0 

35- 2 



29-0 
13-4 
38-0 
50-0 
50-0 

28- 3 
60-0 
32-0 
44-0 
32-6 
26-6 

29- 6 



20-0 

35- 
28-0 

32- 

53- 
56-0 
50-0 
20-0 

36- 
45-0 
28-0 
20-8 

54- 
54-0 
40-0 

33- 
28-8 



Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
Int. 
Int. 
City 

Fght. 
City 

City 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

Fght. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Citv 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Fght. 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Steam 

Int. 



Brill 
M'G-C. 

Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Brill 

Wason 
Std. 



Brill 
Co. 

M'G-C 

M'G-C 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Peck. 

M'G-C. 

Bald. 

Brill 

Brill 

A. L. 

Brill 

St. L. 

St. L. 

St. L. 

St. L. 

St. L. 

A. L. 

Std. 

Brill 

Brill 

Bald. 

Co. 

Co. 

Co. 

Brill 

K-J. 

M'G-C. 

Std. 

Std. 

M'G-C. 

M'G-C. 

M'G-C. 

M'G-C. 

M'G-C. 

Std. 

M'G-C. 



Brill 
Co. 
Brill 
St. L. 
Brill 



Pass.Tr. 42-0 

St. Bat. 40-0 

Pass.Tr. 36-4 City 

Work 40-0 City 



Int. 
Int. 



Old 

Lacon. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

AC&F 

AC&F 

AC&F 

Beach 

Brill 

Beach 
Beach 
St. L. 
Brill 



Brill 

McGuire-C. 
. Southern 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co Shops 
Co. Shops 
Jewett 
St. Louis 
Brill 

Gen. Elec. 
Preston 

. Southern 
Brill 

Nova Scotia 
McGuire-C. 
McGuire-C. 
Co. Shops 
Southern 
Co. Shops 
Brill 
Brill 

Co. Shops 
McGuire-C. 
Wason 
Brill 

St. Louis 
Wason 
Ottawa 
St. Louis 
Co. Shops 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Brill 
Brill 

Westingh. 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co Shops 
Kil. & Jac. 
McGuire-C. 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
McGuire-C. 
McGuire-C. 
McGuire-C. 
McGuire-C. 
MeGuire-C 
St. Louis 
McGuire-C. 

. Southern 

. Southern 

. Southern 
Brill 

Co. Shops 
Kuhlman 
Kan. Con. Co 
American 

. Jewett 

. Jewett 
Co. Shops 

Laconia 

Laconia 

Brill 

Preston 

A.C.&F. 

A.C.&F. 

A.C.&F. 

Ry.St.Bat. 

American 

St. Loins 
Ry.St.Bat. 
Co. Shops 
Brill 



Purchaser 

Monongahela Val. Trac. Co. 



Sweeper 28-3 City M'G-C. McGuire-C. 



Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Sn.-Plow 

Sweeper 

St.Bat. 

Closed 

Line 

Closed 

Closed. 

Closed 

Closed 

Dump 



33-2* City 
46-0 City 



Milledgeville Railway . . 
Milwaukee Elec. Hy. & Lt. Co. 



46-0 
21-0 

27-6 
56-0 
30-0 



21-0 
40-0 
38-15 

61-0 
70-0 
52-0 
61-0 
50-0 
50-0 
60-0 
18-0 
47-0 
32-0 
32-4 
40-0 



1 St.Bat. 
30 Closed 
10 Closed 

8 Sweepe 

2 Work 

25 Dump 15-10 Gen. W.W.S, 



City 
City 
City 
City 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
City 
City 
Int. 
City 

Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
City 
City 
City 
Gen. 



Bald. 

St. L. 

St. L. 

Brill 

S,-W. 

Beach 

Brill 

Peek. 

Brill 

Brill 

St. L. 

Bald. 



Bald. 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Bald. 
M'G-C. 
Brill 
Bald. 
Brill 
M'G-C. 
Co. 



10 Flat 15-4 Gen. 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, Roch. & 

Dubuque Elec. Trac. Co 5 Gas. -El. 72-0 Int. 

3 Gas. -El. 35-0 Int. 
Loco. 

Modesto Empire Trac. Co 1 St.Bat. 



W.W.S. 



Wason 
Wason 



Cincinnati 
St. Louis 
Smith-Wal. 
Brill 

Smith-Wal. 
Ry.St.Bat. 
Wason 
Co. Shops 
Southern 
American 
St Louis 
Niles 

.Oren.-Arth- 
ur-Koppel 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
MeGuire-C. 
Brill 

Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
McGuire-C. 
Co. Shops 
West. W. 
Scraper Wks 
West. W. 
Scraper Wks 
Gen. Elec. 
Gen. Elec. 



27-6 City Beach Ry.St.Bat. 



No. Class Length Serv. 

. 6 Closed 42-0 Int. 

2 Closed 20-0 City 

2 Closed 42-0 Int 

Montreal & Southern Counties 

Ry 8 Closed 54-2 Int. Nat.S.C. 

2 Express 49-4 Int. Nat.S.C. 

Montreal Tramways 100 Closed 45-6 City Can. 

100 Closed 45-6 City Brill 

25 Closed 37-6 City Brill 

25 Pass.Tr. 37-6 City Brill 

1 Sweeper .... City Can. 

2 Prison 47-7 City Brill 
2 Rail, Tr. 63-0 City Can. 
1 Supply 44-0 City Brill 

Morris Co. Trac. Co 1 Sweeper 24-1 \ City Brill 

Newbern-GhentSt.Ry ...... . 1 St.Bat. 18-2 City Cin. 

New York, Auburn & Lansing 

R. R 1 El. Loco. 30-0 Fght. Rus. 

New York Central & Hudson 

River R. R 24 Closed 53-0 Int. Std. 

9 El.Loco. 55-2 Main A. L. 

6 El.Loco. 56-10 Main A. L. 

New York Rys 45 St.Bat. 28-9 City 

N. Y. State Rys., Roch. Lines. .25 Closed 30-11 City Brill 

25 Pass.Tr. 47-7 J City Bald. 

1 Sweeper 28-3 City M'G-C. 
N.Y. State Rys., Utica Lines. .10 Closed 30-11 City Brill 

4 Closed 34-4 Jnt. Brill 
12 Sweeper 24-1 \ City Brill 

Niagara Gorge R. R 1 Express 40-0 Int. Brill 

Nipis^ing Central Ry 1 Sn.-Plow 30-0 Int. Rus. 

Norfolk Southern R. R 5 Closed 52-0 Int. Brill 

Norfolk & Western Railway. . .24 El.Loco. 52-0 Main Bald. 

Northampton St. Ry 2 Open 43-0 City Std. 

2 Closed 30-8 Int. Bald. 
2 Closed 30-0 City Std. 

North Carolina Pub. Ser. Co . . . 6 Closed City 

Northern Massachus. St. Ry . . . 4 Closed 25-0 Int. Tay. 
Northern Ohio Trac. & Light 

Co 6 Gondola 36-0 City 

Northern Texas Trac. Co 4 Closed 51-0 Int. Bald. 

10 Closed 26-6 City Brill 

Northwestern Penn. Railway. . . 2 Closed 51-0 Int. Bald. 

2 Closed 51-0 Int. Bald. 

Oakland, Antioch & East. Rv . . 4 Closed 56-0 Int 

8 Closed 56-0 Int. Bald. 

2 El.Loco. 39-0 Int. Bald. 

1 Parlor 58-0 Int 

OgdenR. T. Co 2 Observ Int. 

Ohio Elec. Ry 5 Cl.Exp. 49-0 Int. 

2 Tr. Exc'n 60-0 Int. 

5 Express 50-0 Int. 

15 Fr't Trail 38-6 Int. 
Ohio Valley Elec. Ry 8 Closed 30-0 City 

10 Closed 38-0 City 

1 Crane 42-0 Int. 

Oil Belt Ry 2 Gasoline 70-0 Int. 

1 Ex. -Loco. 40-0 Int. 

Oklahoma Ry 1 Bag.&Ex. 35-0 Int. 

1 Line 35-0 Int. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs St. Ry . 15 Closed 42-0 City 

10 Pass.Tr. 46-0 City 

1 Dump 30-8 City 
Oregon Elec. Ry 6 Express 62-8^ Int. 

6 Exp.Tr. 62-8^ Int. 
Ottawa Elec. Ry 10 Closed 45-3 City 

2 Sweeper .... City 

Pacific Pwr. & Lt. Co 1 Closed 21-0 City 

Park. Marietta & Int. Ry 2 Closed 41-0 Int. 

2 Express 38-0 Int. 

2 Box 38-0 Int. 

2 Gondola 38-0 Int. 

1 Work. 24-0 City 

Pascagoula St. Ry. & Pwr. Co. . 4 Closed 18-0 Int. 

Peninsular Ry 8 Closed 55-6$ Int 

People's Rv 1 Closed 28-0 City Std. 

People's St. Ry 2 Closed 36-0 Int. Brill 

Peoria Rv 4 Closed 28-0 City St. L. 

Phila. & Garrett. St. Ry 2 Closed 51-0 Int 

Philadelphia R. T. Co 500 Closed 34-1 1 City Brill 

1 Ft., Box 36-0 Int. Brill 
6 Flat 40-0 City Brill 
5 Sweeper 27-6 City Brill 

Phoenix Ry 4 Calif. 38-8 City Brill 

Phoenixville, Valley Forge & 

Staf . Elec. Ry 2 Open 43-0 Int. Brill 

Piedmont & Northern Lines .. . 8 Pass.Tr Int 

2 Parlor Int 

Pine Bluff Co 1 Sprinkler 22-6 City 

Pittsburgh & Butler St. Ry 1 Express 50-0 Int. 

Pittsburgh Rys 50 Closed 45-2 City 

5 Doub.D'k47-2 City 

1 Substa. 27-0 City 

Port Arthur & Ft. William. 

Elec. Ry 2 Closed 47-6 City Brill 

4 Closed 45-3 City Brill 

2 Pass.Tr. 46-6 City Brill 

6 Closed 30-0 City Brill 

1 Sweeper .... City Otta. 

Portland, Gray & Lewiston 

R. R 1 Flat 35-0 Int 

Public Service R. R 10 Closed 34-5} Int. Std. 

2 Closed 32-0 City Std. 

1 Sn.-Plow 30-0 Int. Tay. 
Public Service Ry 7 Closed 32-0 City Std. 

20 Closed 34-5 \ City Std. 

2 Sn.-Plow 30-0 Int. Tay. 

11 Work 40-0 Int. Tay. 
1 Work 28-8 Int. Tay. 
1 Private 44-0 Int. Std. 

Public Utilities Co 8 Closed 28-0 City Bald. 

Puget Sound Trac. Lt. & Pr. 

Co., Bellingham Division .... 1 Closed 50-0 
Puget Sound Trac. Lt. & Pr. 

Co., Seattle Division 9 Closed 38-4 City Std. 

1 Closed 38^1 City Bald 

Quebec Rv. Lt. & Pwr. Co 1 Sweeper 28-3 City M'G-C. 

Quincy Ry 4 One-Man 21-0 City St. L. 

Regina Munio. Ry 6 Closed 22-0 City Brill 

16 Closed 28-0 City Brill 
6 Dump 8-0 City Vel. 



Truck Builder 
Brill Jewett 
Brill Kuhlman 
Jewett 



Nat.Stl.Car 
Nat.Stl.Car 
Canadian 
Ottawa 
Brill 
Brill 
Ottawa 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Brill 

Cincinnati 

Russell 

Pr. Steel 
Gen. Elec. 
Gen. Elec. 
.A.C.&F. 
Kuhlman 
Kuhlman 
McGuire-C. 
Cincinnati 
Kuhlrnan 
Brill 

Co. Shops 
Russell 
Southern 
Westingh. 
Wason 
Wason 
Brill 

. Southern 
Wason 



Co. 

Cin. 

Std. 

Bald. 

Std. 

Old 

St. L. 

Rus. 

M'G-C. 

M'G-C. 

Std. 

Std. 

Brill 

Bald. 

M'G-C. 

Bald. 

Std. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Ralst. 

Brill 

Brill 



St. Louis 
St. Louis 
Niles 
Niles 
.Wason 
Cincinnati 
Westingh. 
. Wason 
Co. Shops 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
Russell 
Brake 
Brake 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
McGuire-C 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
Ottawa 
Ottawa 
Brill 

Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
American 
.Jewett 
Cincinnati 
Brill 
St. Louis 
.Jewett 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 

American 
Brill 

.Southern 
. Southern 
McGuire-C. 
Russell 
St. Louis 
McGuire-C- 
McGuire-C 

Ottawa 
Ottawa 
Ottawa 
Ottawa 
Ottawa 

.Wason 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Russell 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Russell 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
St. Louis 



City Std. Co. Shops 



M'G-C. 
Rus. 
St. L. 
M'G-C. 
M'G-C. 



Cincinnati 

Cincinnati 

McGuire-C. 

St. Louis 

Preston 

Preston 

Veletor 



32 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



Purchaser 



No. Class Length Serv. Truck 



Regina Munic Ry. 6 Flat 

1 Sweeper 

2 Work 
1 Haul. 

Rio Grande Valley Elec. Ry . .. 4 Closed 

1 Baggage 

Rockford Citv Trac. Co 6 Closed 

4 Closed 
13 Work 



Saginaw-Bay City Ry 2 

6 

Saginaw & FlintRy 1 

St. Joseph Valley Ry 1 

St. Petersburg & Gulf Ry 2 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry 8 

1 

Salt Lake & Utah .R R 3 

San Antonio Trac. Co 14 

San Diego Elec. Ry 35 

Sand Springs Ry 4 

1 

Sand., Wind. & Amherst Ry . . . 2 

2 

Santa Barbara & Sub. Ry 5 

Saskatoon Elec. Ry 12 

Savannah Elec. Co 3 

Schenectady Ry 7 

Scioto Valley Trac. Co 2 

Scranton & Binghamton Ry ... 1 

Scranton Rv 5 

Seattle Munic. St. Ry 12 

Selma St. & Sub. Rv 1 

1 

Shebovgan Ry. & Elec. Co 2 

Shore Line Elec. Ry 8 

1 

Shreveport Trac. Co 3 

Sioux Falls Trac. System 1 

South Carolina Lt. Pwr. & Rys. 

Co 5 

So. Covington & Cincinnati St. 

Ry 20 

1 

Southern Trac. Co 22 

6 
10 

8 
2 

Southern Trac. Co. of Illinois . . 6 
Southwestern Trac. & Pr. Co. . . 1 

South Oregon Ry 1 

Southwest Missouri R. R 3 

1 

Springfield Ry 10 

Springfield St. Ry 4 

9 
6 
1 
2 



Open 

Closed 

Express 

St. Bat. 

Closed 

Closed 

Work 

Gas. Mot. 

Closed 

Closed 

Pass.Tr. 

El. Loco. 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Tr., Box 

Coal 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Flat 

Closed 

Express 

Closed 

Closed 



14-0 
36-0 
9-0 
28-0 
40-0 
40-0 
28-0 
28-0 
14-0 

32-1 

28-0 

48-0 

52-0^ 

30-8 

56-0 



28-10 
48-7 
34-0 
34-4 
20-8 
31-3 

39- 4 
46-6 
28-0 
28-0 
36-0 

30- 6 

31- 1 
26-0 
24-0 
30-0 
30-8 

40- 
28-10 
26-6 



City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Citv 

City 

Gen. 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Citv 

Citv 

Int. 

Sw'ch 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

City 

City 

Citv 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

City 



Brill 
M'G-C. 
City 
Briil 
St. L. 
St. L. 
Bald. 
St. L. 
W.W.S, 



Bald. 

Bald. 

Beach 

Brill 

Bald. 

Bald. 

Brill 

Brill 

St. L. 

Bald. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Std. 

Tay. 

B.&S. 

Brill 

Tay. 

Std. 

Phila. 

Co. 

Co. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 



Builder 

Ry. Shops 

McGuire-C« 

Ry. Shops 

Ry. Shops 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

West. W. 

Scraper Wks 
. Kuhlman 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

Ry.St.Bat. 

Brill 

Niles 

Co. Shops 
. Hall-Scott 

American 

McGuire-C. 

St. Louis 

Westingh. 

Kuhlman 

Kuhlman 

Brill 

Preston 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

Bar.&Smith 

Brill 

Southern 
Cincinnati 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Wason 
Wason 
American 
. St. Louis 



Closed 20-8 City Brill American 



Stark Elec. R. R 

Ster. Dixon & East. Elec. Ry . 

Suburban R. R 



. 1 
1 

. 10 
1 

Syracuse & Suburban Ry 2 

Terre Haute, Ind. & East. 
Trac. Co., Terre Haute Div. 2 
2 
1 



Texas City St. Ry 

2 

Third Avenue Ry 4 

Tidewater Southern Ry 3 

1 

Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co 30 

10 

3 

Toronto Ry 24 

1 
75 
1 

Toronto Sub. Ry 2 

2 

Tri CityRy 25 

35 
3 

Twin City R. T. Co 107 

1 

Twin Falls Ry 2 

Union Elec. Co 3 

3 

Union St. Ry 12 

1 
1 
1 



Union Trac. Co. of Indiana . . 
United Rys. Co. of St. Louis. 



United Rys. & Elec. Co . 



United Trac. Co 

Urbana & Champaign Ry. Gas 

& Elec. Co 

Valley Trac. Co 

Vicksburg Lt. & Trac. Co 

Virginia Ry. & Pwr. Co 

Washington Ry. &~Elec. Co .... 

Washington Utilities Co 



. 6 
100 
3 
13 
34 
2 

1 

. .60 
2 
1 

12 



Waterbury & MUldale Tram- 
way 



Closed 

Substa. 

Closed 

Closed 

Pass.Tr. 

Express 

Work 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Line 

Closed 

( 'losed 

Closed 

Closed 

Express 

Sweeper 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Sweeper 

Closed 

Gondola 

Flat 

Line 

Closed 

Closed 

Sweeper 

Closed 

Express 

Closed 

Closed 

Sweeper 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Work 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Sweepers 

Closed 

Crane 

St.Bat. 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Line 

Exp. 

Open 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Pass.Tr. 

Dump 

Line 

Closed 

Dump 

Crane 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Closed 

Dou.D'k 

Flat 

Line 



21-0 

27- 

54- 

26- 6 
53-0 
52-0 
52-0 

40-5 

21- 
44 1-0 
3H-0 

28- 
35-0 
28-0 
30-3 \ 
40-0 
23-11 
45-0 
30-0 
48-0 
45-0 
28-3 
34-4 

32- 

34- 

42- 
30-O 
28-9 

22- 6 
51-0 

45- 

44- 10 

28-3 

23- 
27J-0 
30-0 
40-0 

33- 

46- 
28-0 
30-8 
28-4 

46- 8 

43- 10 

35- 

27- 4 
27-4 
30-0 
26-0 
26-0 
30-0 

55- 

47- 
42-3 

45- 
47-2 1 
45-0 
40-6 



City 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
City 
City 
Int. 
City 
City 
Int. 
City 
City 
Int. 
City 
Int. 
City 
Int. 
City 
City 
City 

Both 

Both 

Both 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Citv 

City 

City 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 



Brill 

M'G-C. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

St. L. 

Brill 

St. L. 

Tay. 

Brill 

Bald. 

Std. 

Std. 

Std. 

Std. 

Rus. 

Bald. 

M'G-C. 

M'G-C. 

M'G-C. 

M'G-C. 

Brill 

Co. 

Co. 

Bald. 

M'G-C. 

M'G-C. 

Brill 

Brill 



M'G-C. 

Can. 

Can. 

Can. 

Co. 

Tav- 

Brill 

St. L. 

Brill 

M'G-C. 

Co. 

Co. 

Beach 

Brill 

Bald. 

Std. 

Brill 

St. L. 

Std. 

Bald. 

Co. 

Co. 

Co. 

Co. 

Co. 

Co. 



35- 6 i City 
30-8 City 

City 

City 

30-11 City 

28-0 City 

30-8 City 

21-0 City 

48-8 City 

46-0 City 

42-0 City 

36- Int. 
18-0 Int. 



Co. 
Brill 



Brill 
Tay. 

St. L. 

Brill 

Old 

Brill 

Bald. 

Bald. 

Brill 

Brill 



2 Closed 30-8 Int. Brill 



Cincinnati 

McGuire-C. 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

American 

American 

American 

St. Louis 

American 

St. Louis 

Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

Cincinnati 

Wason 

Osg.-Brad. 

Wason 

Wason 

Russell 

Jewett 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

Brill 

Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

Brill 

. Jewett 
Jewett 

. McGuire-C. 

.Co. Shops 
McGuire-C. 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Preston 
Preston 
St. Louis 
American 
McGuire-C. 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Ry.Sto.Bat. 
American 
American 
Osg.-Brad. 
Brill 
St. Louie 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Oren. -Arth- 
ur Koppel 
Co. Shops 
Brill 

. Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Cincinnati 

St. Louis 
Brill 
St. Louis 
Cincinnati 
Southern 
Southern 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 

Wason 



Purchaser 


Na. Class 


Length 


Serv. 


Truck 


Builder 


Waterloo, Cedar Falls & 














North. Rv 


Q 




32-0 


City 


M'G-C. 


McGuire-C. 


Western N. Y. & Pa. Trac.Co... 


I 


Closed 


20-8 


City 


Brill 


Brill 




\ 


Express 


40-0 


City 


Brill 


Wason 




I 


Sn.-Plow 




Int. 




Russell 


Western Ohio Rv 


4 


Tr., Box 


46^6 


Int. 


B.&S. 


Bar.&Smith 


West Jersey & Seashore R. R. . . 


g 


Open 




City 




Southern 




26 


Closed 


34-1 2 


City 


Brill 


Brill 


Westside Elec. St. Ry 


2 


Closed 


48-0 


Int. 


Bald. 


Niles 


Wichita R. R. & Lt. Co 


6 


One-Man 21-0 


City 


St. L. 


St. Louis 


Wilkes-Barre Ry 


4 


Closed 


28—0 


City 


Brill 


Brill 


6 


Closed 


36-8 


Int. 


Brill 


Brill 


Williamsport Pass. Ry 


6 


Closed 


28-0 


City 


Brill 


Brill 


Wilmington, New Castle & Del. 












City Ry 


1 


St.Bat. 


35-6 


Int. 


Beach 


Ry.St.Bat. 


Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore 










Ry 


2 


Closed 


55-0 


Int. 


Bald. 


Tillsonburg 


Winnipeg Elec. Ry 


40 


Closed 


33-0 


City 


Co. 


Co. Shops 


1 


Flat 




City 


Co. 


Co. Shops 


Wisconsin Ry. Lt. & Pwr. Co. . . 


4 


Closed 


21H5 


City 


St. L. 


St. Louis 


Worcester Consol. St . Ry 


15 


Closed 


28-0 


City 


Std. 


Osg.-Brad. 


6 


Closed 


35-0 


Int. 


Std. 


Wason 




4 


Express 


40-0 


Int. 


Std. 


Wason 


Yakima Valley Trans. Co 


2 


Closed 


45-0 


Int. 


Brill 


Jewett 


1 


Express 


45-0 


Int. 


Brill 


Jewett 


York Rys 


3 


Closed 


34-0 


Int. 


Bald. 


Brill 


1 


Pass.Tr. 


44-0 


Int. 


Bald. 


Co. Shops 




1 


Sweeper 


24-l| 


Int. 


Brill 


Brill 


Youngstown & Ohio Riv. R. R 


, 1 


El. Loco. 


37-6 


Fght. 


Bald. 


Westingh. 



BLOCK SIGNAL INSTALLATIONS IN 1913 



As the past year has been an exceptionally active 
one in electric railway signaling, a list has been com- 
piled of the installations made during that period. 
The statistics show, in addition to the name of the 
road making each installation, the number of signals, 
the route mileage protected — where this is known — and 
the name of the manufacturer. In the column headed 
"Remarks" the type of signal has been indicated, 
whether of the trolley-contact, cab-signal or track-cir- 
cuit type, and in the latter case the style of indication, 
either semaphore or light or both, is noted. Where the 
protection is furnished for double track this fact is 
indicated, all installations without the notation being 
on single track. 



Name of Road No. Sig. Miles 

Alabama Cy„ G. & A. Ry. 2 
Altoona & Logan Valley . . 5 

American Railways 2 

Bangor Ry 12 

Bay State St. Ry 50 

Birmingham Ry 14 

Brooklyn R.T 26 2.4 

Beaumont Trac 4 

Boston El. Ry 8 

Butte, A. &P 16 3.8 

British Col. El. Ry 4 

Burlington C. T 2 

Chicago, L.S. & S.B 80 55 

Chicago, S. B. & N. I. .. . 20 9.5 

Chicago, S. B. & N. I 2 

Chicago, S. B. & N. I 2 

Chicago & Milwaukee 2 

Chattanooga Ry 46 

Citizens' Traction 10 

Columbus Ry 12 

Connecticut Co 13 

Detroit M. & T 2 0.6 

Dallas Consol. St. Ry .... 1 

E. St. Louis, C. & W' 4 

E. St. Louis & Sub 2 

Easton Transit Co 6 

Elmira St. Ry 4 

Fort Wayne & N. I. T. . . . 24 24.4 
Fitchburg& Leo's't'r. ... 1 

Fonda J. & G 2 

Galesburg & K 2 

Gray's Harbor Ry 2 

Gary&Int 4 4.8 

Halifax El. Tr' way 8 

HolyokeSt. Ry 2 

Holyoke St. Ry 4 

Illinois Traction 79 77. 

Illinois Traction 1 

Indianapolis C.&S 54 23.8 

Ind'p'ls & Cin. Trac'n. . . 81 27. 

International Ry 4 

International Ry 6 

Jackson L. & T. Co 2 

Joliet & Southern 5 

Kansas City Western .... 8 

Knoxville Ry. & Lt 10 

Kokomo, M.&W 4 5.5 

Lake Shore Elect 6 

Lehigh Valley T. C 5 

Lewiston, A. & W 4 

Louisville & Northern .. . 8 3.5 

Manhattan & Queens. ... 2 

Manchester St. Ry 2 

Mesaba Railway 34 36 . 

Mass. & Northeastern ... 4 
Mansfield Ry 4 



Manufacturer Remarks 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Gen. Ry. Sig Track Circ. -Light 

D.T.-Auto stops 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

D.T. 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig . . Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Nachod Curve Protection 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Gen. Ry. Sig Track Circ. -Light. 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Auto. Sig.&App... .Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Gen. Ry. Sig Track Circ.-Light. 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

and Light 

Northey-Simmen..Cab Signals 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Gen. Ry. Sig Track Circ.-Sema. 

Auto.Sig.&App . . .Tr'y Cont. (4 D.T.) 

Nachod Tr'y Cont. (1 D.T.) 

C.N. Wood Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

and Light. 

U.S.J51. Sig Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Northey-Simmen . Cab Signal 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 



JANUARY 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



33 



Name of Road No. Sig. 

Michigan United 10 

Middlesex & Boston 6 

Mahoning & Shenango ... 8 

Monongahela V. T. Co . . . 

Muskegon T. & L 2 

Nashville-Gallatin 38 

Nashville Ry 2 

N. Y. State Rys 90 

N.Y. State Rys 123 

N. Y. State Rys 18 

Northampton St. Ry .... 4 

Norwest. Pacific 2 

Northwest Penn 2 

Northern Ohio Traction . . 6 

Northern Illinois L. & T . . 2 

Northern Electric 4 

Oakland A. & E 51 

OgdenR. T.Co 2 

Ohio Electric 8 

Ottawa El. Ry 2 

Pacific Electric 101 

Parkersburg M. & I 23 

Phila. R. T 10 

Phila. & Westchester .... 2 

Portland (Ore.) Ry.,L&P. 28 

Portland (Me.) Ry 2 

Puget Sound El. Ry 55 

Public Service Ry _ 28 

Rhode Island Co 62 

Roanoke Ry 2 

San Francisco, -Oakland... 4 

Schenectady Ry 2 

Springfield St. Ry 8 

Springfield St. Ry 2 

Scranton & Binghamton . . 36 

Shore Line El. Ry 2 

Southern El. Dev. Co ... . 2 

South. Wisconsin 2 

Southern Pacifio 14 

Southwestern T. Co 1 

Staten Island Midland. . . 4 

T.H., I. & E 6 

T. H.,I. &E 26 

Texas Traction 6 

Transit Supply Co 5 

Union Trac. of Ind 43 

Union Ry., New Bedford. 2 

Union Rv., New Bedford. 2 

Valley Traction Co 10 

Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co. ... 18 

Wash. & Great Falls 10 

West. Penn. T. Co 2 

Wheeling T. Co 8 

Wilkes-Barre Ry 3 

Wilkes-Barre & Hazl'n ... 2 

Worcester Cons 57 



13 



Miles Manufacturer Remarks 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Northey-Simmen. Cab Signal 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Gen. Ry. Sig Track Circ.-Sema. 

Gen. Ry. Sig Track Circ.-Sema. 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

D.T. 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

25 Union S. & S . . . . . Track Circ.-Sema. 

D.T. 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

Nachod Curve & Gantlet 

Protection 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Light 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Light 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

and Light 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

and Light-D.T. 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Contactors for 

Subway Signals 

Nachod Contactors for 

Subway Signals 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

Gen. Ry . Sig Track Circ.-9m. 

D.T., 19m. S.T. 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

and Light 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

and Light 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Union S. & S Track Circ.-Sema. 

D.T. 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

C. N. Wood Trolley Contact 

Gen. Ry. Sig Track Circ.-Light 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Spur Tracks 

Gen. Ry. Sig Track Circ.-Light 

C. N. Wood Trollev Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Headway Recorders 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Trolley Contact 

Nachod Third-Rail Contact 

U.S. El. Sig Trolley Contact 



9.5 



33 



39 



RECEIVERSHIPS AND FORECLOSURE SALES IN 1913 



Records of electric railway companies for which re- 
ceivers were appointed in 1913 show that the number 
of companies which became involved in financial diffi- 
culties and their total single-track mileage were smaller 
than in the preceding year, but that the amounts of out- 
standing stock and the outstanding funded debt were 
much larger in 1913. This was caused by the receiver- 
ship of the American Waterworks & Guarantee Com- 
pany, which, being only a holding company, did not 
increase the mileage total, but with its $20,000,000 of 
stock and its $37,589,000 of summarized subsidiary 
funded debt caused a large rise in the outstanding stock 
and funded debt totals. The record of receiverships for 
1913 compares with the preceding four years as follows : 

No. of Miles of Outstanding Outstanding 

Companies Track Stock Funded Debt 

1909 22 558 $29,962,200 $22,325,000 

1910 11 696.61 12,629,400 75,490,735 

1911 19 518.9 29,533,450 38,973,293 

1912 26 373.58 20,410,700 11,133,800 

1913 18 342.84 31,006,900 47,272,200 

A number of the companies placed under receivership 
had not reached the stage of operation of completed 
systems, and the mileage given is for the number of 
miles in actual operation, wherever that figure was 
ascertainable. In all cases where both steam and elec- 
tric service were given the mileage represents only the 
sections devoted to electric operation, although the en- 
tire capitalization is included in the table. It has been 
attempted in all cases to take the figures from the 



latest sources; but with some companies, especially 
those newly constructed and those that do not publish 
a yearly report, the information secured has been 
vague and sometimes even useless for the purposes of 
this table. As will be noticed from the accompanying 
list, most of the companies under receivership in 1913 

Electric Railway Receiverships in 1913 

Outstanding Outstanding 
Stock Funded Debt 



Mileage 

American Water Works & Guaran- 
tee Co 

Bowling Green Railway 7.50 

Buffalo Southern Railway 25.35 

Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Co. 53.00 
Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora 

Street Railway 32.20 

Fayetteville Street Railway & Power 

Co 4.00 

Goldsboro Traction Co 6.00 

Kansas City, Ozark & Southern Ry. 15.00 
Loramie & Minster Electric Ry. . . . 17.70 
Mansfield Railway, Light & Power 

Co 21.00 

Mexico, Santa Fe & Perry Traction 

Co 27.00 

Northern Illinois Electric Ry 12.00 

Pekin & Petersburg Interurban Ry. 7.00 

Richmond & Henrico Ry 9.12 

Sunbury & Susquehanna Ry 7.00 

Titusville Electric Trac. Co 17.50 

Tri-City Railway & Electric Co... 75.47 
Watsonville Railway & Navigation 

Co 6.00 



$20,000,000 $37,589,000* 



50 000 
547^200 
1,904,500 

808,900 


?0 Hfto 

600,000 
748,000 

750,000 


200,000 


12,500 


300,000 




20,500 


42,700 


1,000,000 


942,000 


850,000 


1,600, 000f 


50,000f 
1,250,000 
l,000,000f 

300,000 
2,575,800 

150,000 


50,000 
1,250,000 
l,200,000f 

300,000 
2,168,000 



342.84 $31,006,900 $47,272,200 

♦Holding company has no bond issues ; figure represents sum- 
mary of funded debt of subsidiaries. 

f Authorized amount ; outstanding amount not known. 

operated a small mileage. An interesting fact in con- 
nection with this table is that two of the receiverships, 
those of the Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Company 
and of the Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora Street 
Railway, were the direct result of the disastrous flood 
that visited the Ohio valley in the spring. 

The record of electric railways sold at foreclosure 
during 1913 is as extensive as far as the number of 
companies is concerned as the list of 1912, and the 
mileage, outstanding stock and outstanding funded 
debt all show substantial increases over the previous 
year. It should be noted in this connection that the 
foreclosure sale of the Geneva & Auburn Railway, in- 
cluded in the 1912 table, did not actually take place un- 
til March, 1913, and, furthermore, that the 1912 sale 
of the Illinois and Wisconsin divisions of the Chicago 
& Milwaukee Electric Railroad was set aside by the 
court in 1913 on the ground of suppression of bids and 
has not yet been legally consummated. The adjustment 
of the 1912 totals to reflect these facts gives the 
amounts as shown in the accompanying comparative 
table for the last five years : 



1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 



No. of 
Companies 
21 
22 
25 
18 
18 



Miles of 
Track 
488 
724.36 
660.72 
267.18 
311.28 



Outstanding 
Stock 
$22,265,700 
19,106,613 
91,354,800 
14,197,300 
15,743,700 



Outstanding 
Funded Debt 
$21,174,000 
26,374,065 
115,092,750 
10,685,250 
19,526,000 



As has been found to be the case in previous years, 
when a table of foreclosure sales has been compiled, 
some electric railways for which receivers were ap- 
pointed in 1913 were able to carry out a reorganiza- 
tion plan through a foreclosure sale before the end of 
the year, as is shown by the accompanying list. The 
Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, too, is included among the foreclosed companies, 
although it is not an operating company. The sale of 
the South Shore Traction Company represents the sale 
of 9 miles of line between Babylon and Amityville and 
various other unconnected sections and construction 
material in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, Long Island; 
the sale of the property of this company in New York 
County was included in the 1912 table. Although the 
sale of the Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad was 
ordered by the United States District Court of Chi- 



34 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLII1, No. 1. 



cago on July 17, 1913, the company is omitted, for no 
date of sale has been selected by the receiver. 

In addition to the properties mentioned in the forego- 
ing lists other companies have undergone various forms 



Electric Railway Foreclosure Sales in 1913 

Outstanding Outstanding 



Mileage 


Stock 


Funded Debt 


Bowling Green Ry 


7.50 


$50,000 


$20,000 


Cassville & Western Ry 


5.00 


100,000 




Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus R. R. 


17.18 


500,000 


510,000 


Dedham & Franklin Street Ry. . . . 


9.50 


75,000 


100,000 


F.rie & Central Pennsylvania Ry. 




1,000,000 


40,000 


Fayetteville Street Railway & 










4.00 






Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern 






R. R 


106.00 


3,200,000 


6,600,000 


Geneva & Auburn Ry 


17.85 


450,000 


400,000 


Goldsboro Traction Co 


6.00 


200,000 


12,500 


Highland Park & Lake Burien R. R. 


9.00 






Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley 








Rapid Transit Co 




6,500,000 


7,683,000 




11.25 


100,000 


100,000 


Mexico, Santa Fe & Perry Trac. Co. 


27.00 


850,000 


l,600,000t 


Nebraska Traction & Power Co. . . 


20.00 


248,700 


214,000 


Pittsburgh, McKeesport & West- 








moreland Rv 


9.00 


500,000 


431,500 




9.00 


600,000 


435,000 


Springfield, Clear Lake & Roches- 








ter Interurban Ry 


11.00 


120,000 


60,000 


Toledo & Chicago Interurban Ry. 


42.00 


1,250,000 


1,320,000 




311.28 : 


515,743,700 


$19,526,000 



f Authorized amount ; outstanding amount not known. 



of reorganizations, readjustments and change of own- 
ership, but they have been omitted because of a lack 
of formal receiverships and foreclosure sales. 



ILLINOIS TRACTION SCHOOL FOR STEAM BOILER 
OPERATORS 

The Illinois Traction System has made an arrange- 
ment whereby it will conduct a school of instruction 
in boiler-room operation at its Peoria (111.) generat- 
ing station for its superintendents, stationary engi- 
neers and boiler-room foremen. This is probably the 
first school of the kind to be established in a street 
railway power plant. It is planned to equip one boiler 
in the Peoria plant with a full set of both indicating 
and recording instruments to show and record all 
draft and temperature changes which take place under 
different methods of firing, and both the coal and the 
water consumed by the boiler will be measured con- 
tinuously, so that a test of considerable refinement 
may be conducted at a moment's notice. It is planned 
to have large-scale diagrams of the boiler on which 
the actual draft instruments will be shown. This will 
permit the draft changes throughout the entire boiler 
to be observed at a glance, and the effect of damper 
and fuel bed changes may be noted immediately. The 
following recording instruments will be installed: A 
recording Venturi meter; a coal weigher; a recording 
steam-flow meter; a recording gas analysis instru- 
ment; recording thermometers for the feed water, 
flue temperature and steam temperature; recording 
gages for the furnace and damper drafts, and a ther- 
mo-electric pyrometer for furnace temperatures. 

The management believes that this course of in- 
struction will indicate to engineers and firemen the 
value of different parts of the boiler, the most efficient 
methods of firing, the use of the various instruments 
necessary in detecting heat losses, the possibility of 
smokeless combustion, the effect of soot and scale ac- 
cumulations, the results obtained from various sizes 
and kinds of coal, and the influence of various per- 
centages of CO, in the flue gases. When a condition 
of high efficiency is obtained, the attendant methods 
of firing will be immediately duplicated in the opera- 
tion of the rest of the plant as a practical demonstra- 
tion of the possibilities in applying improved methods. 
The school will be established by Harrington & Peebles, 
advisory engineers on boiler-room economy. 



ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR THE CHICAGO, MIL- 
WAUKEE & PUGET SOUND ELECTRIFICATION 

As announced last week, the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul Railway, after careful consideration, has de- 
cided to use the 2400-volt d.c. catenary system for the 
proposed electrification of its Rocky Mountain divi- 
sion between Three Forks and Deer Lodge, Mont., a 
distance of 113 miles, corresponding to approximately 
168 miles of single track. This covers one freight 
division. 

The trolley will be fed from five substations con- 
taining synchronous motor-generator sets, step-down 
transformers and necessary switching apparatus in- 
stalled at the following sites: Morel, 17 miles east of 
Deer Lodge; Newcomb, 46 miles east of Deer Lodge; 
Grace, 63 miles east of Deer Lodge; Piedmont, 78 miles 
east of Deer Lodge, and one at Three Forks. The sites 
of these substations may be varied slightly if later in- 
vestigation shows such changes desirable. These sta- 
tions will receive energy from the 100,000-volt trans- 
mission line of the Great Falls (Mont.) Power Com- 
pany, as mentioned in the preliminary description of 
the line which follows. 

LOCOMOTIVES 

No decision has been reached with regard to the 
type of either the passenger or the freight locomo- 
tives. It is probable that twelve locomotives will be 
needed for freight service. The freight locomotives 
will be required to haul a trailing load of 2500 tons 
up a 1 per cent grade at a speed of approximately 
15 m.p.h. The passenger locomotives will be re- 
quired to handle a trailing load of 800 tons on level 
track at approximately 50 m.p.h. and on a 2 per cent 
grade at approximately 24 m.p.h. The current will 
be taken by means of roller pantograph collectors. 
Heat for trains will be obtained by means of oil- 
burning steam boilers, for which ample room will 
be provided. All the locomotives, both freight and 
passenger, will have regenerative control. The air 
brakes will be used only for making stops and in 
emergencies. 

SUBSTATIONS 

Based upon the investigation of the locomotive 
performance on the ruling grades in the electrified 
zone, it has been decided to install in each substation 
supplying gradients of more than 1 per cent a ca- 
pacity of three 1500-kw units, two being in opera- 
tion and the third held in reserve. Although the 
starting of a train calls for practically 100 per cent 
overload upon the two units in operation, a 200 per 
cent overload for five minutes' guarantee will furnish 
ample capacity to start a train of maximum tonnage 
on a maximum grade. 

For gradients up to 1 per cent energy will be fur- 
nished from a two-unit substation containing two 
1500-kw motor-generator sets, each having a maximum 
load capacity of 4500 kw for a period of five minutes. 
It is the intention to use one 1500-kw unit in opera- 
tion with the second as reserve, to be used in emer- 
gencies such as disablement of the operating unit or 
a congestion of trains requiring them to be operated 
in fleets. 

Basing the substation capacity and location on the 
foregoing limitations, it is proposed to install three 
three-unit and two two-unit substations on the 113- 
mile division between Deer Lodge and Three Forks, 
Mont. In each case the substation building will be 
designed to accommodate an additional unit which 
may be installed when future traffic conditions make 
it desirable. 

All of the substation units are to be of the same 
size and will comprise a sixty-cycle synchronous 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



35 



motor direct-connected to two 750-kw, 1200-volt d.c. 
generators connected in series for 2400 volts. Each 
motor-generator set will be fed from three single- 
phase step-down transformers reducing from a trans- 
mission potential of 100,000 volts to 2300 volts at 
the synchronous-motor terminals. Each motor-gen- 
erator set will be equipped with two exciters, one for 
the synchronous motor and the other for the fields of 
the generators, thus making the motor-generator set, 
step-down transformer and exciting generators, to- 
gether with the controlling switchboard, a complete 
unit in itself. 

It is proposed to erect the substation buildings of 
brick on concrete foundations with a concrete roof 
supported on steel girders which will provide a foun- 
dation for the overhead high-voltage busbars. Each 
building will be equipped with a crane of sufficient 
capacity to move the heaviest part of the substation 
apparatus. The transformers will be of the self-oil- 
cooled type, placed in a roofed transformer room with 
tracks, to facilitate installation and repairs. An accom- 
panying table presents the equipment and capacity of 
each substation. 

TROLLEY CONSTRUCTION 

Energy will be supplied to the locomotives by means 
of roller pantographs from an overhead copper trolley 









— 0} 






comb I 








































•& 


eo 


o 
00 






3 


v\ 


Grace 


o_ 


































beer U 


sooo^ 






JA 


1 


,3 \ 


S 






01 
























owto/il 






4U 


.6 
00 










o 
































=t 






SO 


00 
















































2000 










-S 






































i\co 


o 




Si 




ca 
<N 






5 

to 






















1 

7 9 Mil 




























o 










o 
o 










OS 






Q 
<N 
03 



Miles from St. Paul Electric By. Journal 



C, M. & P. S. Electrification— Profile of Line Between 
Limits of Ultimate Electrification 



tonnage of trains has been reached and the frequency 
of train service more definitely determined. For im- 
mediate installation the feeder copper will be as fol- 
lows : Deer Lodge to Colorado Junction, 750,000 circ. 
mil; Colorado Junction to Piedmont, 1,000,000 circ. 
mil; Piedmont to Three Forks, 500,000 circ. mil. The 
details of track bonding have not yet been decided. 

TRANSMISSION LINE 

The Great Falls (Mont.) Power Company purposes 
to construct new transmission lines where necessary 
to deliver electricity to the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railroad electrified zone. This power will be 
supplied in about the following capacities: Deer 
Lodge, 20,000 kw; Butte, 10,000 kw; Three Forks, 3000 
kw. This arrangement necessitates building a new 
duplicate transmission line from Great Falls to Deer 
Lodge. As the proposed feeding-in points of the Great 
Falls Power Company do not coincide in all cases 
with the location of the substations, the railway will 
install a transmission line to tie in these feeding 




j~Z^JHclena\ 

— s^2/ __— ^ = )~ v \^ Harlowton 
. b Deer Lodge a J . \\ 



Cuttdo JT 

V— IL- JtSjhree Forks 

^wr~^" ^ P. #/T^T\ // 

(* ) VS. Liuingston. ^~^S/ <> ' 

r\ 1 I ~ J fl _* 

Electric Ey. Journal 

C, M. & P. S. Electrification— Map Showing Electrified 
Section of Line 




wire at least 24 ft. above the rail. The trolley wire 
will be of No. 0000 copper and suspended from a steel 
catenary cable. This catenary construction will be 
supported by bracket arms extending from wooden 
poles, except on the sharper curves, where two poles 



Substations and Their Equipment 



Total 

Location Equipment, Kw Capacity, Kw 

Morel Two 1500 3000 

Newcomb Three 1500 4500 

Grace Three 1500 4500 

Piedmont Three 1500 4500 

Three Porks Two 1500 3000 



and span wire construction will be employed. The 
single-pole bracket construction is to be followed 
wherever possible, because it affords less obstruction 
to view and is also less expensive than span construc- 
tion. Where two or more tracks are to be spanned 
span construction with wooden poles will be em- 
ployed. Where the number of tracks exceeds four 
steel construction will serve. 

The overhead trolley will be supplemented by feeder 
copper in order to restrict the energy losses in the 
2400-volt conducting circuit to a reasonable amount. 
However, only a portion of the complete feeder sys- 
tem will be installed until such time as the maximum 



points to each of the several substation sites. This 
transmission line will follow the railway company's 
right-of-way, except at some points where it is possible 
to cut across the country and save distance. 

Owing to the great distance from the right-of-way 
of the railway company to the source of power at 
Great Falls, it was found necessary to adopt a trans- 
mission potential of 100,000 volts both for the Great 
Falls transmission lines and for the single-circuit 
transmission line on the railway company's right-of- 
way. This high potential permits a shift in loads to 
different parts of the system without excessive loss. 
The transmission line built along the railway com- 
pany's right-of-way and connecting the several sub- 
stations will include the 100,000-volt line suspended 
upon 45-ft. wooden poles by means of a six-unit sus- 
pension-type insulator. 



It has been recently reported that an engineer in 
Rio de Janeiro has applied to the Municipal Council for 
a concession to construct an underground electric rail- 
way to connect the suburb of Cascadura with the cen- 
ter of the city. It is stated that there will be consider- 
able difficulties to overcome owing to the marshy and 
sandy nature of the subsoil. 



36 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 

American Economic Association Meeting 

During the First Two Days of This Convention, Which Was Held in Minneapolis on Dee. 27-30, the Dis- 
cussion Centered on Valuations and Rate Making 



Public utility relationships occupied a large share of 
the attention of those attending the twenty-sixth annual 
meeting of the American Economic Association, begun 
in Minneapolis Dec. 27. The first session was devoted 
entirely to the presentation and discussion of a paper on 
"Control of Public Service Corporations" by Prof. John 
H. Gray, of the University of Minnesota. President 
David Kinley, of the University of Illinois, was in the 
chair, and the attendance at the opening session was 
about 200. 

PROFESSOR GRAY ATTACKS RATE MAKING BY VALUATION 

In presenting a brief summary of a voluminous paper, 
Professor Gray advanced as his main thesis the pro- 
nouncement that public service commissions were on the 
wrong track in making valuation the basis of rate con- 
trol. He said that public utility commissions were on 
trial ; they would have to win success or the people would 
go to public ownership. There was no ground whatever 
for valuing public utilities. It should be remembered 
that these utilities were public enterprises in every sense 
ojf the word. The relation of the state or sovereign 
power to them was that of principal and agent. The 
speaker discussed some of the vagaries of valuations. 
The; rule, "a fair return on the fair value of the property 
used for the convenience of the public," was the finding 
of the courts. In law the country was now committed 
to it, but the effort to put this rule into practice would 
lead to chaos. 

Private owners were true pioneers. Like other pion- 
eers, say like a man who owns a gold mine, they were 
tmwilling to accept the fair return dictum of the courts ; 
they still wanted speculative gains, and they were hon- 
est in their belief. The Supreme Court had not laid 
down any rule for arriving at fair value. Professor 
Gray ridiculed the cost-of-reproduction-new theory of 
making valuations. In the last analysis all value ascer- 
tained by this method rested on human judgment. The 
companies, with their combined wealth, hired men of 
large intellect as experts in rate cases. Such men re- 
ceived more credence, when they gave their opinion in 
evidence, than perhaps less able experts representing the 
side of the public. The speaker cited the Des Moines gas 
case, where the company was said to have paid $150,000 
for expert evidence in a comparatively unimportant case. 
In the matter of the so-called intangible values the gates 
were opened for the wildest flights of fancy. Some of 
these intangibles were reviewed, such as interest during 
construction, charges for engineering and for general 
organization, promoters' expenses, contractors' profits, 
etc. Going value and good will likewise received the 
speaker's disapproval as elements to be taken into con- 
sideration in fixing rates. 

The commissions had proved to be but as the fifth 
wheel to the wagon. The courts were still the control- 
ling bodies. This would continue to be the case until 
the constitution was changed by a formal action or by 
interpretation. The theory of principal and agent was 
the only one upon which to arrive at a satisfactory rela- 
tion between the public and the utilities. The sovereign 
state was the principal. After allowing a fair wage to 
the agency, it should have the benefit of all gains and 
also stand all the losses. There should be. no valuation 
for rate regulation but history — that is, a statement of 
outlay of money spent and services rendered — nothing 
more. 

In relation to franchise contracts, Professor Gray 



gave it as his opinion that the Supreme Court had al- 
ready discovered that contract ordinances were incon- 
sistent with the modern theories of regulation. He also 
thought that "the courts, state and federal, are moving 
very rapidly to a point where, without any formal re- 
versals, they will find a way to abolish most of the exist- 
ing franchises by a strained interpretation, which leads 
to the conclusion that the franchises were invalid from 
the beginning for lack of power on the part of the mu- 
nicipality." 

Early losses should be repaid, but they should not be 
added to value, but rather repaid by higher rates 
through a reasonable term of years. They should not 
be capitalized for all time. Professor Gray also made 
the point that the commissions were reviewed by the 
courts and were not responsible in any proper sense. 
The courts in their turn were influenced by the findings 
of the commissioners. The speaker referred to "learned 
courts and tethered commissions." He cited the Fall 
River case where the Supreme Court of Massachusetts 
not only completely overruled the commission in that 
state in relation to the issuing of stock for extensions 
where a large surplus existed, but virtually abolished 
the powers of the commission by ruling that in such 
matters the commission was acting in a quasi-judicial 
capacity and must proceed on the same principles as 
the court would do. 

DISCUSSION 

E. W. Bemis, public utility expert, Chicago, urged 
that courses on rate regulation and the court decisions 
relating to them be established in universities. He be- 
lieved that regulation was here to stay and was doing a 
great deal of good in many directions, such as uniform 
accounting, control of service, control of rates and the 
training of men in the study of public service problems. 
But regulation had serious dangers. Giving too much 
of the unearned increment to the companies was one. 
The state should not ignore the investor, but its chief 
solicitude should be to protect the consumer. If mon- 
opoly earnings were not too large there could be no wat- 
ered stock. There was great danger, also, in the atti- 
tude of commissions toward municipal ownership. The 
city should have the right to make or lose as it pleased, 
considering the question of municipal utilities. Mr. 
Bemis thought that in relation to regulatory commis- 
sions the country was at a stage where it should pause 
and study. 

Prof. J. E. Brindley, Iowa State College, did not agree 
with Professor Gray in the latter's declaration that 
rate making based on valuation was a fallacy. It was 
impracticable to fix rates on the basis of a statement of 
outlay. Some of the statements in Professor Gray's 
paper were criticised as extreme. Regulating boards 
should regulate and control and should not destroy pri- 
vate initiative — "if we are to have private initiative," 
added Professor Brindley. Professor Gray's principal- 
and-agent plan, if put into execution, would probably 
result in poor service, receiverships and state owner- 
ships. 

Prof. James E. Boyle, University of North Dakota, 
said that Professor Gray had presented his criticisms in 
a striking manner. It was to be regretted that the 
author did not give more attention to suggesting rem- 
edies. At the present time public ownership of utilities 
would be a dangerous undertaking. The speaker ex- 
pressed his belief that private initiative was not due 



January 3, 1914.] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



37 



wholly to hope of speculative gains, and he cited the 
examples of art, literature and science. The Cook plan 
of one single private company owning all the railroads 
of the country, controlled by the government, and with 
its earnings guaranteed by the government, looked feas- 
ible, but was, perhaps, too radical for the present day. 
There seemed to be an inevitable drift toward public 
ownership. 

James E. Allison, consulting engineer, St. Louis, and 
formerly a member of the St. Louis Public Service Com- 
mission, thought Professor Gray too pessimistic. He 
said that the author of the paper set up men of straw 
to demolish. There was a contractual relation between 
principal and agent. What that contract was, in the 
case of public utility regulations, was the crux of the 
question. To fix rates there must be a valuation or 
something to take its place. Original-cost and reproduc- 
tion-cost valuations would often work out to about the 
same results. Mr. Allison said that Professor Gray was 
unduly alarmed about interest during construction. This 
was a real construction charge. The fair rate of re- 
turn was that return at which capital could be induced 
to go into the enterprise. To attempt to set up a lower 
rate was to run counter to an economic law. 

Prof. William F. Gephart, Washington University, 
asked if it was indeed true that the time of risk and 
speculative profits had passed in public utility enter- 
prises. Utilities that involve risks were planned to-day 
in large cities and in small ones. Commissions do valu< 
able work in improving the character of service as well 
as in regulating rates. There was a widespread belief 
that a large portion of public utilities were over-capital- 
ized and charge rates that were too high. This might 
lead to public ownership, but there would still be difficul- 
ties to encounter, for many men believed that govern- 
ments exist to grant gratuities of some kind. Pro- 
fessor Gephart remarked that there was not much of a 
constructive character to show as the result of a decade 
of work by public utility commissions. 

Howard C. Hopson, of the staff of the New York Pub- 
lic Service Commission for the Second District, Albany 
N. Y., said that commissions were going back in making 
valuations to the plan based on investment, gradually 
abandoning the cost-of -reproduction theory. There could 
be no mathematical formula to be used in working out a 
correct public utility rate. The personnel of the com- 
mission was very important. This speaker also pointed 
out that even where the principle of monopoly in public 
utility service was conceded, there was still to be con- 
sidered the element of competition between utilities for 
capital. In a few years the country would be face to 
face with the problem of securing the maximum amount 
of service from utilities without bringing about an in- 
crease of rates. 

Prof. R. E. Heilman, University of Iowa, discussed 
the subject of the authorization of securities by com- 
missions, intimating that in years to come the commis- 
sions might have to grant higher rates to take care of 
all the securities which they had themselves sanctioned. 

Roger W. Babson, financial writer, Wellesley Hills, 
Mass., remarked tersely that theory will have little to do 
with the settlement of the public utility question. This 
question will be settled when it is determined who has 
the larger number of votes — the men who use the util- 
ities or the men who hold investments in them. 

Several local speakers advocated public ownership vig- 
orously. One said that the system of regulating public 
utilities by state commissions was fundamentally wrong. 
Another announced that he did not believe that a law 
creating a public service commission would be passed in 
the State of Minnesota. The Governor has become con- 
vinced that it would be unwise to call a special session of 



the Legislature for this purpose. This gentleman re- 
ferred to the Chicago traction settlement ordinances of 
1907 as "infamous" and said that they meant disguised 
taxation. Another local speaker said that organized 
labor had something to say on the question, and that 
the matters in dispute could not be settled on the scien- 
tific basis of political economy. 

In a brief closing speech, Professor Gray declared that 
commissions had practically arrived at a point where the 
companies were guaranteed against losses. As to pri- 
vate initiative, he wanted to know if there could be in 
fact any system of control that would be effective with- 
out destroying the opportunity for private gains. 

DR. MEYER AND OTHERS DISCUSS RAILROAD RATE MAKING 

Prof. W. A. Scott, of the University of Wisconsin, 
presided at the third session of the annual meeting of 
the American Economic Association, which was held in 
the main auditorium of the New College of Engineer- 
ing of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, on 
Dec. 29. The main feature was a paper on "Certain 
Considerations in Railway Rate Making," by Dr. B. H. 
Meyer, of Washington, D. C, member of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. The subject was considered 
under three main divisions — value of the property, cost 
of service and the considerations of sound public policy 
involved. Each of these must be interpreted in the 
light of the others. The speaker intimated that even 
if public ownership was brought about, the question of 
rates would still arise. He remarked that the competi- 
tive theory of railroad rate making had been prac- 
tically abandoned. In making a valuation the securi- 
ties issued should not be recognized as the equivalent 
of property for rate-making purposes. Cost account- 
ing by railroads was advocated. In attempting to fix 
railroad rates it was more important that justice be 
promoted in a large way than that a standard be sought 
which might be used as a yardstick in all cases. 
DISCUSSION 

Prof. Josef Schumpeter, University of Graz, Austria 
(exchange professor at Columbia University), declared 
that the actions of politicians, commissions and judges 
were apt to be considered rather primitive from the 
viewpoint of political science. He said that the phrase 
"what the traffic will bear" did not always indicate 
such a bad condition as was sometimes thought; many 
systems of monopolistic prices were not injurious. Rail- 
road monopoly was quite different from all other 
monopolies; it could not be taxed without injuring de- 
velopment. Perhaps the theories underlying rate mak- 
ing were understood by economists, but the working 
out of details in practice was drudgery, and most theo- 
retical economists were unwilling to undertake it. The 
speaker did not see the relevance of valuation of prop- 
erty in fixing railroad rates. It should be remem- 
bered, however, that what economists contributed was 
only one of many factors to be considered in the prob- 
lem. Society should be rather careful not to drive the 
entrepreneur out of human progress. In Europe the 
establishment of railroad rates by the State had caused 
dissatisfaction and also losses to the public purse. The 
United Sates had the most splendid system of rail- 
roads the world had ever seen. 

Prof. A. A. Young, Cornell University, agreed with 
Dr. Meyer in relation to the latter's three fundamentals. 
He thought it rather humiliating that what progress 
had been made had been due to commissions and courts 
rather than to economists. He discussed the equitable 
ascertainment of railroad rate unit costs. "What we 
want," he said, "is that system of rates that will in- 
sure the most advantageous distribution." Under ex- 
isting circumstances, rates based on cost of service 
were hardly a debatable proposition. A long-time view 



38 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



of the case should be taken. In that view fixed 
charges then became variable charges; they increased 
largely on account of the growth of traffic. Charging 
"what the traffic will bear" was sometimes allowable, 
as where a railroad had made long extensions in a 
sparsely settled country to develop it. Rate systems 
tended to equalize rates of distribution from different 
communities. This necessitated delicate adjustments, 
and Professor Young thought that railroad rates were 
more difficult to adjust than tariff schedules. Even on 
other than economic grounds the cost of service prin- 
ciple must be given great weight, as it satisfied the de- 
mand for justice, which had to be reckoned with. It 
was the fundamental system of railroad rate making, 
but individual deviations might be allowed if justified. 

Prof. E. R. Dewsnup, University of Illinois, argued 
that if railroad competition was really complete, nor- 
mal prices would be determined by normal cost of 
service. Theoretically, competition was capable of 
producing better results than the best regulation. But 
practical conditions intervened, because real free com- 
petition could not be made to exist. During a period 
of development should the railroad not be allowed to 
pay its way by a discriminating tariff? Few rail- 
roads anywhere were pure monopolies. The speaker 
devoted part of his time to a discussion of the appli- 
cation of "joint costs" to railroad transportation. 

Prof. F. H. Dixon, Dartmouth College, agreed in 
general with the reasoning of Dr. Meyer's paper. He 
discussed the extension of the cost principle in rate 
making. Railroads had themselves employed the cost 
methods in presenting their figures and asking for in- 
crease of rates. A more complete and accurate knowl- 
edge of costs would benefit both the railroads and the 
public. Cost accounting was not exactly the same in 
railroading and in industry. The railroad manager 
had a much more complex problem than the industrial 
manager in determining the relation of cost and price. 
The speaker advised caution in enforcing the demand 
on railroads for this new accounting. "Let us not." 
he said, "spend $5 to save 30 cents." 

Prof. A. J. Boynton, University of Kansas, consid- 
ered the general aspect of the question, and remarked 
on the number of conflicting theories. "Is there," he 
asked, "any real theory of rates justifying the name?" 
What was needed was an amalgamation of theories 
with such additions and modifications as might be 
found necessary. But theories now existing were not 
sufficiently refined for that purpose. Professor Boynton 
looked forward to the refining, but not over-refining, of 
theories, and to the fusing of them into a composite 
system. However, theories were not of much use un- 
less based on statistical studies. Then, too, the ade- 
quate financial needs of the railroad corporations in 
the future should not be overlooked. 

Prof. Lewis H. Haney, University of Texas, made 
a valuable contribution to the discussion. He said 
that he was convinced that only perfected accounts and 
more interpretative statistical data were needed to make 
"joint costs" logically and rationally assignable. Dis- 
cussing valuation, Professor Haney said that the cost of 
the property, whether "original" or "reduplication," 
should be learned, so that the interest charges might 
be correctly determined and distributed. After a the- 
oretical consideration of this branch of the subject he 
said that he believed that much remained to be done 
in applying marginal analysis to the determination of 
railroad values. Taking up another branch of the sub- 
ject, the speaker said that he believed that no conflict 
existed between a cost basis and the so-called "princi- 
ple of public policy." To ignore costs meant much 
more than throwing rate making into politics ; it meant 



economic waste on a gigantic scale. It was specious to 
urge that coal, sand and other low-grade commodities 
could not be moved at cost rates. By what right was 
their low price assumed? Was it expedient that the 
railroads, backed by government, should take it upon 
themselves to supply goods at less than cost? In the 
long run the only way to prevent waste of energy and 
natural resources was to let competitive prices deter- 
mine. As a practical matter, particular exceptions 
had to be made, but these cases should frankly be put 
on the ground of charity, just as poorhouses were pro- 
vided for those who cannot pay for their own sub- 
sistence. Rates should be fixed, if possible, as they 
would be fixed under normally competitive conditions. 
Until recently few men realized the extent of the rail- 
road's public character or the significance of the doc- 
trine of "joint costs." Now that the ground had been 
cleared and the true economic nature of the common 
carrier established, the time was ripe for a co-ordina- 
tion and a synthesis of the fragmentary partial the- 
ories now receiving attention. Competition could not 
obtain in the railroad field, but that did not mean that 
the forces of demand and supply were not operative 
there. Why, then, not set out to solve the problem of 
constructing a rate yardstick by the demand and sup- 
ply route? Taking for granted railroad monopoly, 
why not seek to approximate the effect of competition 
on rates by constructing schedules of shippers' demand 
prices and carriers' supply prices? Difficulties will 
arise, and a rule must be sought to determine the por- 
tion of joint expense that each class of traffic would 
bear under competition. This was the heart of the 
problem. The speaker then discussed normal demand 
and supply curves and also described what he called the 
"distance utility" of the service. This "distance util- 
ity" should be combined with the "specific value" of 
the commodity to get the total utility of the service and 
determine the final or specific demand curve. The in- 
teresting basis of rate making proposed by Prof. 
Haney proceeded from a recognition of joint expenses 
and was intended to take into consideration elements 
of truth in various theories. While costs were esti- 
mated as a supply-limiting force, demand forces were 
also taken in consideration. It was intended to be one 
composite principle that could be applied in all normal 
cases, the uniformity lying in the rule, the variety 
in its applications. It was based on the fact that de- 
mand and supply were the ultimate forces, however, 
joint and composite they might be. It gave the result 
that these forces would bring about under fair compe- 
tition if railways could compete. 

DR. BROOKS DISCUSSES SYNDICALISM 

At the morning session of Dec. 30 Dr. John Graham 
Brooks, of Cambridge, Mass., gave a summary of his 
paper on "Syndicalism." He said that this movement 
is a part of the great reaction all over the world against 
capitalism, the imperfections of the parliamentary sys- 
tem and the law's delays. Another feature of the plan 
contemplates an ideal state of labor co-partnership with- 
out the complicated organization of force based on law. 
Syndicalism may be justified as a sort of stinging whip 
from without to awaken society to the need for better 
things. The syndicalists believe that labor will eventu- 
ally control capital. The general idea of Dr. Brooks' 
remarks was that, while syndicalism does not deserve 
serious consideration at present, economists should give 
serious attention to the movement to see if it does not 
contain some measure of truth. At the afternoon ses- 
sion of the same day Prof. Willard E. Hotchkiss, of the 
Northwestern University, Chicago, read a paper on "Re- 
cent Trust Decisions and Business." An abstract of the 
discussion on these two papers will appear next week. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



39 



Methods of Mitigating Electrolysis from Street 

Railway Currents 

The Authors, Who Are Respectively Chief Physicist and Associate Physicist United States Bureau of Standards, 
Washington, D. C, Discuss the Most Important Methods of Electrolysis Mitigation and 
Present Definite Conclusions Regarding Their Relative Merits 

BY E. B. ROSA AND BURTON M'CULLOM 



In the effort to reduce or eliminate damage to pipe 
systems and other subsurface structures due to stray 
earth currents from street railways, a great many 
methods have been tried or proposed. Some have been 
widely used with more or less benefit in many instances 
and apparent failure in others. In the case of most of 
these little systematic effort has been made to develop 
them to meet most advantageously the requirements of 
practical service: In this paper is given a brief dis- 
cussion of the most important methods of electrolysis 
mitigation that have been proposed, together with con- 
clusions as to their relative merits. 

SURFACE INSULATION OP PIPES 

Painting or otherwise insulating the surface of pipes, 
as by the use of treated papers and textiles, was early 
resorted to as a possible means of protecting pipes from 
electrolysis, and this method is still used in some in- 
stances. It is doubtful, however, whether there exists 
any instance in which it has been definitely proved that 
insulating paints have effectively protected pipes from 
electrolysis for any considerable period of time, while 
there are many instances where they have failed and 
where their presence has actually done harm. Practi- 
cally all paints are classed as insulators, but in practice 
a given paint may endure for a long period in some 
places, while in other places in the same city it may 
deteriorate rapidly and become worthless in a compara- 
tively short time. This is due partly, no doubt, to dif- 
ferences in soil conditions, but the general failure of 
these paints under conditions where electrolysis was to 
be expected indicates that the stray currents themselves 
have much to do with the destruction of the coatings. 
We have carried out a considerable number of experi- 
ments with a view of throwing further light on this 
point and also to determine if possible something of the 
relative value of different coatings as a possible protec- 
tion against electrolysis. In all, about forty different 
kinds of commercial paints have been tested, and of 
these not a single one has withstood the action of the 
very moderate test voltage of 4 volts for any consider- 
able length of time, failure of the coating with conse- 
quent pitting of the pipe occurring within a few months 
in all cases. 

The explanation of the failure of the coating lies in 
the fact that none of the paints tested is absolutely im- 
pervious to moisture, and when brought into the pres- 
ence of water a slight trace of moisture ultimately per- 
meates the coating. When this occurs at any point the 
coating becomes slightly conducting, and if any elec- 
tromotive force is applied, a trace of current flows at 
first, giving rise to slight electrolysis which is accom- 
panied by the formation of more or less gas beneath the 
coating. As this gas accumulates and expands the coat- 
ing is finally ruptured, after which the current flow is 
greatly increased at the point of break-down and rapid 
electrolysis of the exposed iron follows. In some cases, 
if the coating is sufficiently porous to permit the gases 
to escape, it may remain intact and electrolysis may con- 
tinue beneath the coating, eating through the metal 
without any superficial evidence of failure of the paint. 
This phenomenon is frequently observed in practice. 



The vital weakness of all the paints thus far tested is 
due to the fact that they are not entirely non-absorbent. 
If a paint could be secured which is absolutely impervi- 
ous to soil moisture and which would remain so for an 
indefinite period, it would prove an effective preventive 
of electrolysis, and all efforts to produce such a pro- 
tective paint should be directed to this one point of 
making it absolutely and permanently moisture-proof. 

The manner in which these paints usually fail under 
electric stress shows that they may under certain cir- 
cumstances increase the trouble from electrolysis. 
Breaking down as they do at isolated points, the dis- 
charge of current from the pipes is concentrated at 
those points and the pitting is likely to be more serious 
than if the paint were not used at all. In all areas, 
therefore, where the pipes are strongly positive to the 
earth these paints are likely to do more harm than good, 
and it would be better to omit them altogether. But in 
places where the pipes are practically neutral, or nega- 
tive to earth, they can do no harm even if they do fail 
in spots, and in such places they may be of value in 
reducing current flow in pipes and in preventing soil 
corrosion. 

The method of coating pipes with treated textiles or 
tarred paper is open to somewhat the same objections 
that have been made to the use of insulating paints, the 
only difference being that the time required for their 
initial failure is usually greater than in the case of 
paint. The principal reason for this is the greater 
thickness of the coating that usually results from this 
method of insulation. We have tested a considerable 
number of such coatings with uniformly disappointing 
results, failure always occurring within a few months 
whenever a low potential difference is impressed on the 
coating. Where no electromotive force is impressed on 
the pipes provided with such a coating it appears often 
to remain in good condition for several years, and for 
this reason it appears to be at least of temporary value 
as a preventive of self-corrosion. Its use is probably 
justified in neutral or negative areas, but in all positive 
areas it would tend to aggravate rather than reduce the 
rate of deterioration of the pipes. Its use is not, there- 
fore, to be recommended except in neutral or negative 
areas, where it would undoubtedly be beneficial, the 
only question being whether or not it is worth the cost. 
As a means of preventing or even reducing electrolytic 
damage in positive areas this method of surface insu- 
lation does not appear to be practicable at the present 
time. 

INSULATING JOINTS IN PIPES 
Another method of reducing current flow in pipes, 
and one which has found rather extensive application 
within the last few years, is that of breaking up the 
continuity of the pipe lines by the use of insulating or 
resistance joints. In ordinary wrought-iron or steel 
mains with screwed or riveted joints the resistance of 
the joints is usually small in comparison with that of 
the pipes, and when such pipes are laid in localities 
where there is an appreciable potential gradient in the 
direction of the pipe, currents of considerable magni- 
tude will usually be carried by the pipes. In the case of 



40 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



cast-iron mains the resistance of the joint is often as 
great as, or greater than, that of the section of pipes, 
and it is not uncommon to find a lead joint having a 
resistance equal to that of several hundred feet or more 
of pipe. It is due largely to this high joint resistance 
and to some extent also to the higher specific resistance 
of cast iron that cast-iron mains usually carry less cur- 
rent under similar conditions than wrought-iron or steel 
mains. Experience has shown, however, that the re- 
sistance of lead joints is not sufficient to reduce the 
current to a safe value, and attempts have been made 
still further to increase the resistance of the pipes by 
the introduction of specially designed joints of high 
resistance. 

We cannot here go into detail in regard to the merits 
of this method or the proper procedure in applying it. 
These have been treated in the technological papers re- 
ferred to at the end of this paper. It is sufficient to 
state here some of the conclusions at which we have 
arrived as a result of our investigation of this method. 
If properly installed, with joints of proper construction 
and used with sufficient frequency, it can be made very 
effective in minimizing electrolysis troubles. The higher 
the potential gradients in different parts of the system 
the more frequently the insulating joints must be used. 
In most cases it would not be necessary to make every 
joint insulating, one-third or one-fourth of the joints be- 
ing usually sufficient even under severe voltage condi- 
tions while in many parts of the system a much smaller 
percentage would suffice. Where new lines are being laid 
it is a comparatively simple matter to insert the neces- 
sary number of such joints, but in the case of old sys- 
tems the expense becomes great unless the potential 
gradients in the earth are first reduced by other means, 
so that a comparatively small number of insulating 
joints will suffice. Chiefly for this reason, we do not in 
general recommend this method as the principal means 
of protecting pipe systems already laid with the lead 
joints. When, however, proper precautions are taken, 
such as those described in detail in a later part of this 
paper, to reduce potential gradients to a comparatively 
low value, this method of insulating joints may well be 
applied for the purpose of eliminating such residual 
electrolysis as might otherwise remain if the system 
were not so protected. With potential gradients reduced 
to as low a point as practicable under a properly de- 
signed negative return, a comparatively small number 
of insulating joints not exceeding 5 or 10 per cent of 
the total number would be sufficient to give practically 
complete protection to the pipes. We wish to empha- 
size, however, that we regard this method as valuable 
chiefly as an auxiliary method which may be used in 
connection with and supplementary to a negative return 
system of proper design. 

PIPE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 

A system of electrolysis mitigation which has re- 
ceived wider application in this country than any other 
method is that which is best characterized as the "pipe 
drainage system." This method has taken a variety of 
forms, among the principal ones being direct taps be- 
tween pipes and rails. In this form no extensive nega- 
tive feeder system is used, but at various points 
throughout the positive areas where the pipes are close 
to the tracks short heavy cables are connected between 
the pipes and rails with the view of keeping the pipes 
at nearly the same potential as the tracks. It is true 
that by the use of a sufficient number of such taps it 
would be possible to prevent any considerable difference 
of potential between pipes and tracks, but this does not 
insure relief from electrolysis. In order that such 
equality of potential may exist it is necessary that the 
potential gradients along the pipes throughout the 
region affected shall be the same as in the rails, and 



under the conditions which commonly prevail in the 
positive areas this potential gradient is quite high, 
often reaching 5 volts to 10 volts per 1000 ft. and even 
higher. Such gradients are sufficient to produce heavy 
current flow in the pipes, and in case occasional high- 
resistance joints are encountered the heavy fall of po- 
tential across the joint will generally cause large leak- 
age of current from the pipes resulting in rapid injury 
to the pipes. In case of local defects developing in the 
track bonding, practically all of the railway current may 
be forced to return by way of the pipes or cable sheaths, 
and the danger of excessive leakage from the pipes and 
overheating of cable sheaths is largely increased and 
may sometimes reach very serious proportions. 

Another form of pipe drainage consists in running 
negative feeders direct from the negative bus to vari- 
ous points of the pipe system. This form of pipe drain- 
age has three practical embodiments. In one of these 
uninsulated negative feeders are run from the busbar 
and tied to the pipes, some directly at the power house 
and others at more remote points. In this case the 
longer feeders have to have a very large cross-section, 
or else the resistance will be so large that they will draw 
very little current from the pipes and their purpose will 
be thus defeated. In some cases it has been proposed 
to run these long feeders parallel to the pipes and tap 
them to the pipes at frequent intervals. It will be quite 
evident that this arrangement is open to the same ob- 
jection as the plan of using uninsulated negative feed- 
ers to rails, in that it leads to large expense for copper, 
particularly in case it becomes necessary to carry the 
feeders to points far from the power house. In order 
to overcome this difficulty in some installations, boost- 
ers have been connected to the longer feeders, in which 
case they can be made much smaller and by proper ex- 
citation of the booster any desired amount of current 
can be taken from the pipes of each feeder. There 
seems to be no reason why the same results cannot be 
obtained by omitting the boosters and inserting resist- 
ance in the power house taps to pipes and in the short 
feeders, since in this way any desired distribution of 
current in the feeders can be obtained without the com- 
plication and operating cost of the boosters. The ad- 
vantages of this latter plan would be very great in the 
case of a large system, since with the booster system a 
separate booster would be required for each feeder. The 
use of resistance taps can, as a rule, be made both 
economical and effective when used in connection with a 
somewhat similar system applied to rails, as described 
later. 

We cannot here go into detail in regard to the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of the pipe drainage sys- 
tem, but will mention a few of the more important con- 
siderations respecting it. 

First, it has been objected that it is not a permanent 
system, requiring constant watching and changing 
when the distribution of the street railway load or of 
the pipe systems undergoes any marked change. This 
objection is no doubt an important one where the unin- 
sulated system of pipe feeders is used, but it would not 
be of serious moment in the case of the insulated feed- 
ers with resistance taps, since by the insertion of proper 
resistances in the various feeders they could be adapted 
to widely varying conditions as regards load distribu- 
tion. 

A second objection, already referred to, is the fact 
that any form of pipe drainage will necessarily increase 
to a greater or less degree the amount of current car- 
ried by the pipes, which is accompanied by the ever- 
present danger of trouble developing in the vicinity of 
high-resistance joints at obscure and unlooked-for 
places. This objection is much more serious in the case 
of direct taps between pipes and rails and uninsulated 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



41 



pipe feeders than when boosters or resistance taps are 
used, since in the latter cases a proper distribution of 
current can be maintained that will greatly reduce this 
danger, although we do not believe that it is in general 
practicable to eliminate it to a satisfactory degree, un- 
less at the same time measures are taken to reduce 
potential gradients in the earth to a relatively low value. 

A third objection is that the connection of the pipe 
system to the busbars or rails lowers the potential of 
the pipes and tends to make them negative to other pipe 
and lead cable systems, thereby endangering the latter. 
The advocates of this system attempt to avoid this 
objection by recommending that all pipe and cable sys- 
tems be included in the installation. This is sometimes 
practicable and sometimes not, depending on local con- 
ditions; but in any case it would greatly extend the 
area in which acute troubles might be expected and the 
expense of watching and guarding against trouble would 
be largely increased. 

A fourth objection, resulting from the great tendency 
of this system to increase the current flow in the pipes, 
is the increased life and fire hazard which it introduces, 
particularly in connection with gas systems. The fail- 
ure to bond the pipes properly before making any dis- 
connections, or the accidental opening of the bond while 
the pipe line is broken, is likely to ignite escaping gas 
with more or less disastrous results to both life and 
property. Although serious accidents of this kind are 
comparatively infrequent, they are nevertheless worthy 
of consideration. Further, the possibility of such acci- 
dents increases the labor and cost of making repairs on 
account of the precautions that have to be taken. 

A fifth objection, and an important one, is that the 
application of this system requires that all pipe systems 
to which it is applied shall be electrically continuous 
throughout. In addition to the possibility of high-re- 
sistance lead joints already pointed out, we are con- 
fronted with the fact that in a great many installations, 
cement joints, rubber gasket joints and other insulating 
joints are now largely used. Where used, these will 
usually be found distributed to a greater or less extent 
throughout the system, and if the drainage plan were 
applied to a pipe system containing any considerable 
number of these insulating joints it would result in the 
certain destruction of the pipes near many of them 
within a comparatively short time. As a rule the points 
at which isolated insulating joints occur or those in 
which the insulating jointed sections connect to the lines 
having lead joints would be the ones that would be in 
greatest danger. For this reason the application of a 
general plan of pipe drainage as the chief means of 
electrolysis mitigation would be particularly unfortu- 
nate in case any one of the pipe systems contained any 
considerable number of insulating joints. 

A sixth objection to the general application of the 
pipe drainage system as a means of electrolysis mitiga- 
tion arises from the tendency toward the production of 
an excessive amount of alkali at the surface of a nega- 
tive electrode embedded in earth. This will occur to a 
much greater extent in some soils than in others, de- 
pending on the chemical content of the soils. The con- 
centration of alkali at the negative terminal will have 
no detrimental effect in the case of iron pipe but may 
tend considerably to increase the self-corrosion in the 
case of lead service pipe. If the soil is of such a nature 
as to present favorable conditions for the production 
of alkali at the negative terminal, considerable increase 
in the corrosion of lead services may be expected from 
this source provided the pipes are maintained too 
strongly negative throughout a large part of the day. 
Further, the application of the pipe drainage system 
makes the pipes more strongly negative throughout the 
entire system, and it is undesirable to create this con- 



dition unless it is known that local soil conditions are 
such as not to give rise to any serious increase in alka- 
linity under the voltage conditions that would exist. 

What appears to us, however, as being the greatest 
objection to the pipe drainage system, and this applies 
also to all the other methods applied directly to the 
pipes, is the fact that they are designed to relieve the 
symptoms rather than to remove the cause of the trouble. 
They are, therefore, fundamentally in the nature of a 
palliative, rather than a remedy. In general, our 
study of the pipe-drainage method has convinced us 
that while it may under certain conditions be useful as 
a secondary means of lessening trouble, its installation 
as the principal means of electrolysis mitigation is an 
unwise procedure, not so much because the immediate 
consequences are bad, since the contrary is quite the 
rule, but because of the ultimate consequences to which 
this method, when once resorted to, must inevitably 
lead. 

In its practical working out it exhibits two opposing 
tendencies, namely, (1) the reduction of the difference 
of potential between pipes and rails in the positive 
areas, with consequent reduction of damage at those 
points, and (2) an increase of the danger to the pipes 
throughout the entire system, as indicated above. 

As a rule, in the early stages of its application the 
effect is apt to be apparently beneficial, reducing the 
danger in positive areas more than it increases it else- 
where. As the system grows and the load increases, 
more and heavier bonds or cables become necessary, and 
the current in the pipes may become so great that the 
consequent damage due to the causes above mentioned 
will be of greater moment than the reduction of troubles 
in the positive areas, and any further extension of 
the drainage becomes a menace to the system. It is 
due largely to the slow and obscure manner in which 
trouble develops that this method has come to be so 
widely used. Since it transfers the trouble from where 
it has been most evident to a new locality, where per- 
haps it may require several years to manifest itself 
anew, there is sure to be a lull in the storm which cre- 
ates a favorable impression very difficult to dispel even 
when trouble later recurs. Recently it has been pro- 
posed to limit these secondary effects by placing a limit 
on the amount of current taken from the pipes by the 
drainage cables, the plan being that when this total 
drainage current reaches, say, 10 per cent or there- 
abouts of the total railway load, the track conductivity 
is to be increased by copper cables in order to keep the 
drainage current below the prescribed limit. In some 
systems which we have investigated in which the unlim- 
ited pipe drainage system has been applied it has been 
found that in order to reduce the potential conditions 
to the desired limits it was necessary to draw from the 
pipes from 40 to 50 per cent or more of the total rail- 
way load. It is evident that if we attempt by means 
of ordinary uninsulated negative copper cables in paral- 
lel with the track to decrease the total leakage to 10 
per cent, the cost of the copper required will be so great 
as to render the plan wholly impracticable. We confi- 
dently believe that a system worked out on these lines 
will ultimately lead to much greater expense and less 
satisfactory protection than will result from other in- 
stallations designed along the lines outlined in a later 
section of this report. 

CHEMICAL PROTECTION 
Among other methods proposed for protecting pipes 
from electrolysis may be mentioned chemical protection, 
which contemplates surrounding the pipes with certain 
chemicals, such as lime, etc., which are known to have 
a tendency to inhibit corrosion under certain circum- 
stances ; the use of cement coatings on the pipes ; catho- 
dic protection, or protection of pipes by maintaining 



42 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



them negative to certain structures by means of battery, 
motor generator, etc.; favorable location of pipes with 
respect to rails; the use of non-corrodable conducting 
coatings, and what may be termed electric screens, 
which are sheets of metal placed near to or surrounding 
a portion of the pipe and electrically connected thereto. 
While certain of these may have a temporary value for 
reducing electrolysis troubles under very special con- 
ditions, our investigations have convinced us that none 
of these methods can be seriously considered in connec- 
tion with the permanent mitigation of electrolysis under 
average conditions of practice. 

METHODS APPLIED TO THE RAILWAY RETURN SYSTEM 

None of the systems of electrolysis protection men- 
tioned above has to do with the nature or condition of 
the street railway return system, and in the practical 
working out of such methods the railway return system 
is usually ignored. It would appear more logical to 
attack the problem by beginning at the source of the 
evil and to prevent, to a large extent at least, the leak- 
age of the currents from the railway return conductors 
into the earth. 

Of the various methods that have been proposed for 
application to the negative return of the railway system, 
the majority are either inadequate or impracticable 
under ordinary conditions when considered solely as 
means for reducing electrolysis troubles. Among these 
may be mentioned alternating-current traction, ground- 
ing of tracks and busbars, periodic reversal of trolley 
polarity and the use of the double-trolley system. There 
is no question, of course, that the double-trolley system, 
if properly installed, would entirely eliminate elec- 
trolysis from railway currents. This system as at pres- 
ent used in Cincinnati, Ohio, and Havana, Cuba, and the 
corresponding underground conduit system as used in 
Washington and in New York City eliminate almost 
completely the danger of electrolysis, the small leakage 
which does occur being of no practical consequence. The 
chief objections to their use are the cost of installation 
and the increased operating difficulties which are in- 
volved. The cost of installation in fact does not appear 
to be justified merely as a means of electrolysis protec- 
tion, inasmuch as a very satisfactory degree of protec- 
tion can be obtained by other and much more econom- 
ical means. 

PROPER CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF TRACK 

Proper maintenance of the track in order to secure 
high conductance is everywhere recognized as a neces- 
sary condition in electric railway operation, but it does 
not always receive the attention that its importance 
justifies. Experience to date indicates that welded or 
other types of electrically continuous joints are very 
satisfactory in all cases where the tracks are laid in 
paved streets or otherwise suitably reinforced. As a 
precautionary measure, however, some engineers prefer 
to bond also over all joints. Cross bonding between the 
rails is also much resorted to as a precaution against 
the troubles arising from bad joints. These cross bonds 
are usually placed at intervals of from 200 ft. to 500 ft. 
and those distances are sufficient if the cross bonds and 
rail joints are fairly well maintained. All special work 
should be shunted by copper cables capable of carrying 
all of the current passing over the tracks at that point. 
A properly drained roadbed is also a very effective aid 
in reducing the leakage of stray currents from the rails, 
since the conductance of the leakage path is mainly 
dependent on the amount of moisture which is con- 
tained in the material forming the roadbed and the 
earth beneath. Indeed, we have made tests on long 
lines of track without intersections to cause complica- 
tions, in which it was found that leakage from the rails 
to earth was almost entirely eliminated because of the 
high resistance of the leakage path. 



UNINSULATED NEGATIVE FEEDER SYSTEM 

The uninsulated negative feeder system has been 
much used in this country as a means of increasing the 
conductance of the track, especially in the regions near 
the power houses, where, as a rule, the current densi- 
ties become high. The benefits that accrue from its 
use are threefold, namely: (1) the reduction in poten- 
tial drop in the rails, thereby lessening damage due to 
electrolysis; (2) the saving in power; (3) the mainte- 
nance of a more uniform voltage on the cars, especially 
at times of peak load, thus giving rise to improved car 
service and better car lighting and reducing the maxi- 
mum demand. 

When these benefits are carefully considered it seems 
somewhat surprising that the use of negative feeders is 
not more common than it is. While we do not regard 
this as being in general an economical system, it is 
proper to consider here its merits as compared with 
systems in which no feeders are used. In the matter of 
the second item — the saving in power — it is easy to 
show that in this feature alone much can be gained by 
the addition of negative copper provided the drop of 
potential in the track is fairly high. With feeders cost- 
ing $4,000 per mile installed for cables of 1,000,000 
circ. mil section, the most economical potential gradient 
to allow in the rails is about 3 volts effective per 1000 
ft. (root mean square for twenty-four-hour period) 
with energy costing 1 cent per kw-hr. Wherever the 
potential gradient exceeds that figure the addition of 
copper in parallel with the rails produces an annual 
saving more than sufficient to pay all proper charges, 
including interest, taxes and depreciation on the copper 
required to reduce the mean effective potential gradient 
to 3 volts. With energy costing 2 cents per kw-hr. the 
most economical gradient limit is a little over 2 volts 
per 1000 ft. When these values are exceeded in any 
locality, that section of the track is not only being oper- 
ated at an unnecessary loss but conditions as regards 
electrolysis are unnecessarily bad, much worse in fact 
than they would be under the more economical installa- 
tion. If we attempt to carry the voltage limit below 
this value, the cost of the necessary copper increases 
very rapidly and soon becomes prohibitive. On the 
other hand, it is generally recognized that a mean effec- 
tive potential gradient of 3 volts per 1000 ft. is much 
too high to permit a reasonable degree of immunity 
from electrolysis, since under ordinary conditions of 
load factor this would correspond to a peak value of 
about 6 volts per 1000 ft., so that some other 
method must be employed if a fair degree of economy 
is to be maintained. Such economy is afforded in vary- 
ing degree by the insulated negative feeder systems 
which we shall now consider. 

INSULATED NEGATIVE FEEDER SYSTEM 

In the insulated negative feeder system, instead of 
tying the track rails directly to the negative bus and 
depending on the rails and such copper as may be in 
parallel therewith to return the current to the power 
house, the connection at the power house is either re- 
moved or given a suitable resistance, and insulated 
feeders are run from the negative bus to various points 
of the track, as shown in Fig. 1. By this means two 
important results may be achieved. In the first place, 
the current being drawn from the rails at numerous 
points, high-current densities, and consequently high- 
potential gradients in the rail, are avoided. In the sec- 
ond place, it is possible, by so designing the system that 
the drop of potential on all of the feeders is the same, 
so to subdivide the current flow in the tracks that 
the direction of the flow will be frequently reversed, 
thus preventing the accumulation of large poten- 
tial differences between points on the tracks some dis- 
tance apart. It will be evident that in this case the 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



43 



actual drop of potential on the different feeders is of 
secondary importance so long as it is practically the 
same in all, in so far as the potential difference in the 
track are concerned. We can thus impose any desired 
potential restrictions on the track and still be free to 
design the feeders to give maximum economy, some- 
thing we cannot do when the feeders are connected in 
parallel with the tracks, as is most commonly the case 
in practice. 

A graphic representation of what can be accomplished 



5 









/ a 


Distance from PowerHouse. ™ 





Fig. 1 — Electrolysis — Potential Drop in Rail with Unin- 
• sulated Feeders 



by using a system of insulating feeders of this sort is 
shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. Fig. 1 shows the arrange- 
ment of a negative return in which no negative feeders 
or simply uninsulated cables are used and the rails are 
tied directly to the negative bus at the power house, a 
uniform distribution of load being assumed. The curve 
at the top shows how the potential of the rails vary 
from point to point. 

The curves of Fig. 2 show the result in the same 
system with insulated negative feeders run to a number 
of points on the track and so arranged that the drop of 
potential is the same on all during an average condition 
of load. It is seen that the current flow in the tracks 
is here so subdivided that the total differences become 
very small, and consequently the tendency to set up 
large differences of potential between rails and sur- 
rounding structures is practically eliminated. 

An examination of the two curves shows that the maxi- 
mum potential difference in the rails has been reduced 
to one-sixteenth of its former value by the installation 
of only two negative feeders on each side of the station. 
It is evident, however, that these great reductions in 
potential differences in the tracks are obtained at a 
sacrifice of the track conductance of which very little 
use is made in the latter case. 

Between these two extremes any desired compromise 
can be obtained; that is, if instead of making the drop 



g 





1 












t b 

gl 










p 

Distance from Power House. 





Fig. 2 — Electrolysis — Result from Use of Several Insulated 
Feeders Having Equal Potential Drop 



on all of the feeders the same we make the drop on the 
feeders smaller as we approach the power house, we 
shall have a continual gradient in the rails all the way 
to the station, thus utilizing the conductance of the 
tracks to any desired extent. This will result in a more 
economical installation but at the expense of somewhat 
greater potential differences in the track return system, 
as shown in Fig. 3. These insulated-feeder systems em- 
brace a number of modifications, chief among which are 
the following scheme: 



BOOSTERS IN SEPARATE FEEDERS 
A method which has found considerable application 
in Europe but is comparatively little used in this coun- 
try is that of carrying insulated negative feeders to 
various points on the track and inserting a booster in 
each feeder. The two advantages of this method are 
that a great economy of copper in the negative feeders 
can be obtained as compared with uninsulated negative 
feeders and, by varying the voltage of the individual 
boosters, almost any desired potential condition can be 
obtained in the track network. To offset these advan- 
tages we have the large first cost of the boosters and an 
increased depreciation and operation cost. In a large 
district as many as a dozen or more negative feeders 
may be required, and the use of a booster with each of 
these would obviously introduce considerable complica- 
tion in the operation of the station. 

In this, as in all other insulated negative feeder sys- 
tems, the most important characteristic is the fact that 
the potential gradients in the tracks may be reduced to 
any desired degree independently of the current den- 
sity used in the feeders. If the voltage of the booster 
be kept about equal to the total drop on the cable to 
which it is connected, the potentials of the various 
points of tap to the rails will be approximately the 
same, so that large differences in potential between dif- 
ferent points in the track will not occur. In conse- 
quence of this the copper feeders can be designed solely 
from the point of view of economy, and thus a much 
more economical installation can be obtained than would 




Fig. 3 — Electrolysis — Result from Use of Insulated Feeders 
Having Drop in Potential Adjusted to Utilize 
Conductance of Rail 



be possible with an uninsulated feeder system, in which 
the drop on the cable must be no greater than the drop 
on the rails. When it is desired to reduce the potential 
gradients in the tracks to I volt per 1000 ft. or lower 
this method will be, under most conditions, much more 
economical, all cost considered, than the uninsulated 
negative feeder system mentioned above, the saving of 
first cost of copper being more than sufficient to com- 
pensate for the cost of the boosters and the capitalized 
value of the annual depreciation and increased energy 
loss. 

While this system is capable of giving very satisfac- 
tory results, so far as potential conditions in the tracks 
are concerned, we do not believe that the expense and 
complication of it are justified, particularly in view of 
the fact that practically as good results can be obtained 
by other methods which are simpler to install and to 
operate and at the same time much cheaper in point of 
first cost and maintenance. The sole advantage of this 
system over those described below is that a somewhat 
more flexible control over the individual feeders is ob- 
tained, but this is of doubtful value, since the simpler 
methods afford practically all that is needed in this 
respect, as will presently appear. 

INSULATED NEGATIVE FEEDERS WITHOUT BOOSTERS 

If insulated negative feeders are used without boost- 
ers, the layout of the negative feeder system will be 
very similar to that in the case of the booster system 



44 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII. No. 1. 



described above, the chief difference being in the elimi- 
nation of the boosters. The potential drop necessary to 
force the required current through the negative feeders 
without the use of additional copper is obtained by re- 
moving the direct tie between negative bus and rails 
at the power house and substituting in its place a prop- 
erly designed resistance tap. The layout then becomes 
substantially as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 4. 

In designing the feeders a careful study is made of 
the load distribution over the entire territory supplied 
by the station under consideration, and from this study 
the most natural points for taking off the current are 
selected and the number of amperes to be taken off at 
each point determined. A preliminary value of poten- 
tial drop on the first feeder is then assumed and from 
this drop and the current to be carried by the feeder, 
together with its length, the cross-section of the feeder 
must be designed consistently with the first, so as to 
avoid potential gradients in the tracks greater than the 
value determined upon as the limiting allowable aver- 
age gradient. Beginning thus the drop on feeder No. 2 
is the drop on No. 1 minus the allowable drop on the 
distance a between the points at which the two feed- 
ers tap the rails. For instance, if the assumed drop 
on No. 1 is 15 volts and the distance between the two 
taps is, say, 1200 ft. and we are permitting a maximum 
drop of 1 volt per 1000 ft. in the tracks, the average 



E 




Fig. 4 — Electrolysis — Insulated Negative Feeder System 

gradient between C and D will, in general, be less than 
this figure, depending on the amount of load originating 
between these points. The average value of this can 
be determined from the car schedule. Assuming it to 
be 0.7 volt, for example, the total drop between C and D 
will be 0.84 volt. The total drop on feeder No. 2 will 
therefore be 15 — 0.84 = 14.16 volts. From this value 
and the current assigned to this feeder its cross-section 
can be calculated, the length being, of course, already 
fixed. 

We proceed in a precisely similar manner for the 
other feeders and the resistance taps near the power 
house. Sometimes the cross-section of the feeder as 
thus calculated will be too small to carry the required 
current without overheating, and when this is the case 
the feeder must be made sufficiently large to carry the 
current and an additional resistance inserted, prefer- 
ably at the power house, to give the necessary voltage 
drop. 

When this calculation is completed we are ready to 
determine whether the original assumption made in re- 
gard to voltage drop on the first feeder was the one 
that would give approximately the most economical in- 
stallation. To determine this we sum up the total cost 
of the feeders installed, and determine the proper an- 
nual charge, including interest, taxes and depreciation, 
and also calculate the total annual value of the energy 
lost in the feeders and resistance taps. If these are 
approximately equal, the voltage drop assumed was the 
proper one. If, however, the annual charge on the 



feeder system is less than the cost of lost energy,* the 
voltage assumed is too high and vice versa, and a cor- 
rection must be made. This correction can be very 
easily and simply applied without recalculating the 
feeder system, as in the first instance. For example, if 
the annual cost of the feeders is found to exceed that 
of the energy lost by 20 per cent, we must increase the 
mean voltage drop by 10 per cent and reduce the area 
of the feeders by about 10 per cent, which change will 
bring the cost to approximate equality, the condition for 
most economical installation. If E 1 is the original volt- 
age drop calculated for any given feeder and E„ is the 
weighted mean voltage drop for all feeders, then the 
increase of voltage on any feeder being 1/10 E 2 we must 
reduce the cross-section of the feeder by the factor 

E 1 

E„ 

E t 4~ 
10 

The value of E 1 in each case is the initial voltage drop 
calculated for that particular feeder, so that each feeder 
is corrected by a different factor. When the correction 
is made in this way there is no change in the potential 
gradient assumed for the rails. 

The simplicity of this system as compared with the 
negative booster system is obvious. In fact, the chief 
objections that have been urged against the negative 
booster system are overcome, namely, the cost of booster 
equipment, together with elaborate switchboard appa- 
ratus for controlling it, the space occupied by the boost- 
ers, which is out of all proportion to their kilowatt ca- 
pacity because of the large number of small machines 
required, and, finally, the time and expense involved in 
caring for these machines. In the matter of power loss 
there will in most cases be an advantage in favor of the 
plain insulated feeder system. In either case the loss 
in the cables would be approximately the same, since all 
but the very short cables would be designed for maxi- 
mum economy. The difference in power loss would be 
approximately the difference between the losses in the 
boosters and the loss in the resistance taps. The effi- 
ciency of such small motor-driven boosters operating at 
a low load factor would hardly exceed 50 per cent, so 
that if the loss in the resistance taps is less than 50 
per cent of the total feeder loss, the latter plan would 
give rise to even less power loss than the booster 
method. 

Against these decided advantages of the resistance 
tap method over the booster method may be set the pos- 
sible objection that the former is less flexible than the 
latter and cannot be made to respond as readily to meet 
the exigency of shifting loads. This objection is appar- 
ent rather than real, since the really important consid- 
eration is to take care of average normal conditions, and 
this the system will do automatically if properly de- 
signed. Abnormal conditions, such as blockades or 
other temporary bunching of the load in one locality, 
are usually of so short duration that such disturbances 
in the rail gradients as would result therefrom would 
have no appreciable influence on the electrolysis prob- 
lem. This method is a thoroughly practical one, and if 
properly installed can be made to reduce potential gradi- 
ents in the rails to any desired degree, and under many 
circumstances it is the most economical effective means 
that can be installed for reducing electrolysis. 

Several modifications of these feeder systems may be 
used under certain conditions, but space does not permit 
a discussion of them here. A combination of the two 
insulated feeder systems above discussed may also be 

*More precisely, the condition for maximum economy is that 
condition which gives a minimum total annual cost. Under most 
conditions this will be practically the same as the conditions of 
equality of cost of lost energy and annual charge on the copper. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



45 



used in some cases, as, for instance, in case of a number 
of comparatively short feeders going to nearby points, 
and one or two very long feeders extending much far- 
ther from the station. In such a case the plain insu- 
lated feeder system may be applied to the district near 
the power house and a booster inserted in the long 
feeder to provide the voltage necessary to bring the 
average current flow in the cable up to the most econom- 
ical value. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The insulated feeder system is available for general 
application, is comparatively cheap to install and intro- 
duces but slight complication into the operation of the 
system. It is possible by the proper application of this 
method to reduce the potential gradients in the earth 
to almost any desired degree at a comparatively small 
cost, and it can consequently be made very effective in 
relieving electrolysis troubles. In special cases, how- 
ever, it may sometimes be better, where conditions are 
favorable, to combine one of these methods with either 
the insertion of -a moderate number of insulating joints 
in pipes or with the use of a very limited amount of 
pipe drainage, the insulated feeder system being applied 
to reduce potential gradients throughout the system to 
a very low value and one or the other of the previously 
mentioned auxiliary systems used to practically elimi- 
nate any residual electrolysis that might still remain. 

Insulated feeder systems of the general type described 
have in recent years been advocated by a number of 
engineers in this country, but their application has been 
limited to a few instances, and for the most part to 
rather special conditions, and for this reason no ade- 
quate experimental data as to their actual performance 
under practical conditions of service have been pub- 
lished. The writers have recently had opportunity to 
carry out somewhat complete investigations on feeder 
systems of this character, and the results of these in- 
vestigations will be published in the near future. To 
those desiring to study in greater detail the principles 
so briefly referred to in the foregoing paper we refer 
to the following technological papers issued by the Bu- 
reau of Standards, which can be secured at any time 
upon request: "Methods of Preventing Electrolysis 
from Street Railway Currents," "Special Studies in 
Electrolysis Mitigation," and "Electrolysis from Street 
Railway Currents and Its Prevention." 



COMMITTEE ON LIFE OF RAILWAY PHYSICAL 
PROPERTY 



President J. H. Hanna of the American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Association has appointed the follow- 
ing members to represent that association on the joint 
committee with the American Electric Railway Ac- 
countants' Association on the life of railway physical 
property: Martin Schreiber, Public Service Railway 
of Newark, N. J. ; R. B. Rifenberick, Detroit United 
Railway, and Edwin Gruhl, Milwaukee Electric Railway 
& Light Company. 

A recent meeting of the Boosters' Club of the pub- 
lic utilities of New Albany, Ind., including the Louis- 
ville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company and the 
Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Company, was 
largely devoted to a discussion and description of the 
new block signal installation on the Louisville & North- 
ern between Watson Junction and Sellersburg, Ind. 
The signaling system covers a distance of 4.13 miles. 
In 1914 signal equipment will be installed between 
Watson Junction and Jeffersonville, Ind., and ultimately 
all of the lines of both of the traction companies 
referred to will be protected by interlocking automatic 
signals. 



PROGRAM OF MIDYEAR MEETING 



As already announced, the midyear meeting of the 
American Electric Railway Association will be held in 
New York on Jan. 29-31. Jan. 29 and Jan. 31 will be 
given up to meetings of the various committees, and the 
general meeting of the association will be held on Fri- 
day, Jan. 30, in the Engineering Societies Building, 
where the meetings of the various committees will also 
be held. The annual dinner will be held at the Waldorf- 
Astoria on the evening of Jan. 29. 

PROGRAM OF GENERAL MEETING 

The program for the general meeting on Jan. 30 is 
being arranged by the subjects committee of the Ameri- 
can Association. Although it is not as yet complete in 
all its details, it will include: 

An address by Halford Erickson, of the Railroad Com- 
mission of Wisconsin, on "The Economic Aspects of 
Regulation Compared with Profit Sharing with Munici- 
palities," 

An address by F. W. Hild, general manager Portland 
Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, Ore., on 
"The Effect of Rate of Fare on Riding Habit." 

An address on "Inherent Hazards of the Electric 
Railway Industry," by a speaker whose name will be 
announced later. 

An address on "Present-Day Influence of Labor pn 
Legislation," by a speaker whose name is yet to be 
announced. > 

The report of the committee on the joint use of poles, 
which was referred back to the committee on that sub- 
ject by the Atlantic City Convention, with instructions 
to secure the criticism, comment and objections of mem- 
ber companies thereto and embody them in a supple- 
mental report. > ........ 

A report by Martin Schreiber, acting for the com- 
mittee on company sections and individual membership, 
dealing with the question of company sections. 

ARRANGEMENTS FOR DINNER 

The arrangements for the annual dinner are in the 
hands of a joint committee of the American and Manu- 
facturers' associations, the names being published in 
a recent issue of this paper. President Black of the 
American Association will preside. The speakers al- 
ready selected are: Guy E. Tripp, chairman board of 
directors Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and H. W. Anderson, of Richmond, Va. In addi- 
tion there will be another speaker of national reputa- 
tion. President Cornell S. Hawley, president of the 
Manufacturers' Association, has also been invited to 
make remarks. . 

The committee in charge announces that the dinner 
will start promptly at 7 p. m. The tables seat eight 
persons each. Members of the American Association 
will make their reservations with Secretary Burritt; 
members of the Manufacturers' Association will make 
their reservations with Secretary McConnaughy. The 
price of the tickets will be $10 each. A letter containing 
full information and inclosing the necessary blanks, etc., 
will be sent to each member in ample time. 

CORNELL REUNION 

As a result of the dinner held at Atlantic City dur- 
ing the last convention by the Cornell men who were in 
attendance at the big meeting, a committee was ap- 
pointed to assemble the Cornell men at the association's 
midyear dinner. The committee consists of Prof. Henry 
H. Norris, chairman, and R. E. Danforth, Thomas 
Farmer, Jr., H. C. Holloway and E. A. Stillman. Chair- 
man Norris would like to have all Cornell men who are 
engaged in electric railway business, directly or in- 
directly, send their names to him at Ithaca, N. Y. He 
is also anxious to secure the names of those who will 
attend the dinner, so as to make seating arrangements. 



46 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



Shop and Equipment Practice 

This Department Is Devoted to Short Articles of Especial Interest to Men in the Power Stations, Shops and 

Carhouses of Electric Railways 



MANUFACTURING SIGN BOXES AND SIGNS 

BY P. V. SEE, SUPERINTENDENT CAR EQUIPMENT HUDSON & 
MANHATTAN RAILROAD 



Small car shops seldom have the opportunity to man- 
ufacture any article in such large quantities that the 




Hand Punch for Making Signs 

refinements of tools and machinery that are secured 
in factories can be adopted. At the Jersey City shops 
of the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, however, the cost 






Fig. 1 



Fig. 2 



Fig. 3 



4 

T 



A 



Fig.4 



30 1 




Fig.5 



Electric B<j Journal 

Details of Dies and Applications of Same to Sign Boxes 

of making 400 sign holders and 2000 signs has been 
greatly reduced by the use of some very cheap dies. 



♦[Articles on new methods and apparatus for publication in this depart- 
ment are solicited. — Eds.] 



An old sheet-metal geared hand punch was used for 
the work, as shown in the half-tone view. The dies were 
made from scrap tool steel left over from lathe tools 
which had become too short to use in the wheel lathe. 
This steel was annealed and rough-forged and then 
shaped and hand-filed. The edges of the die shown in 
Fig. 1 were so designed that the same die would work 
in various places on the box, so that it was used six 
times on each box. The die shown in Fig. 2, which 
was used twice on each frame, cut out three sides of a 
square and bent the metal at the same stroke. The 
three edges of the die shown in Fig. 3 were so designed 
that the die was used in ten places on each box. The 
applications of the dies are shown in the diagrams Figs. 
4 and 5. 

When the proper stops were placed on the punch the 
most ignorant laborer could be used to do the work. 
All the boxes were found to set together perfectly, and 
the dies were still in good shape after the job was 
finished. 



COMBINATION CAR REBUILT FOR PREPAYMENT 
SERVICE 



The Pacific Electric Railway, of Los Angeles, Cal., 
has recently reconstructed one of its standard combina- 
tion cars for center-entrance prepayment service. 




ai Pacific Electric Railway — Center-Entrance Car Before 

Conversion 

These cars are those used in local service, for which the 
company's standard in the past has been a California 
type of car with closed section in the center 14 ft. 8 in. 




Pacific Electric Railway — Center-Entrance Car After 
Conversion 

in length, with ten cross seats, and an open section at 
each end 12 ft. 2 in. in length over bumper, with six 
cross seats. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



47 



The halftone illustration of car No. 291 shows the 
present standard California type of car of the Pacific 
Electric Railway for local service, as described. The 
seating capacity is forty-four. The second halftone 
engraving, that of car No. 225, shows this same car con- 



are 27^4 in. in length, and with the flooring under them 
fold up vertically when not in use, as shown in the side 
elevation. The angle supports for these seats serve as 
grab-handles when the seats are not in use and are 
made of %-in. pipe. 




DimGrub Handle 




Pacific Electric Railway — Plan and Elevation of Rebuilt Center-Entrance Cars 



verted for center-entrance prepayment operation. This 
center entrance has two entering and two exit gang- 
ways, and as the car is operated from either end, the 
entrance not in use is provided with collapsible seats of 
an ingenious pattern, to be described later. 

The car was converted by cutting it directly through 
the center and inserting a middle section 9 ft. in length, 
reinforced at the bottom by three plate girders, one at 
the center and one 2 ft. 4 in. each side of the center. A 
section and side elevation of this center platform with 
reinforcement is shown on one of the drawings, in which 
it will be seen that the angles forming the steps for each 
center entrance are part of the reinforcing structure, 
which is bolted to the side sills of each end of the 
divided car. 

The platform arrangement is also shown. As will 
be seen, the two entrances in the center are separated 
on the platform from the two exits, one at each side, by 



To reach the necessary height of the car floor, four 
steps are used, respectively 12 in., 9% in., 9y 2 in. and 
8% in. in height. The step tread adopted is of the 
Mason safety carborundum type. The car has been 
equipped with fixed headlights of the Crouse-Hinds 
pattern. 

As yet only one of these cars has been reconverted, 
and as it is in trial service no plans have been made to 
change any other cars in the same way. It is expected 
that the cost of conversion if others were changed 
would be about $1,100 per car. 



INSTANTANEOUS ELECTRIC WATER HEATER FOR 
CAR WASHING 



Home-made water-heating devices of many descrip- 
tions have been employed in the car-washing depart- 
ments of street and interurban railwavs and have 




Pacific Electric Railway — Sections Showing Framing at Center Entrance of Rebuilt Cars 



Electric Ily.Journal 



sections of 1-in. pipe rail, which hinge to a center stan- 
chion and can be swung around when the direction of 
movement of the car is changed. The four collapsible 
seats on the center loading platform opposite the steps 



usually involved the combination of a heater and a 
hot-water storage tank. Such a plant, however, was 
not considered practicable by the mechanical depart- 
ment of the Cincinnati Traction Company owing to 



48 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



several controlling factors imposed by local condi- 
tions. Hot water was desired throughout the year, 
and therefore it could not be furnished by the steam- 
heating plant. Again, car washing was done in one 
end of the paint shop bay, so that a coal heater could 
not be employed unless it was installed at some out- 
side point, and, finally, it was desirable to have hot 
water at a pressure, a condition which could not be 
obtained continuously with an ordinary coal-type 
heater with a tank. With these limits in mind a home- 
made electric water heater was designed and installed. 
Although the cost of heating water electrically was 
greater than by other methods, the device met all the 
requirements, and the quantity of current used was 
so small as not to make the cost prohibitive. 

For all practical purposes this home-made water 
heater is instantaneous. It consists of a box 8 ft. 
long by 2 ft. square in section, built of l^-in. yellow 
pine. The box is lined with V^-in. transite board to in- 
sulate the wood from the heater coils. Eight 17-amp 
electric-coil heaters are installed on the bottom and 
sides of the box, arranged in two circuits, with four 
heaters in each. These are supplied with energy 
through a direct connection to the 550-volt trolley by 
way of a knife switch, and they are sufficient to main- 
tain a temperature of 210 deg. in the box. The heater 
coils on the bottom of the box serve as supports for 
the 1-in. wrought-iron pipe coils which are arranged 
in a rack four coils high and six coils wide. These 
pipes form a continuous coil which is connected with 
the city water supply at one end and to a hose con- 
nection at the other. When the valves provided at 
each end of the coil are open, cold water flows through 
and the heat maintained in the box by the electric 
heaters is sufficient tc raise the temperature of the 
water to a point suitable for car washing before it 
reaches the hose connection. In actual service this 
heater has been found of ample capacity to supply 
four scrubbers with all the hot water they can use in 
a ten-hour day. 



the very light interior which is so well shown in the 
second illustration. The doors are barred, of course, 
to avoid breakage. This car is 40 ft. long over the 
crown pieces and 8 ft. 6 in. wide over the sills. Its 
general construction is of wood with a plain arch roof. 




Side View of Express Car Showing Large Glazed Areas 

The weight of the car body itself is 22,700 lb. It is 
mounted on No. 27 M.C.B.-l trucks fitted with Car- 
negie rolled-steel wheels and operated with four GE- 
210 inside-hung motors. Other equipment features 
include Ohio Brass sanders, Tomlinson couplers and 
arc headlights. This car is a good example of high- 
grade equipment for other than passenger service. 



TWIN CITY CAR DETAILS 



EXPRESS BAGGAGE CAR FOR CHATTANOOGA 



The Chattanooga Traction Company has recently 
purchased from The J. G. Brill Company the baggage- 
express car shown in the two accompanying illustra- 



The Twin City Rapid Transit Company, which main- 
tains a car-building plant, has embodied in its cars 
several constructional features which are believed to 
be original with the company. For example, in the 
flooring which is planed and matched in the woodmill 
the useful wear is increased by placing the tongue and 
groove lower than usual. One sketch shows that the car 
wheels carry "squeak deadeners." These are round 
wooden blocks 4 in. in diameter and % in- thick, 
clamped on both sides of the wheel web near the rim. 
Canvas-rubber pads are placed under the blocks and 
the whole deadener is bound together by means of a 
V2-m. bolt. While the noise made when a car takes a 
crossing is not eliminated entirely by this muffler, it 
replaces the shrill squeal with a dull low-pitched rumble. 
The company is also trying other noise-muffling attach- 



es 




Section 
A-A 



Electric liy.Journat 



The Light Interior of the Chattanooga Express Car 



Car Platform Arranged for Mastic Flooring 



tions. A notable feature of this car is the great amount 
of glazing used. This will be seen from the construc- 
tion of the double doors on each side and the windows 
at the ends. This arrangement naturally makes for 



ments, such as softer brakeshoes and canvas-rubber 
pads for insertion under the equalizer bar springs and 
even under the window sash. 

Part of the trucks in use were made by the Baldwin 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



49 



Locomotive Works, but at present all are made by the 
railway. These trucks are a light M. C. B. design. They 
are made complete with the exception of the journal 
boxes. General Electric motors (the standard now be- 
ing Nos. 203 and 216) are used, but their riveted steel 
gear cases and all motor repair parts are made in the 
shops. The two sizes of Bessemer steel axles which 
suffice for the entire system have given absolutely no 
trouble from cracking. Truck parts, as well as other 
standard pieces, are made interchangeable and kept in 
stock so that a car injured in a collision can be repaired 
without delay by replacing damaged parts. 

The rear platform of the Twin City cars, as shown 
in an accompanying drawing, is interesting in several 
ways. It is 6 ft. long with double steps set within the 
line of the side sills, the deep channel knees being set 
close together. Between the knees are floor supports 
made by two pairs of light angles. This steel frame 
carries a whitewood flooring on which a mastic flooring 
is troweled. The mastic is held together by 10-oz. ex- 
panded metal. " The steps are of the standard pattern 
made up of corrugated strip in the shops. At the foot 
of the steps are four woven-wire safety gates which 
are operated by the motorman. Aside from these feat- 
ures the platform equipment is stan- 
dard, including, for the interurban 
cars, red tail lamps. 

Two car improvements now under 
way are of particular interest. The 
sheet-iron covers of the controllers 
on several hundred of the older cars 
are being replaced with wooden ones 
of oak veneered on both sides and 
supplied with a poplar foundation. 
These covers will eliminate frequent 
cause of short-circuits. Another 
safety installation is the equipment 
of all cars with a simple switch cabinet of transite board 
built on a wooden frame. This cabinet is located close 
under the hood against the front bulkhead of the car 
and is ventilated to the roof. It contains the circuit- 
breaker, pump switch, fuses and lamp switches. 



Web of Wheel 



Bound 
-Wooden 

UlOek 



Packing 

Details of Squeak 
Deadener 



DETROIT UNITED TRAIN NUMBER SIGN 



A novel illuminated train number sign for the inter- 
urban cars of the Detroit United Railway Company, 
Detroit, Mich., has been designed by its mechanical 
department within the last year. The novel features 
include illuminated numerals, which may be easily 
changed to any series of three numbers in a cheap yet 
substantially constructed sign box, and the method of 
mounting this box in the car window. 

Essentially the sign consists of a box 5 in. wide by 
8V2 in deep by 23% in. long, constructed of %-in. pop- 
lar. The back of the sign, which tapers from 5 in. at 
the top to 3% in- at the bottom, is provided with a 
5%-in. door. The front is covered with 18-gage tin, 
through which three openings, 6V2 in. by 6% in. in 
size, have been cut. Each opening is provided with 
guides to take the number slides. Just back of this tin 
frame, and separated from it by an air space of % in., 
is a ground-glass partition which incloses the lamp 
compartment and serves as the illuminated background 
for the train numbers when in position in the metal 
front. The interior of the box is painted white, and a 
16-cp lamp mounted near the center of the top sup- 
plies sign illumination. Properly to distribute the light 
to the three numbers, a piece of close-meshed wire 
screen slightly larger than the vertical cross-section of 
the lamp is attached to the top of the sign between 
the lamp and the number plates. 

In order to prevent the numbers from being placed 



in the sign incorrectly a rivet is set in one metal guide 
of each pair 2 in. from the bottom. The numbered slide, 
which is similar to an ordinary metal stencil, is notched 
on one side up 2 in. from the bottom and is 5/32 in. 
wide. This simple arrangement makes it impossible to 




Back View of Illuminated Train Number Sign 

insert numbers in the sign box in the reverse position. 
Ventilation is provided by ten 3 /4-in. holes bored 
through the top of the box. 

When mounted in the cars these sign boxes are 
placed in the upper sash to the left of the front vesti- 




Elcctric Hy. Journal 



Cross-Section Through Box 



bule, being hinged to the sash rail at the bottom and 
hooked to the upper rail. This arrangement permits 
the sign to be unhooked and dropped so that the num- 
bers may be changed as required by the different runs. 
The sign lamps receive their energy from the car-light- 
ing circuit, being in series with the lamps in the car. 




Illuminated Train Number Sign on Interurban Car 

Each box is provided' with a receptacle and the front 
vestibule has a cord and plug so that electrical connec- 
tion may readily be made. A case containing a series 
of ten numbers, three of each kind, letters "W" and 



50 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



"X" for work train and extra, and one blank slide, has 
been placed conveniently in the motorman's cab of each 
car. A view and sketch of this sign are shown in the 
illustrations. 



RAILWAY-CROSSING ACCIDENT STATISTICS COMPILED 



LINE AND STRAIN INSULATORS 



Company, Brooklyn, N. 
up of an integral and 
sulating material with 
ber embedded therein. 



The line and strain insulators illustrated herewith 
were invented by Louis Steinberger and are being 
put on the market by the Electrose Manufacturing 

Y. Each insulator is made 
uniformly solid mass of in- 
a strain or suspension mem- 
The latter is interlinked in 
such a manner that even if all the insulating material 
should be removed or destroyed, it would be impos- 
sible for the line to fall to the ground. 

The line clamp has a smooth bore for gripping the 
wire or cable, thereby preventing crystallization and 
the possible breaking of the conductor at or near the 
clamp. The clamp is designed to grip conductors of 
various diameters. It is light in weight, but it is 
sufficiently strong to break the conductor before any 



In making an effort to ascertain wherein the respon- 
sibility for crossing accidents might rest, some obser- 
vations were recently made by one of the railroads with 
offices in San Francisco. The observations were made 
in San Francisco, Oakland, Stockton, Lodi and Sacra- 
mento. The total of the pedestrians and drivers of 
teams and motor vehicles who crossed during the period 
of observation was 25,296. Of this number thirty-five 
stopped and looked in both directions before crossing, 
8950 kept moving and looked in both directions, 1694 
kept moving and looked in one way only, and 14,617 
kept moving and looked straight ahead. 



ELECTRIFICATION OF CHRISTIANIA-DRAMMEN RAIL- 
WAY APPROVED 



The Norwegian Royal Commission on Water Power 
has recently issued a report on the question of the 






Insulator with Clamp Attached 



Strain Insulator 



Section of Suspension Insulator 



slippage can take place. The metal parts of these in- 
sulators are made of galvanized drop-forged steel. 

The disk strain insulators are made in sizes having 
diameters of 5% in., 7% in., IOV2 in., 12 1 2 in. and 
14V2 in., and the disk strain and suspension insulators 
in diameters of 8 in., 10 in., 12 in., 14 in. and 16 in. 
The accompanying table gives test values obtained 
with the 7%-in. disk strain insulator and the 10-in. 
disk strain and suspension insulator. 

Test Voltages 

7y 2 -In. 10-In. Disk 

Disk Strain Strain and Sus- 

Insulator. pension Insulator, 

Volts Volts 

Line voltage 25,000 25,000 

Rain arc value 55,000 55,000 

Dry arc value 74,000 100,000 

Puncture value, under oil 120,000 150,000 

In addition to the excellent electrical characteristics 
of the insulators, they possess many desirable fea- 
tures from the mechanical point of view. There are 
no loose parts to be lost and no special tools are re- 
quired for connecting or disconnecting the units. By 
means of a plain wrench, a nail or even a piece of wire 
two or more units may be connected or disconnected in 
a fraction of a minute. 



The Topeka (Kan.) Railway was host to 350 em- 
ployees at a recent company dinner. A performance at 
one of the Topeka theaters also was seen at the com- 
pany's expense. Special cars were provided to take the 
employees between the theater and the banquet hall. 



power supply for the electrification of the Norwegian 
railroads. At present there are 1850 miles of steam 
railroads in Norway, and, according to this report, the 
maximum demand of all these lines, if electrified, 
would be about 85,600 kw and the annual consumption 
118,000,000 kw-hr. The State owns twenty-nine water- 
falls, which could develop more than 500,000 kw. Of 
these falls, thirteen have been purchased expressly 
for railway supply. It is estimated that the railways 
in the southern half of Norway could be supplied al- 
most entirely from one large station to be erected at 
the Nore falls west of Christiania. The cost of this 
development is put at $17,250,000, or about $150 per 
kw, for a maximum load of 117,000 kw, and the cost 
of supply at $20 per kw per annum. It is intended to de- 
velop all the power stations at fifty cycles, three- 
phase, and to utilize a large proportion of the avail- 
able energy for power and lighting supply. Calcula- 
tions on the relative cost of steam and electric trac- 
tion show that all that the existing railways could af- 
ford to pay for electrical energy would average only 
0.66 cent per kw-hr. for the same total operating 
costs as with steam, or less than $10 per kw per an- 
num as compared with the generating cost of $20 per 
kw per annum estimated above. On certain lines 
with comparatively dense traffic electrification would 
be economical at the latter power cost, and in view of 
the rising price of coal and the economic advantage 
to the nation of a universal power supply, the com- 
mission recommends its gradual introduction. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



51 



LONDON LETTER 



(From Our Regular Correspondent) 



Preliminary arrangements have been made for a tram- 
way and light railway exhibition in the Agricultural Hall 
in 1915. The exhibition will be promoted by the Tramway 
and Railway World, which was responsible for the exhibi- 
tions of 1900, 1902 and 1905. Since 1905 there have been 
no tramway exhibitions. 

The highways committee of the London County Council 
has reported that it has been impressed for some time with 
the necessity of linking the existing dead-end termini and 
of otherwise consolidating the Council's tramway system. 
It expresses the opinion that the lack of success of the 
many schemes which have been put forward from time to 
time has been due partly to the failure of the Council to 
submit to Parliament a comprehensive scheme of develop- 
ment which could be defended in its entirety as essential 
for the efficient working of the undertaking. The com- 
mittee has directed the chief officer of tramways, the comp- 
troller, the chief engineer and the appraiser to prepare a 
report on the subject. Application for sanction of the run- 
ning of a large number of trail cars on certain of the 
southern tramways has been made to the Board of Trade. 
The idea of the highways committee is to provide 150 new 
trailers and equip 200 of the existing electric cars with 
couplers. It is also reported that in consequence of the 
falling off in tram receipts as a result of motor-bus com- 
petition reductions have been obtained in the assessment 
of the tramways in nearly all the boroughs affected. A 
proposal for the operation of "express" tramcars on the 
"skip-stop" for the suburbs is also being considered. At 
present the speed of the cars averages 9 m.p.h. The high- 
ways committee has decided to install automatic chocolate 
machines on the Council's tramcars running from the Ham- 
mersmith depot for a period of six months as an experi- 
ment. Another recent development of London traveling is 
the all-night bus service, and the first owl cars were run a 
few months ago as an experiment. The first service was 
from Cricklewood in North London to Liverpool Street via 
Piccadilly Circus and the Strand. A second all-night serv- 
ice, covering a different part of the city, has just been 
started. 

The annual report of the Morecambe Tramway is inter- 
esting on account of the fact that it is the only tramway 
in Great Britain which is being operated by petrol-driven 
tramcars. At the annual meeting the secretary stated 
that had it not been for these cars the tramway would 
have gone into bankruptcy. During the year the cars trav- 
eled 52,065 miles and carried 424,136 passengers. A dividend 
of 3 per cent has been declared. 

J. M. McElroy, general manager of the Manchester 
Tramways, is preparing a comprehensive report dealing 
with the transportation question of Manchester. Some of 
his recommendations will be based on his recent study of 
electric railway practice in the United States. The tram- 
way system in Manchester is very profitable, but there are 
serious complaints of insufficiency of traveling facilities, 
and there is great congestion of traffic in certain streets. 
Many accidents, also, occur in Manchester to passengers 
while boarding or leaving cars, and the chief constable and 
the chairman of the watch committee have visited several 
of the large Continental cities to investigate the traffic 
methods adopted in these places, with a view to minimizing 
accidents. The result of their investigations will be em- 
bodied in a report to be issued simultaneously with that 
of Mr. McElroy. With a view to warning tramway pas- 
sengers of the danger of accident as they are leaving the 
cars, the tramways committee has recently placed a notice 
on the cars warning people about passing vehicles as they 
alight from the cars. 

Three provisional orders to be presented to Parliament 
by the Corporation of Glasgow ask powers for considerable 
engineering constructional work and for new governing 
regulations within the city. With respect to tramways 
there are twenty-eight separate proposals, most of them 
either of a minor character or prolongations of existing 
routes, varying in length from a few furlongs to about 3 
miles and extending in the aggregate to 21 miles of double 



track. Perhaps the most interesting proposal is that the 
Corporation should run lines across the proposed new 
Clyde bridge close to the present Broomielaw Bridge, 
powers for the construction of which have also been asked. 
The Corporation also desires running powers over the 
Airdrie and Coatbridge tramways, so that its cars may 
connect directly with these towns. Included in this order 
there is also a proposal for the construction of a bridge 
across the River Kelvin for carrying tramways, of certain 
new streets, and of several short railways giving the rail- 
ways working connections with Merklands Cattle Wharf. 

The tramway committee of the Edinburgh Council has 
recommended that a service of motor omnibuses should be 
procured for a southern route in the city, giving a ten 
minutes' service with six buses, the probable cost being 
£5,100. 

The estimates of the engineer in connection with the 
ambitious scheme of tramways being promoted by the 
urban district councils of Wombwell, Wath, Bolton-on- 
Dearne and Thurnscoe, under the title of the Dearne Valley 
Light Railway Board, are now available. The capital cost 
of the traction undertaking is estimated at £151,891. The 
cost of construction and equipment and acquisition of land 
and buildings is estimated at £90,046. The estimate of the 
cost of constructing the permanent way is based on three 
scales of cost per mile— £2,640, £3,360 and £4,880— accord- 
ing to the changing character of the districts traversed. 
Rolling stock is put down at £22,560, which, supposing the 
cars to cost an average of £800 apiece, would make pro- 
vision for twenty-six. This, over the length of route pro- 
posed, would be adequate for a ten to fifteen minutes' serv- 
ice over all the route. If the scheme is carried out in its 
entirety, there will be direct intercommunication with the 
towns of Barnsley, Mexbrough, Rotherham and Sheffield, 
with provision for linking up with Doncaster at Thurnscoe. 
It will be possible to have through running on the tramway 
systems of the Corporations of Barnsley, Rotherham and 
Sheffield, as well as on that of the Mexbrough & Swinton 
Tramway. 

The process of linking up the tube railway system with 
the various main line termini in London has been com- 
pleted by the extension of the Bakerloo line to Paddington 
Station. All the principal London stations are now in 
direct communication with every important district in the 
metropolitan area. The new tube station has been con- 
structed under the railway approach on the arrival side, 
and access to the platforms is by escalators. The rise 
is 39 ft. 4 in. and both the up and down escalators have 
been built in a large single tunnel with a flight of steps be- 
tween them. The railway is being continued from Pad- 
dington to Queen's Park, a distance of about 2% miles. 
It is expected that this work will be completed by Jan. 15. 
Escalators will be installed at all three stations on this 
extension — Warwick Avenue, Maida Vale and Kilburn Park 
— and it is proposed to construct escalators at Tottenham 
Court Road, Piccadilly Circus, Trafalgar Square, and at 
the Oxford Circus station of the Central London Railway 
Company. 

With a view to bettering the service on the Central Lon- 
don Railway during the busiest hours, changes have been 
introduced in the running of the trains. In future from 
about 8 a. m. to 10 a. m. and from 4 p. m. until about 7 p. m. 
one station will be omitted by all trains of the com- 
pany. The stations through which trains will run with- 
out stopping are restricted to three, Lancaster Gat?. 
Queen's Road and Holland Park. Another great improve- 
ment to be carried out is the removal of the British Mu- 
seum station to a site next to that of the Holborn station 
on the Piccadilly tube. The distance between the stations 
has long been a source of inconvenience. The new stations 
will be connected, and there will be "glides" to and from 
the platforms. The through journey from Piccadilly and 
stations west of it to the Bank and the city generally will 
be greatly shortened. 

Within three months electric trains will be running on 
the London & North-Western Railway line between Willes- 
den and Earl's Court. This is the first section of the com- 
pany's electrification scheme to be completed. The work- 
on this stretch of line is now virtually finished, and within 
a few weeks the new rolling stock will be delivered. 

A. C. R. 



52 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 

News of Electric Railways 



Company's Side in Indianapolis Arbitration 



The Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company on Dec. 
22 commenced the presentation of its side of the case in 
the hearings before the Public Service Commission of 
Indiana, which body is sitting as an arbitration board to 
decide for a term of three years the wages and working 
conditions of the employees of the company. W. H. Latta, 
attorney for the company, introduced as witnesses retail 
grocers from different parts of the city, representing all 
classes of trade. These men testified that in general the 
prices of foodstuffs are very little higher than five years 
ago, but said that people insist on having everything in 
packages in preference to buying in bulk at a much 
cheaper rate and require 60 per cent of their purchases de- 
livered. It was shown that delivery service adds 8 to 10 
per cent to the cost of the provisions thus purchased. It 
was shown by some of the grocers that the increase in the 
price of meats applies particularly to the choice cuts and 
has been brought about by the increased demand for these 
cuts, and that there has been little, if any, increase in the 
price of the cheaper cuts. Canned goods were shown to be 
selling at about the same price as in the last few years, 
but it was stated that the quality was better. Witnesses 
testified that vegetables were much higher out of season 
than in season, but that their sales of these vegetables 
were larger when out of season. 

The credit system was blamed by the grocers for induc- 
ing people to overbuy and also to purchase many things 
they do not actually need. The owner of the largest re- 
tail shoestore in the state testified that just as good wear- 
ing shoes could still be purchased for $3.50 as for $5, $6 or 
$7, but that they did not have the same "style," and as 
the working people now insist on buying much more styl- 
ish shoes than formerly, they pay the increased price for 
style and not for service. 

A member of the City Council of Indianapolis, who is 
connected with one of the large clothing stores, testified 
that clothing prices have not advanced materially in the 
last twenty years, but that more high-grade goods are 
manufactured and sold now than formerly, and the tend- 
ency of the people is to dress better. He stated that a 
street car man's uniform costs $9 to $10, which is a dollar 
or so higher than a few years ago, due to the increased 
prices of blue cloth. Rental agents testified that the 
rental prices of medium-priced houses have not been ma- 
terially increased during the last five years. 

The company then filed reports with the commission 
showing the number of hours worked by the motormen 
and conductors at the different carhouses, as compared 
with what the men might have earned if they had not 
taken time off. At the College Avenue carhouse the 
motormen could have earned an average of $75.68 per 
month; the actual earnings averaged $70.44. The average 
earnings of the conductors at this carhouse if they had 
worked full time would have been $72.81 a month; actual 
earnings averaged $64.74. At the Louisiana Street car- 
house the average actual earnings of the motormen were 
$60.02 a month, although the schedule called for a pos- 
sible earning of $73.01. The conductors could have earned 
$70.10, but their actual average on account of time off was 
$57.37. At the West Washington Street carhouse the 
motormen actually averaged $63.98 a month, against a 
possible average of $74.27. Conductors at this carhouse ac- 
tually earned an average of $61.67, whereas their possible 
earnings would have averaged $71.74 a month. 

In order to bring testimony to bear on the contention 
made by employees that power house and shop men are 
not receiving the prevailing rate of wages, officials of 
other utilities of the city of Indianapolis appeared as wit- 
nesses for the company. Mr. Darrow, general manager of 
the Merchants' Light & Heat Company, testified as to the 
scale of wages paid the employees of that company. Under 
the chief engineer there is an assistant engineer in charge 
of each power house, receiving $29.25 per week. Other 
power station engineers are paid $18, $19 and $22 a week; 



firemen, $15 and $16 a week; switchboard men, $12 to $15- 
a week; turbine men, $15 to $18 a week; ash and coal 
handlers, $14 and $15; watchmen $10.50. The men work 
twelve hours a day. Mr. Darrow said that his company 
is able to get competent men to operate its plants for these 
wages. The West Washington street plant of the com- 
pany develops about 15,000 hp. 

Thomas A. Wynn, vice-president of the Indianapolis 
Light & Heat Company, testified that his company oper- 
ates two power stations in the city, generating approx- 
imately 17,000 kw at each plant. The general supervising- 
engineer of the company receives $200 a month. At each 
of the power stations the chief operating engineer receives 
$150 a month; assistant engineer, $110 a month; engineers, 
$90 a month; switchboard operators, $70 a month; sub- 
station operators, $65 a month; firemen, $60; repair men, 
$85; boiler washers and ash and coal handlers, $55; head 
firemen, $70; oilers, $60; laborers, $2 a day. 

Charles H. Hurd, vice-president of the Indianapolis 
Water Company, read the scale of wages maintained in 
the power house of that company, as follows: chief en- 
gineer, $150 a month; assistant engineer, $100 a month; 
engineers, $80 and $83.33 a month; head oilers, $67.50; 
oilers, $64 and $60; head firemen, $75; firemen, $70; assist- 
ant firemen, $66; repair men (machinists), $75; common 
laborers on construction work where they do not work 
steadily, 20 cents an hour. 

L. M. Clark, master mechanic of the Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal Company, testified that about 160 men are 
employed in the West Washington Street shops of the 
company, and that during the six years he has been mas- 
ter mechanic there has never been any difficulty experi- 
enced in obtaining competent workmen at the rate of 
wages paid by the company. 

Charles Hogate, chief engineer of the two power plants 
of the company, stated that the day men worked eleven 
hours and the night men thirteen hours, and that the shifts 
were exchanged every two weeks. The main load is 
carried by the new power station at West Tenth Street, 
the West Washington Street plant being operated during 
the peak loads and shut down from 8.30 p. m. to 5 a. m. 
Mr. Hogate stated that there was no dissatisfaction in the 
power stations prior to the recent labor troubles, and 
that he has always been able to obtain and hold competent 
men at the present rate of wages. 

Harvey G. Shafer, superintendent of the Nordyke & 
Marmon Company, a large manufacturer of machinery, 
automobiles, etc., testified that at that plant pattern 
makers received 30 to 40 cents an hour, machinists 25 to 
32% cents, helpers 22% cents, carpenters 25 to 31% cents, 
painters 25 to 37% cents, laborers 17% cents up, firemen 

21 cents, toolmakers 32% to 40 cents an hour. This plant 
is operated as an open shop. 

Eugene Darrach, treasurer of the Interstate Car Com- 
pany, testified that his company pays the following wages; 
foreman blacksmiths, $25 a week; blacksmiths, 35, 29%, 
27%, 25 and 22 cents an hour; blacksmiths' helpers, 19 to 

22 cents an hour; laborers in car department, 17 to 20 
cents an hour; laborers in foundry, 20 to 21 cents. Car 
builders average about 40 cents an hour; mill hands, 22% 
to 27% cents; helpers, 19 to 21 cents; laborers, 19 to 20 
cents. 

Foremen of the different carhouses of the company tes- 
tified on Dec. 23 that prior to the strike they had never 
heard of any complaints from the men as to the way they 
were being treated by the officers of the company, and that 
when labor agitators were in the city and talk of a strike 
was started many of the men went to the foremen and ex- 
pressed themselves as not being in favor of any such action. 
The foremen explained to the commission the method of 
assignment of runs, the revolving board for the extra men, 
etc. They stated very positively to the commission that 
the discipline among the men since the strike and the 
formation of a union has not been nearly so good as prior 
to that time, that extra men did not report on time, and 
that regular men who used to "ask" off now told the fore- 
men when they intended to lie off. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



53 



On account of the Christmas holidays, the commission 
adjourned after the hearings of Dec. 22 and Dec. 23 until 
Dec. 29, when the company continued the presentation of 
its testimony. 

The business men of Indianapolis have issued a state- 
ment, "Indianapolis Industrial Condition," in which they 
have set forth the facts in regard to labor conditions in 
Indianapolis, in an effort to set the city right before the 
country. 



Annual Report of the Interstate Commerce Commission 



The twenty-seventh annual report of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission dated Dec. 15 was sent to Congress on 
Dec. 19. A number of matters of direct interest to the of- 
ficers of electric railways are contained in the report. Re- 
ferring to the case of the commission against the Omaha 
& Council Bluffs Street Railway, which was followed from 
time to time in the Electric Railway Journal and involved 
an order of the commission reducing rates for the trans- 
portation of passengers from Council Bluffs to Omaha on 
a street railway operated between the cities, the commission 
says: 

"In deciding that the order of the commission was void 
for want of jurisdiction the Supreme Court held that the 
act to regulate commerce does not apply to street railways, 
even though they cross State lines, where passengers are 
the only traffic carried and the railway serves but one com- 
munity." 

Under the heading "Division of Carriers' Accounts" the 
commission says: 

"A system of accounts for telegraph and cable companies 
has been completed and will be made effective Jan. 1, 1914. 
The remaining classifications to complete the systems of ac- 
counts for electric railways, express companies, and sleep- 
ing car companies are still in preparation, substantial prog- 
ress having been made during the year. A list of the 
accounting classifications of the commission, so far as com- 
pleted at that time, was given in the last report, and it is 
considered unnecessary to repeat the information here. 

"The act to regulate commerce prohibits the destruction 
of any accounts, records, or memoranda of carriers, except 
upon specific orders of the commission naming the records 
that may be. destroyed and prescribing the length of time 
such records shall be preserved before their destruction. 
Prior to July 1, 1912, such orders had been issued applying 
to steam roads, express companies, and sleeping car com- 
panies. During the past year similar orders have been 
issued applying to electric railways and water carriers." 

Under the heading "Investigation of Accidents" the com- 
mission says: 

"In previous reports the commission has recommended 
legislation requiring the standardization of operating rules. 
It is vital to the safe movement of trains that rules shall 
be explicit and uniform in character, so that they may be 
easily understood and that there may be no doubt as to 
their application. To this end federal legislation is neces- 
sary. Such legislation also should require proper super- 
vision of employees to insure that the rules are obeyed, as 
well as systematic instruction and examinations at stated 
intervals to make certain that no employee is permitted to 
be in a responsible position unless he is thoroughly familiar 
with his duties and competent to perform them." 

Under the heading "Valuation" the commission outlines 
the plans which it has adopted for carrying out the pro- 
visions of the act of March 1, 1913, providing for the valua- 
tion of the property of all common carriers subject to the 
act to regulate commerce. Reference is made to the divi- 
sion of the county into districts for the purpose of facili- 
tating this work. As to the preliminary method of proce- 
dure the commission says: 

"The present plan is to select a railroad in each one of 
these divisions which can be valued in an experimental way. 
An attempt will be made to choose railroads of different 
classes so that as great a variety of problems will be pre- 
sented as possible. This initial work will be undertaken 
with deliberation, and no attempt will be made unduly to 
expand or hasten operations until the result of these pre- 
liminary studies can be appreciated. After a few months 
of this kind of work in different parts of the countrv and 
under varying conditions the commission and its engineers 



will better understand the exact difficulties which must be 
met and the methods by which the work can be prosecuted 
to the best advantage. To make more certain of its ground 
the commission referred its scheme of organization and its 
plans for the beginning of this work to a committee consist- 
ing of John Skelton Williams, Charles F. Staples, Henry C. 
Adams, Edward W. Bemis, and Oscar T. Crosby. This com- 
mittee, after mature consideration, approved our plans with 
certain suggestions for modifications, most of which have 
been adopted." 

In the recommendations which it makes the commission 
says in part: 

"We recommend that the commission be authorized to 
make orders, after investigation, respecting the construc- 
tion and maintenance of the physical properties of rail- 
roads engaged in interstate commerce and rules and regu- 
lations pertaining to the use and operation of such proper- 
ties. In previous reports the commission has indicated the 
desirability of legislation upon the subject of control over 
railway capitalization. Without attempting to add to the 
reasons previously advanced, we renew those recommenda- 
tions." 

The summary of casualties to persons on interstate elec- 
tric railways reporting to the commission for the years 
ended June 30, 1913 and 1912, follows: 

Item , 1913— ^ , 1912; j 

Killed Injured Killed Injured 
Passengers: „ .„„ 

In train accidents 10 1,252 7 1,462 

Other causes 26 1,789 28 1-400 

Total ~36 3,041 35 2,862 

Employees on duty : 

In train accidents IS 154 14 144 

In coupling accidents 1 19 J° 

Overhead obstructions, etc 6 34 . . 22 

Falling from cars, etc 8 138 9b 

Other causes 17 J!03 17 159 

Total 50 548 46 439 

Total passengers and employees 

on duty . 86 3,589 81 3.301 

Employees not on duty : 

In train accidents 5 .. 11 

In coupling accidents .... • • 

Overhead obstructions, etc . - . ■ • • 1 

Falling from cars, etc 1 19 1 11 

Other causes 2 4 .. 1 

Total 3 28 1 24 

Other persons : 

Not trespassing — • 

In train accidents 1 8 .. 7 

Other causes 196 860 118 652 

Total 197 868 118 659 

Trespassers — 

In train accidents .... . . .... 

Other causes 117 123 100 128 

Total 117 123 100 128 

Total accidents involving train op- 
eration 403 4,608 300 4,112 

Industrial accidents to employees 

not involving train operation 19 798 24 550 

Grand total 422 5,406 324 4,662 



Increase in Accident Claims in Cleveland 



At the regular meeting of the City Council of Cleveland 
on the evening of Dec. 16, a resolution offered by Council- 
man Lyman O. Newell, calling for a report on the number 
of accidents, deaths, amount of damage claims paid and 
cost of operating the cars of the Cleveland Railway during 
October, as compared with the same month in 1912, was 
referred to the street railway committee without instruc- 
tions as to when to report on the measure. 

It is stated that the figures in the company's office show 
that 3702 persons were injured during the first eleven 
months of 1913, or almost 1000 more than during the same 
time in 1912. Thirty persons were killed during the eleven 
months this year, it is said, while only seventeen were fatally 
injured during the same period in 1912. The amount paid 
for damage claims for the eleven months of this year was 
$245,819 and in 1912 the aggregate for the same time was 
$193,869. It is said that in September and October, 1913, 
the company paid $18,000 more in damage claims each 
month than for the corresponding months in the previous 
year. 



54 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



Pennsylvania Railroad Contracts for Energy for Its Phila- 
delphia Lines 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has announced that the con- 
tract for the electrical energy for the electrification of its 
lines between Broad Street station, Philadelphia, Pa., and 
Paoli, and also between the Broad Street station and 
Chestnut Hill, has been let to the Philadelphia Electric 
Company. All of the local trains on those lines will prob- 
ably be operated by electrical energy before the end of 
1914 and the first electric trains out of Broad Street sta- 
tion are expected to be running about September next. The 
contract is for five years. At the beginning the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad will use about 4500 hp, a minimum of 3750 
kw, with a load factor of 25 per cent, being specified. The 
energy is to be furnished for the main line to Paoli and 
any addition or extension thereto, the railroad reserving 
the right to call on the Philadelphia Electric Company for 
any additional energy that may be necessary for its general 
system from time to time. With the completion of the 
present work as planned, the Pennsylvania Railroad will 
have 32 miles of electrified lines in the Philadelphia sub- 
urban district. The cost of the energy to the railroad for 
the Paoli line for the first year will be about $150,000. 

The Philadelphia Electric Company now feeds a load of 
35,000 hp daily for the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com- 
pany. J. B. McCall, president of the company, says that no 
change or enlargement beyond the usual will be necessary 
for supplying the energy for the Pennsylvania lines. At 
present, the Christian Street station of the Philadelphia 
Electric Company has equipment with a rated capacity of 
115,000 hp, and during the next year the addition of steam 
turbines will bring this rating up to 187,000 hp. Until 
the contract between the Pennsylvania Railroad and the 
Philadelphia Electric Company is actually signed, none of 
its details will be available for publication. 

Terms of Purchase of Presidio & Ferries Railroad, San 
Francisco, by the City 

The Supervisors of San Francisco, Cal., acting on behalf 
of the city, and the Presidio & Ferries Railroad, represented 
by George Newhall, president and general manager, have 
agreed upon $300,000 minimum and $360,000 maximum as 
the price at which the property of the company is to be 
taken over by the city. The exact figure will be arbitrated 
within seventy-five days from the date of the contract, 
which was Dec. 3, 1913. The franchise of the company 
expired on Dec. 10. The terms of the contract follow: 

1. The price to be between $300,000 and $360,000. 

2. A board of arbitration to fix the value upon a repro- 
duction cost basis, minus depreciation on all property pur- 
chased. 

3. The arbitrators named are Thomas H. Mullins, the 
engineer who rebuilt the line after the catastrophe of 1906, 
representing the company, and the city engineer, represent- 
ing the city. In case these arbitrators fail to agree in sixty 
days, the points in controversy are to be referred to A. M. 
Hunt, whose decision shall be binding on both parties to the 
contract. 

4. The city was to pay $50,000 in cash on Dec. 10 to the 
company. 

5. The balance agreed upon by arbitration is payable 
within sixty days from the date in which the agreement is 
reached. 

6. In event of failure on the part of the city to sell suffi- 
cient bonds to complete the purchase within the stipulated 
time the company is either to purchase sufficient bonds to 
make up the deficiency, or find purchasers therefor, and 
agrees further that bonds so purchased shall not be sold 
within one year for less than par value and accrued interest. 

7. The loop upon Larkin, Vallejo and Gough Streets, and 
upon three blocks of cable road, for which franchises were 
more recently granted to expire with the franchise upon 
the main system, with the proviso that the city should not 
be required to purchase track or other stationary equip- 
ment, is expressly omitted from those properties which the 
city is to purchase. 

8. The city is to rent the carhouse at Gough and Filbert 
Streets for a period of one year at $150 a month, with an 
option of two more years on the same terms. 



In addition a resolution was passed at the request of Mr. 
Newhall that provides that wherever possible and whenever 
necessary the city will give employment to present em- 
ployees of the company. This is subject, of course, to the 
restrictions of the charter. Employees of the company will 
be obliged to take the usual civil service examinations, but 
having passed these, will have preference over other eli- 
gibles to the same position. 

C. W. Barron and Colonel Williams on Corporation Publicity 
Methods 

At a recent hearing before the Public Service Commis- 
sion of Massachusetts concerning miscellaneous expen- 
ditures of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 
covering seven months preceding last July C. W. Barron, 
publisher of the Boston News Bureau, made some very 
interesting statements in regard to the publicity campaign 
of the company and read some correspondence which he 
had with the company in which he made suggestions con- 
cerning publicity work by public corporations that should 
be of interest to electric railway managers who are con- 
ducting such campaigns or have such campaigns in contem- 
plation. The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 
in November, 1912, sent to Mr. Barron's office certain data 
to be made up into the form of an advertisement for the 
newspapers. Mr. Barron objected to the advertisement or 
to the railroad spending money for any such advertising 
as was suggested. He declared it was not the business of 
a public service corporation to spend money to tell how good 
it was or who owned it. It could properly spend money only 
tobuild up business, and building up business it would 
secure both credit and goodwill. 

In his correspondence with Edgar J. Rich, general solicitor 
of the company, and with Charles S. Mellen, then president, 
Mr. Barron laid down some rules on advertising. In one 
of his letters he said: 

"Advertising at random and giving advertising under 
pressure, or sporadically, as may be persistently demanded, 
is very bad policy. It encourages persistency and applica- 
tion and causes a bad impression, not only upon the man 
who receives the advertising — he knows he is getting it 
because of his persistency — but upon the publisher and all 
the staff upon higher class papers in the same field, who 
know the reason the moment such an advertisement appears 
why that publication gets it and they do not. Every adver- 
tisement from a public service corporation is very carefully 
scanned by publishers, news men and editors, the moment it 
appears. 

"It is highly important that the impression be given that 
the advertiser handling the funds of the public service cor- 
poration knows his business and that the management of 
the corporation is straight and square, for the newspaper 
men will judge the management right in the field where they 
themselves are experts. 

"Next to securing the safety of passengers there is 
nothing more important in my judgment in railroad direc- 
tion than the policy of the management as presented in 
public view. An unfilled promise direct or implied to the 
public or a newspaper may have dire consequences years 
afterward. 

"J. Edward Addicks lost the gas field in Boston and his 
fortune by two false steps with the newspapers, although 
these never came into public view. 

"I think Mr. Riggs (executive assistant to the president 
in charge of publicity) agrees with me that the policy in 
his handling news respecting the railroad is that he is there 
with his staff to give full information to the newspapers 
so far as they want it, and the impression should never go 
forth anywhere that he is there to get something into the 
newspapers in the interests of the corporation which he 
represents. 

"I explained to Mr. Riggs where I thought the dangers 
were if his department in any way undertook to hand out 
advertising. In brief, the smaller papers will publish col- 
umns of news and demand expanding advertising, accord- 
ing to the news space they give, and then it would be found 
later that the traffic department could not indorse such 
advertising expenditures from any results obtained, and the 
cutting down of this expense or the cutting out of news- 
papers leaves a trail of consequences." 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



55 



In a letter to Mr. Rich dated Jan. 30, 1913, Mr. Barron 
said : 

"The mistake has been that Mr. Mellen has believed the 
public would see his upbuilding for New England and in tb.3 
end appreciate it, but the public and private agitators got in 
ahead. While Mr. Mellen did nothing but work, the agi- 
tators agitated and inflamed public opinion with cries of 
'monopoly,' 'wrecks' and 'financial jugglery' until corpora- 
tion credit and good-will with investors and the people and 
even the safety of the working organization and the lives 
of passengers were in danger from the demoralization of 
such attacks. There was only one thing to do, and that was 
to win the people. Therefore, whenever any publishers 
have called me and solicited advertising, I have said: 'What 
is your circulation?' and when they have responded, 'Cir- 
culation does not count. New Haven wants friends and 
advertising is the way to get them and we are entitled to 
that advertising,' I have responded as follows: 'The New 
Haven Railroad is not through me buying any newspaper 
friendship, or paying any indebtedness to any newspaper 
or newspaper publisher. I am placing advertising that 
speaks to the people. If you reach the people show me 
your circulation and the character of the people you reach. 
Otherwise there is no obligation so far as I am concerned, 
or so far as I know, concerning the New Haven Railroad or 
the New England lines.' " 

Mr. Barron explained that while the New Haven, Boston 
& Maine, and Maine Central, separately, could not afford to 
educate the country to "sail from Boston" or visit New 
England, the united New England lines could afford such a 
campaign. 

The attitude of the management of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company toward its patrons and the newspapers 
has been dealt with before on numerous occasions in the 
Electric Railway Journal. As recently as the issue of 
this paper for Nov. 22, 1913, extracts were published from 
an article which appeared in the New York Evening Post 
dealing with Timothy S. Williams, president of the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company, and the results which have 
been obtained under the "open-door" policy in Brooklyn. 
Colonel Williams in the current issue of Printers' Ink has 
outlined his views on the use of paid space for influencing 
public opinion. Like Mr. Barron he believes in the straight, 
forceful story backed by deeds. Colonel Williams is quoted 
in part as follows: 

"The essential thing, I think, is for a public service cor- 
poration to convince the public — not only by its uttei'ances 
and its attitude but by its acts — that it is honestly and 
intelligently trying to conduct its business, and then not 
to hesitate fully to inform the public of all the facts and 
conditions which attach to honest and intelligent adminis- 
tration. If a corporation is imbued with high purposes and 
intelligent policies it has nothing to fear from taking the 
public into its confidence, and it can afford to hit out 
straight from the shoulder at all those influences — official 
or otherwise — which interfere with honest and intelligent 
administration. 

"Properly conducted, the advertising columns of the news- 
papers can be used to great advantage by a corporation. 
Assuming that the corporation is right, it can afford to be 
perfectly frank in its advertising utterances. No matter 
what views the newspaper may hold editorially on subjects 
relating to corporations, the advertising space at the dis- 
posal of a corporation can be utilized not only in defensive 
but offensive campaigns. The same situation prevails as to 
official or individual complaints and attacks. If a corpora- 
tion is unjustly treated, either by the public or by public 
officials, I see no reason why it should not make the facts 
known, so that all intelligent people may form their inde- 
pendent judgments. 

"We are all in one sense or another servants of the com- 
munity in which we live. Each has his own part to play, 
and to the extent that that part involves common actors 
each must respect the role of others. In this great play, in 
which public officials, public service corporations and the 
public generally have their respective parts, the joint per- 
formance should be such that lookers-on may determine 
which players are responsible for failures. I am thoroughly 
convinced that frank talk straight from the shoulder is a 
good policy for corporations, as it is generally for indi- 
viduals." 



Bids Opened for Section of Seventh Avenue Subway, 
New York 

The Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. 
Y., through its subsidiary, the Rapid Transit Subway Con- 
struction Company, has put in the lowest bid for the con- 
struction of the section of the new Seventh Avenue subway 
line stretching from a little north of Thirtieth Street to 
100 ft. south of Forty-third Street. This includes two ex- 
press stops, one at Thirty-third Street, to serve the traffic 
to and from the station of the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
the other at Forty-second Street, on account of the large 
number of passengers starting their trips from that point 
and the connection with the shuttle service to the Grand 
Central Station and the Steinway tunnel line to Queens. 
The names of the bidders and the prices bid were as fol- 
lows: 



Rapid Transit Subway Construction Company $2,292,1100 

United States Realty & Improvement Company 2,303,000 

Booth & Plinn 2,365,000 

Godwin Construction Company 2,397,000 

Franklin Contracting Company and Coleman Brothers. . 2,442,000 

Holbrook, Cabot & Rollins Corporation 2,576,000 

E. E. Smith Contracting Company 2,600,000 

Oscar Daniels Company 2,606,000 

Hugh Nawn Contracting Company 2,611,603 

Canavan Brothers Company 2,616,000 

Degnon Contracting Company 2,625,658 

Carter Construction Company 2,712,000 

Mason & Hanger Company 2,749,117 

P. McGovern & Company 3,178,000 



On Dec. 31, 1913, the commission awarded the contract 
for the construction of this section of the subway to the 
Rapid Transit Subway Construction Company. 



Valuation of Cincinnati Traction Company's Property 
Urged. — Alfred Bettman, city solicitor of Cincinnati, and 
E. W. Doty, member of the Public Utilities Commission, 
conferred with Governor Cox of Ohio on Dec. 15 and urged 
him to arrange for an appropriation by the commission for 
the purpose of making a physical valuation of the Cin- 
cinnati Traction Company's property. The state officials are 
now engaged in making up the budget to be presented to 
the Legislature at the special session which will be called 
within a short time. 

Plans for Unified Operating in Chicago Approved. — The 
ordinance providing for unified operation of the surface 
lines in Chicago has been approved by the stockholders of 
the Chicago City Railway and Chicago Railways and accept- 
ance of the ordinance has been filed with the city clerk by 
the companies, and also the Calumet & South Chicago Rail- 
way and the Southern Street Railway. The ordinance will 
go into effect on Feb. 1. A summary of the terms of the 
surface railway unification ordinance was published in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 22, 1913, page 1112. 

The Newark Terminal Plans.— The Board of Public Util- 
ity Commissioners of New Jersey has announced its attitude 
toward the terminal improvement plans of the Public Serv- 
ice Railway for Newark as follows: "The Board of Public 
Utility Commissioners has not disposed of the applications 
for the approval of the ordinances of the city of Newark 
affecting the Public Service Railway. The board has de- 
cided to ask the company for further information as to the 
system of transfers it proposes to install prior to the build- 
ing of the terminal and the contemplated re-routing of cars 
prior to the building of such terminal." 

Plans for Municipal Ownership in Seattle. — In the esti- 
mate furnished by City Engineer A. H. Dimock, of Seattle, 
Wash., the cost of rehabilitating and extending the High- 
land Park & Lake Burien Railroad, the property of which 
within the city was recently donated to the city, is placed 
at more than $2,000,000. It is regarded as likely that the 
City Council will authorize an issue of bonds to provide 
funds to make the improvements, the bonds to be a lien on 
the railway property. The negotiations looking toward 
the city taking over the property of the company within 
the city were referred to in the Electric Railway Journal 
of March 22, 1913, May 24, 1913, Aug. 2, 1913, and Aug. 23, 
1913. 

Kansas City Ordinance in May. — Indications now are that 
the Metropolitan Street Railway franchise ordinance will 
not be presented to the people of Kansas City for a vote 
until after the municipal election in April. It was ex- 



56 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



pected until recently that the special election would take 
place before the regular one scheduled for April. The com- 
mittee of the Council which is considering amendments has 
been deliberate about its work and the ordinance will prob- 
ably reach the Council shortly. Reviews by Federal Judge 
Hook and the Missouri Public Utilities Commission also 
must take place before the ordinance is ready for a vote. 
Prospects, therefore, are that Kansas City residents will 
vote on the franchise some time in May. No important 
action was taken during the week ended Dec. 27, 1913, 
though the joint committee of the Council resumed its ses- 
sions. 

Road in Batavia to Be Sold to City. — At a conference be- 
fore Public Service Commissioner Hodson recently the rep- 
resentatives of the city of Batavia and Godfrey Morgan, one 
of the owners of the Buffalo & Williamsville Electric Rail- 
way, agreed to have their respective engineers determine 
the value of the property of the company in Batavia with 
a view to agreeing upon terms for a transfer of the prop- 
erty to the city. If the representatives of the city and the 
company fail to agree, a third engineer will be chosen and 
the amount fixed by him will be accepted by the railroad 
and paid by the city. The application of the Buffalo & 
Williamsville Electric Railway for permission to abandon 
its line in Batavia has been before the Public Service Com- 
mission for several months. Just prior to the last hear- 
ing engineers for the New York Central & Hudson River 
Railroad inspected the property with a view of buying and 
it was reported that road would operate heavy interurban 
cars between Buffalo and Batavia and later to Rochester 
over this line. The city of Batavia is in the market, ac- 
cording to Mayor Louis Wiard, for a number of small cars 
to be operated over the tracks which it is about to buy. 

Separate Contracts for Rails for New York Subways. — ■ 
The Public Service Commission for the First District of 
New York has decided to make separate contracts with 
manufacturers for the supply of steel rails and other track 
equipment for the new subways and elevated railroads to 
be built by the city of New York under the dual system 
plan. Formerly the practice was to let contracts for the 
work and allow the contractor to purchase the materials. 
Under the new plan the commission will advertise for bids 
for the supply of such materials, and after awarding the 
contracts will make another contract with contractors ex- 
perienced in building railroads to do the work of track 
laying, etc. Of the 324 miles of single-track construction 
called for by the dual system contracts, the work on city- 
owned lines will cover 260 miles. As the specifications call 
for steel rails weighing 100 lb. to the yard, it is calculated 
that the commission will purchase about 520 miles of 
single rails, which, at 100 lb. to the yard, will weigh about 
45,760 tons. On account of sidings, etc., it is probable 
that the actual amount will exceed these figures. A public 
hearing on the form on contract for supplying such ma- 
terials will be held by the commission on Jan. 9. 

Results Under First of New Rapid Transit Operating 
Contracts in New York. — The New York Consolidated Rail- 
road, which is the Brooklyn Rapid Transit operating com- 
pany under the new subway contracts, has filed with the 
Public Service Commission for the First District of New 
York a report showing the result of operations under con- 
tract No. 4, the main operating contract for the New York 
Municipal Railway Corporation's part of the dual system. 
The report covers the month of October, as well as the 
period from Aug. 4, 1913, when the operation of the Centre 
Street loop subway began, to Oct. 31. It shows that the 
gross receipts for October fell $54,426 below the amount 
needed to pay rentals, taxes, operating expenses, main- 
tenance and depreciation, the preferential due the company 
and the interest on its investment, while for the whole 
period the shortage was $61,679. Counting in the interest 
and sinking fund paid by the city on the cost of construc- 
tion, the deficit for October was $82,863 and the deficit for 
the entire period $144,239. During August, the first month 
of operation, the company made a much better showing, as 
the gross revenue for that month came within $2,814 of 
paying all charges, including the city's interest and sinking 
fund. The difference is accounted for by the fact that the 
summer traffic is very much heavier than at other seasons, 
especially on the Coney Island lines. 



Financial and Corporate 



Stock and Money Markets 



Dec. 30, 1913. 

The tone of the trading on the New York Stock Exchange 
to-day was irregular. There were moderate gains in many 
issues following the opening. The demand was broad 
throughout the day. A declining tendency prevailed in the 
afternoon and the leading issues sold off around a point 
from the midday range. Rates in the money market to-day 
were: Call, 2@6 per cent; thirty days, 4 1 / £@5 per cent; 
sixty and ninety days, 4%@4% per cent; four, five and six 
months, 4 x /£@5 per cent. 

The early trading in Philadelphia to-day was confined 
largely to local issues. The market closed weak. Local is- 
sues were lightly dealt in despite the early tendency. 

A steady tone and fair activity ruled on the Chicago Stock 
Exchange to-day. Bonds were dull but steady. 

The Boston market was fairly broad to-day. In the after- 
noon the heavy tone of the New York market was reflected 
in the trading in Boston. 

The trading in Baltimore was broader to-day, but the to- 
tal of transactions was small. The sales of stock totaled 273 
shares, while the sales of bonds totaled $38,300, par value. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 
compared with last week follow: 

Dec. 24 Dec. 30 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (com.) 86 90 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (pref.) 126% 127 

American Cities Company (com.) 36 36 

American Cities Company (pref.) 60 61 

American Light & Traction Company (com.) . . 334 335 
American Light & Traction Company (pref.) . . 106 106 

American Railways Company 38 38 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (com.).... a42 42 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (pref.) . . . . a84 83 

Boston Elevated Railway 86y 2 85% 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (com.).. 7 7 
Boston Suburban Electric Companies (pref.) 58 58 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (com.) *6% *6% 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (pref.) 37 36% 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 88 87% 

Capital Traction Company, Washington 110% HI 

Chicago City Railway 160 160 

Chicago Elevated Railways (com.) 25 25 

Chicago Elevated Railways (pref.) 75 75 

Ohicae-o Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 91% 90 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 28 y 4 28 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 7 7 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4 1% 1% 

Cincinnati Street Railway 107% 102 

Cleveland Railway 103% 103% 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (com. ) *5% *5% 
Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (pref.) *30 30 

Columbus Railway & Light Co 18 18 

Columbus Railway (com.) 59% 59% 

Columbus Railway (pref.) 88 88 

Denver & Northwestern Railway *80 *80 

Detroit United Railways 80 80 

General Electric Company 140 138% 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (com.). 119% 120 
Georgia Railway & Electric Company (pref.). 84 84 
Inteiborough Metropolitan Company (com.)... 15 14% 
Interborough Metropolitan Company (pref.).. 60% 60 

International Traction Company (com.) *30 *30 

International Traction Company (pref.) *90 *90 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (com.) *20 *20 
Kansns City Railway & Light Company (pref.) *30 *30 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (com.) *6 *6 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (1st pref.) *92 *92 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (2d pref.) *24 *24 

Manhattan Railway 125 125 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (com.) 10% ' 13 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (pref.) 63 63y> 

Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co. (pref.) ... *95 *95 

Norfolk Railway & Light Company 24% *24% 

North American Company 67 67 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Co. (com.) ... 70 58 
Northern Ohio Light & Traction Co. (pref.) ... 101 101 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (com.) 39 40% 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (pref.) 39 40 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 18 18% 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company. . 53 53 

Public Service Corporation 105 107 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 41% 41% 

Toledo Traction, Light & Power Co. (com.)... 30 20 
Toledo Traction, Light & Power Co. (pref.) ... 80 80 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Min'apolis (com.) 105% 106 
Union Traction Company of Indiana (com.) . . . *11% *H% 
Union Traction Company of Indiana (1st pref.) *80 *80 
Union Traction Company of Indiana (2d pref.) 14 14 
United Rys. & Electric Company (Baltimore) 24% 25 

United Rys. Inv. Company (com.) 20 21% 

United Rys. Inv. Company (pref.) 37 39 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (com.) 56 50 
Virginia Railway & Power Company (pref.) . . 99% 98 
Washington Ry. & Electric Company (com.) 85 85% 
Washington Ry. & Electric Company (pref.).. 87 87 

West End Street Railway, Boston (com.) 68 69 

West End Street Railway, Boston (pref.) 90 90 

Westing-house Elec. & Mfg. Company 65 65% 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. (1st pref.)... 114 116% 

*Last sale, a Asked. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



57 



Changes in Personnel of the Rhode Island Company 



A. E. Potter, A. T. Potter and L. S. Storrs, were elect- 
ed directors of the Rhode Island Company, Providence, 
R. I., on Dec. 27, 1913, succeeding C. F. Brooker, James 
Hemingway and William Skinner. Mr. Potter was also 
elected president of the company and Howard Elliott was 
elected chairman of the board. Announcement was also 
made that E. D. Robbins, heretofore general counsel for 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, which 
controls the Rhode Island Company, had been appointed 
general counsel for the board of directors. He will be 
called upon for advice relative to the corporate, inter- 
corporate and financial relations of the allied companies. 
Edward G. Buckland, a vice-president of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad and of the Rhode Island 
Company, will take charge of the general legal business 
and litigation of the company and will represent the New 
Haven Railroad in its dealings with Congress, Legislatures 
and other government bodies. Howard Elliott, chairman of 
the board of the New Haven company, following the meet- 
ing on Dec. 27, gave out a statement in which he declared 
that no plan had been formulated for the segregation 
of the properties of the company. He stated that the sub- 
ject of separation had been discussed, together with other 
matters, including the ratification of an amendment to the 
contract regarding the Grand Central terminal. Mr. Elliott, 
speaking of the new officers of the Rhode Island Company, 
said: 

"They will be charged with the important duty of look- 
ing after the affairs of the Rhode Island Company, getting 
close to the people, and handling the great bulk of the 
business without interference or advice from any other 
source. Of course, on large questions like capital expendi- 
tures and long-time contracts it will be right and proper 
for them to consult with me." 

Speaking about the probable segregation, he said: 
"Just now our financial and governmental problem is a 
serious one, but I hope in time both will be solved, and that 
I can have a little time to see the properties and the coun- 
try they serve. We have decided upon no plan. We dis- 
cussed segregation as we do at every meeting. I can say 
that we are making progress. The board of directors met 
for the purpose of ratifying an amendment to the contract 
with the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad in re- 
gard to the Grand Central terminal. This amendment had 
been under consideration for some time and negotiations 
were only just completed, and it was necessary to authorize 
the amendment by the full board. The amendment made 
more clear the relations of the companies in regard to 
the so-called 'aerial rights,' or the use of the space above 
the tracks." 



Brooklyn Rapid Transit Absorbs Coney Island & Brooklyn 
Railroad 



The Public Service Commission for the First District of 
New York has authorized the Coney Island & Gravesend 
Railway, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, to purchase 26,370 shares of the capital stock of the 
Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad at par. The total au- 
thorized capital of the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad 
is 30,000 shares at a par value of $100 each, and of this 
amount 29,839 shares are outstanding. Commissioner 
George V. S. Williams, in his opinion recommending the 
authorization, says that while transfers are not exchanged 
between the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad and the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit lines, "it does appear from the 
testimony of Mr. Meneeley, the vice-president and treas- 
urer of both the Coney Island & Gravesend Railway and 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, that he expects to 
make recommendations for transfers between the lines of 
the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad and the Brooklyn 
Heights Railroad and the Nassau Electric Railroad lines 
(both subsidiary companies of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
system) at a number of intersections, and the commission 
has under consideration a proposition made on behalf of 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company to issue transfers at 
every intersection of any of the lines controlled by it, 
which, of course, would mean transfers from the Coney 
Island & Brooklyn Railroad at every intersection of other 



trolley lines in the borough, in case the order should be 
granted." 

Commissioner Maltbie has written an opinion dissenting 
from the action of the Public Service Commission in au- 
thorizing the merger of the companies. 

The Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad operates 48.24 
miles of single track and 472 passenger cars. Except for 
the Van Brunt Street & Erie Basin Railroad, 3 miles long, 
it was the only line in Brooklyn not included in the system 
of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. The company 
was chartered in 1860 and it absorbed the Prospect Park 
& Flatbush Railroad on April 1, 1891. On Sept. 1, 1897, 
the company leased the Franklin Avenue division of the 
Brooklyn City & Newtown Railroad. On Dec. 4, 1897, the 
entire system of the Brooklyn City & Newtown Railroad 
was leased for 999 years, and in 1910 it was absorbed. 
The company also owns and operates the De Kalb Avenue 
& North Beach Railroad and the New York & Brooklyn 
Bridge Extension. The dividend record of the company 
follows: in 1893, 4 per cent on $500,000, 3 per cent on 
$1,000,000; in 1894, 1895, 1896 and 1897, 6 per cent; in 
1898, 9 per cent; in 1899, 9V 2 per cent; in 1900, 10 per 
cent; in 1901, 12 per cent; in 1902, 1903 and 1904, 16 per 
cent; in 1905, 14 per cent; in 1906, 8 per cent on $2,000,000; 
in 1907 (February only), 2 per cent on $2,000,000; none 
since. 



Results of Hudson & Manhattan Readjustment 



The Hudson Companies, which controls the Hudson & 
Manhattan Railroad, is sending out a circular to its share- 
holders outlining the results of the recent voluntary read- 
justment. The circular reads in part as follows: 

"The readjustment of the debt of the Hudson & Manhat- 
tan Railroad and the provisions in connection therewith 
for paying the then outstanding $21,157,000 of notes of the 
Hudson Companies have been carried out. The resulting 
condition of the Hudson Companies is as follows: 

"Assets: Hudson & Manhattan preferred stock, $2,307,- 
600; Hudson & Manhattan common stock, $25,171,200; 
Greeley Square Realty Company 5 per cent bonds, $2,450,- 
000; Greeley Square Realty Company preferred stock, $1,- 
000,000; Greeley Square Realty Company common, $1,000,- 
000; real estate, cost less mortgage, $127,254; accounts re- 
ceivable, $26,382; mortgages receivable, $10,000; cash, 
$498,329. 

"Debt — Note issue, 5 per cent, $1,500,000; accounts pay- 
able, $33,081. 

"The Hudson Companies' 5 per cent note issue is in- 
creased by $500,000, from $1,000,000 to $1,500,000. On the 
other hand, the companies' cash is increased by practically 
the same amount. This additional cash was procured in 
this way, in order to provide for a payment upon the prin- 
cipal of the underlying mortgages upon the property of the 
Greeley Square Realty Company. This company owns the 
property at Thirty-third Street and Broadway under lease 
to Gimbel Brothers, subject to two underlying mortgages 
or the principal sum of $6,500,000." 



Alton, Granite City & St. Louis Traction Company, Alton, 

111. — The stockholders of the Alton, Granite City & St. 
Louis Traction Company have voted to increase the capital 
stock of the company from $3,000,000 to $3,400,000. 

Bloomington & Normal Railway & Light Company, 
Bloomington, 111. — The Bloomington & Normal Railway & 
Light Company has filed with the Secretary of State a cer- 
tificate of increase in the capital stock of the company from 
$1,500,000 to $1,650,000. 

Bowling Green (Ky.) Railway. — Master Commissioner 
W. R. Speck, who had been acting as receiver for the 
Bowling Green Railway, has sold the property of the com- 
pany at auction, following an order of court. John S. 
Lewis was the purchaser at $20,600. The only other bidder 
was T. Lindsey Fitch, of the Kentucky Public Service Com- 
pany, who bid $20,550. The sale was made following a peti- 
tion of the Fidelity & Columbia Trust Company, Louisville, 
trustee for the bondholders. 

Cairo Electric & Traction Company, Cairo, 111. — The 
stockholders of the Cairo Electric & Traction Company 
have voted to increase the capital stock of the company 
from $150,000 to $300,000. 



58 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad, Highwaod, 111. — 

An order has been entered by Federal Judge Landis, in- 
structing W. 0. Johnson, receiver for the Chicago & 
Milwaukee Electric Railroad, to pay $27,000 in interest to 
holders of the $1,080,000 of bonds of the road. This figure 
represents the semi-annual interest payment. It is to be 
made Jan. 14, on which day the interest falls due. 

Galesburg Railway, Lighting & Power Company, Gales- 
burg, 111. — The Galesburg Railway, Lighting & Power Com- 
pany, which was incorporated in Illinois some time ago by 
the McKinley interests with a preliminary capital of $50,- 
000, has increased its stock to $3,500,000 and arranged to 
take over the Galesburg Railway & Light company, the 
Galesburg Gas & Electric Light Company, the Knoxville 
Electric Light & Power Company, the Abingdon Light & 
Power Company and the People's Traction Company, Gales- 
burg. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. — 

Supreme Court Justice Van Siclen in Brooklyn has dis- 
missed the complaint in a suit brought by Clarence H. Ven- 
ner, a minority stockholder in the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company, against the directors of the corporation, 
including August Belmont, Cornelius Vanderbilt and others. 
The action was brought to compel the defendants, as direc- 
tors of the company to account for 15,000 shares of capital 
stock involving $4,500,000 which it was alleged had been 
issued to Belmont's firm illegally. In dismissing the com- 
plaint Justice Van Siclen said: "This court is not con- 
vinced that the essential facts in the complaint have been 
admitted or proved by a fair preponderance of evidence, 
and without deciding whether the facts will permit a recov- 
ery by an action of some other character, feels compelled 
to dismiss the complaint and direct judgment for the de- 
fendant with costs and allowances. Obviously no weight 
or virtue can be added to this court's memorandum by in- 
dulging in invectives or branding the plaintiff, Venner, or 
his so-called vehicle, the Continental Security Company. 
If heretofore the judicial records and published opinions of 
various state and federal courts tend to establish that said 
Venner is an artificer of litigation and a menace to cor- 
porate society, an added curse will work no cure." 

Ohio Service Company, Dennison, Ohio. — The Ohio Serv- 
ice Company has been authorized by the Public Utilities 
Commission of Ohio to issue its capital stock of the total 
par value of $30,000 to be delivered in full payment of the 
purchase price for the assets, physical property and rights 
owned by the Twin City Traction Company in Dennison and 
Uhrichsville, Ohio, the purchase of which property by the 
Ohio Service Company was consented to and approved by 
the commission on Oct. 10, 1913. 

People's Traction Company, Galesburg, 111. — The stock- 
holders of the People's Traction Company have approved 
an increase in the capital stock of the company from 
$150,000 to $300,000. 

Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, Newark, N. J. 

— As a result of the refusal of the Board of Public Utility 
Commissioners of New Jersey to sanction the sale of 
$620,000, par value, of first mortgage bonds of the North 
Hudson County Railway, to the Fidelity Trust Company, at 
97 and accrued interest, an invitation was extended by the 
company for competitive bids. Julius S. Rippel, who pro- 
tested previously to the commission that he had not had 
an opportunity to bid for the issue originally, offered to buy 
the issue at 99. Clark, Dodge & Company submitted a 
bid on behalf of themselves and W. E. R. Smith & Com- 
pany offered 99% and interest for the issue. F. A. Peters, 
Paterson, bid 99 for a lot of $10,000. The Fidelity Trust 
Company notified the Public Service Corporation that it 
was unwilling to increase its bid of 97, and that it there- 
fore withdrew from the competition. The Public Utility 
Commission has now made an order authorizing the sale 
of the bonds at a price not less than 99%. The plans for 
issuing these bonds were referred to in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of Nov. 29, 1913, and Dec. 13, 1913. 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, 
Wash. — The stockholders of, the Puget Sound Traction, 
Light & Power Company have authorized an issue of notes 
or short-time bonds to refund two-year mortgage notes, 
of which $7,500,000 mature on Feb. 1, 1914, and to provide 



for extensions and improvements. Part of the $7,500,000 
of notes are to be met out of the proceeds of the $2,68(3,200 
of preferred stock sold recently. 

Reading Transit & Light Company, Reading, Pa. — The 
Reading Transit & Light Company proposes to create a 
limited open-end mortgage for $50,000,000 to provide funds 
to retire the $750,000 of ten-year 6 per cent debentures now 
outstanding and provide for extensions and improvements. 
The total amount of bonds which it is proposed to issue at 
this time has not been announced. 

Shore Line Electric Railway, Norwich, Conn.— The stock- 
holders of the New London & East Lyme Street Railway 
have ratified the lease executed by that company to the 
Shore Line Electric Railway on Aug. 1, 1913, for the period 
of twenty-one years of all the properties and franchises of 
the company. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad, Leetonia, Ohio. — 

The Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad has declared a 
dividend of 1 per cent on its preferred stock. This is a 
reduction of one-quarter of 1 per cent as the stock is 5 per 
cent cumulative preferred. 



Dividends Declared 

Boston (Mass.) Suburban Electric Companies, quarterly, 
$1, preferred. 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Light & Traction Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio, quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred; 
quarterly, 1% per cent, common. 

Citizens' Traction Company, Oil City, Pa., $1, preferred. 

Denver & Northwestern Railway, Denver, Col., quarterly, 
1 per cent. 

Manchester Traction, Light & Power Company, Man- 
chester, N. H., quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Nashville Railway & Light Company, Nashville, Tenn., 
1% per cent, preferred. 

New England Investment & Security Company, Spring- 
field, Mass., $2, preferred. 

Stark Electric Railroad, Alliance, Ohio, quarterly, three- 
quarters of 1 per cent. 

Union Passenger Railway, Philadelphia, Pa., $4.75. 

West Philadelphia (Pa.) Railway, $5. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 



FORT WAYNE & NORTHERN INDIANA TRACTION COM- 
PANY, FORT WAYNE, IND. 









Gross 


Operating 


Net 


Fixed 


Net 


Period 




Earnings 


Expenses 


Earnings 


Charges 


Surplus 


lm„ 


Oct., 


'13 


$157,218 


$91,713 


$60,760 


$45,177 


$15,583 


1 " 


'12 


144,752 


85,291 


54,870 


43,583 


11,287 


10 " 




'13 


1,492,471 


875,961 


569,722 


436,373 


133,349 


10 " 




'12 


1,405,674 


840,277 


520,408 


424,410 


95,998 




JACKSONVILLE (FLA.) TRACTION COMPANY 




lm„ 


Oct., 


'13 


$57,663 


*?35,348 


$22,315 


$13,067 


$9,248 


1 " 


•12 


47,619 


*30,393 


17,226 


10,174 


7,052 


12 " 




'13 


622,741 


*410,292 


212,448 


138,986 


73,462 


12 " 




'12 


593,491 


*3S0,387 


213,105 


116,013 


97,092 



PENSACOLA (FLA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 

lm., Oct.. '13 $25,399 *$15,769 $9,630 $7,240 $2,390 

1 " " '12 24,759 *15,858 8,900 6,377 2,523 

12 13 285,168 *181,560 103,609 79,479 24,130 

12 12 286,942 *178,167 108,775 75,184 33,591 

PUGET SOUND TRACTION, LIGHT & POWER COMPANY, 
SEATTLE, WASH, 
lm., Oct., '13 $744,519 *$419,485 $325,034 $174,468 $150,566 
1 " " '12 715,378 *396,814 318,564 169,366 149,198 
12 " " '13 8,506,260 *4, 952, 648 3,553,612 2,056,446 1,497,166 
12 " " '12 



REPUBLIC RAILWAY & LTGHT COMPANY, YOUNGSTOWN, 

OHIO 



lm., 


Nov., 


'13 


$251,260 


*$151,014 


$100,246 


$43,517 


$56,729 


1 " 


'12 


233,971 


*133,957 


100,015 


43,662 


56,353 


12 '* 




'13 


2,979,608 


*1, 817, 448 


1,162,161 


536,967 


625,194 


12 " 




'12 


2,638,427 


*1, 578, 557 


1,059,871 


529,417 


530,454 






SAVANNAH (GA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 




lm., 


Oct., 


'13 


$69,381 


*$47,654 


$21,728 


$22,803 


f$l,075 


1 " 




'12 


63,886 


*48,639 


15,247 


16,336 


1,089 


12 " 




'13 


813,665 


♦555,473 


258,193 


250,636 


7,557 


12 " 




'12 


740,582 


*548,567 


192,015 


191,737 


278 


VIRGINIA 


RAILWAY & 


POWER COMPANY, 


RICHMOND, VA. 


lm., 


Oct., 


'13 


$454,126 


$222,402 


$231,724 


$134,962 


$96,762 


1 " 




'12 


414,561 


204,673 


209,888 


124,725 


85,163 


4 " 




'13 


1,771,933 


882,086 


889,847 


532,888 


356,959 


4 " 




'12 


1,649,490 


817,535 


831,955 


496,114 


335,841 



* Includes taxes, 
t Deficit. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



59 



Traffic and Transportation 



Seattle Company Appeals from Rate Decision 



Formal notice has been filed with the Public Service 
Commission of the appeal taken by the Puget Sound Trac- 
tion, Light & Power Company, Seattle, Wash., from the 
commission's decision in ordering the company to sell six 
street car tickets for 25 cents on the cars in Seattle. Three 
allegations are set forth as the basis for the writ: that 
the commission had no jurisdiction to issue the order with- 
out first having determined the reasonableness of the 4- 
cent fare; that in fact the 4-cent fare will result in in- 
adequate returns to the company, and that the order 
virtually abrogates the terms of the franchise existing be- 
tween the city and the company. The writ of review is 
returnable Jan. 14, 1914. 

A statement addressed to the public by Jacob Furth, 
president of the company, setting forth the reasons for the 
appeal to the courts from the order of the commission, 
follows in part: 

"The company is about to apply to the courts to reverse 
the order recently made by the Public Service Commission 
requiring the company to sell upon its cars 25 tickets for 
$1 and six tickets for 25 cents. The provisions of the con- 
tract between the city and the company establishing street 
railway fares and regulating the sale of tickets are just as 
plain and clear now as they were when the city deliberately 
executed the contract in consideration of benefits to be re- 
ceived by it and which ever since such execution it has con- 
tinued to receive. 

"The city had endeavored to have the franchise read that 
the grantees should sell upon their cars twenty-five tickets 
for $1. The applicants for the franchise had notified the 
city that they would neither bid for nor accept a franchise 
containing such provision. The franchise was then worded 
so that the grantees should not be obliged to sell commuta- 
tion tickets upon the cars, but should be obliged to keep 
them on sale 'at their main office and power stations within 
the city.' From 1900 until 1911 no claim was ever made 
that the company was under any obligation, legal or moral, 
to sell commutation tickets except at the places agreed on 
in the franchise. In the summer of 1911 the company, at 
the request of the city, established twelve places for the 
sale of commutation tickets in addition to the places re- 
quired by the franchise. In October, 1911, after the com- 
pany had complied with such request of the city, the 
Council, against the protest of the company that its action 
was a violation of the contract between the city and the 
company, was a breach of good faith and was without 
authority, passed a bill requiring the company, under 
penalty of not exceeding $100 fine or thirty days' imprison- 
ment for each offense, to sell upon all cars twenty-five 
tickets for $1 and six for 25 cents. The Mayor vetoed the 
bill. The Council passed the bill over the veto of the Mayor 
and against the protest of the company, and the bill be- 
came an ordinance of the city. 

"The evidence of the company before the commission 
showed that the company was not earning a fair return 
upon the value of its property and there was no evidence 
introduced to the contrary. The commission held that even 
though the company was complying with all of the pro- 
visions of its franchise, even though its rates did not ex- 
ceed the maximum fixed in the franchise and the statute, 
and even though a franchise requiring the sale of tickets 
upon the cars at six for 25 cents would not have been ac- 
cepted, the company could be forced by order of the com- 
mission at the instance of the city and in advance of a valua- 
tion, to yield $60,000 a year which under its contract with 
the city it was entitled to earn. The decision, while so re- 
ducing the earnings of the company, left the city free to 
collect 2 per cent on the gross earnings of the street rail- 
way, amounting to more than $70,000 a year. 

"The company believes that the commission has made an 
honest but serious mistake in the decision rendered. It 
does not believe that the decision is maintainable either at 
law or in equity, or that it is in accordance with sound busi- 
ness principles. The decisions of the commission are, under 
the law creating the commission, reviewable by the courts, 
and to the courts the company is forced to appeal for relief 



from an order which impairs its contract and deprives it 
of its property without due process of law." 



Change in Display of Route Signs. — At the suggestion 
of the Public Service Commission of the Second District of 
New York, the International Railway, Buffalo, which oper- 
ates in Buffalo, Niagara Falls and Lockport and between 
these points, will place the route number of its cars on 
the side instead of in the front. This applies merely to 
the new near-side cars. 

Amendment Proposed to Kansas City Traffic Code. — An 
amendment to the traffic code has been presented in the 
Kansas City Council, as the result of the confusion attend- 
ing the various interpretations of the motor ordinance. 
This has been changed to provide that automobiles shall 
stop at least 10 ft. in the rear of a street car which has 
stopped at a street intersection. One or two police judges 
recently held that motorists could pass street cars provided 
they maintained the distance of 10 ft. The amendment will 
eliminate such rulings. 

Suburban Fare Concession at Birmingham. — A conces- 
sion in reference to transfers from Wylam and Fairview 
to the central part of Birmingham has been announced by 
the Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, Bir- 
mingham, Ala. At this time it is necessary to pay 10 cents 
to travel from Fairfield to Birmingham or from Wylam to 
Birmingham. It is anounced that the company will grant 
a reduction in this fare. The plan is to charge 5 cents fare 
from Wylam or Fairfield to the central part of Birming- 
ham without, for instance, giving a transfer to East Lake 
or to Powderly. 

Petition for Smoking Cars Dismissed. — The Public Serv- 
ice Commission for the First District of New York has 
dismissed the proceeding instituted to inquire whether the 
street railroad corporations of Greater New Y T ork should be 
required to operate smoking cars or cars containing smok- 
ing compartments on the surface and elevated lines. No 
opinion was written, the order simply reciting that the com- 
mission is of the opinion "that under the circumstances ap- 
pearing it would not be reasonable to require said street 
railroad corporations to operate smoking cars or cars con- 
taining smoking compartments." 

Christmas in Missouri. — Two special cars were necessary 
to hold the Christmas gifts of J. R. Harrigan, of the Kan- 
sas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Electric Railway, to the 
200 employees of the road. Mr. Harrigan presented every 
attache of the line with a basket containing a chicken, a 
quart of oysters, celery and other accompaniments. The 
Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, distributed 
cigars to its men. The Topeka' (Kan.) Railway gave 
turkeys to the married employees, silverware to their wives 
and gloves to the bachelors. A vaudeville performance also 
was tendered at the company's annual entertainment to the 
employees. 

Dinner of Missouri Railroad Employees. — The ninth an- 
nual dinner of the Electric Railway Club, composed of all 
the officers and employees of the Southwest Missouri Rail- 
road, Webb City, Mo., was held recently. The dinner this 
year was notably successful. Many leading citizens of the 
communities through which the company operates attended 
as guests. The club owns a very attractive club house, 
which was illustrated on the back of the menu card used 
at the dinner. Members of the club receive a stipend when 
incapacitated for work by injury or sickness. The company 
is also carrying group insurance in the Equitable Life, New 
York, to which members of the club are eligible. The com- 
pany pays half of the premium on these policies and the 
insured pays the other half. Each policy is for $1,000. 

Decision in Seattle Transfer Case. — The Supreme Court 
of the United States has dismissed the appeal of William R. 
Crawford, former president of the Seattle, Renton & South- 
ern Railway, from the decision of the Washington Supreme 
Court upholding the requirement for the exchange of trans- 
fers between the cars of the Puget Sound Traction, Light & 
Power Company and the Seattle, Renton & Southern Rail- 
way on a basis of 50 per cent of the fare received to each 
company. A. G. Linhoff, appearing as relator, brought suit 
in the King County Superior Court several years ago against 
the two companies to require them to exchange transfers 



60 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



on a 50 per cent basis. Judge Wilson R. Gay held in favor 
of the city and directed the issuance of such transfers, and 
the Supreme Court of the State of Washington affirmed 
that decision. The issuance of transfers began at that time 
and has continued since. 

Protest Against Re-routing in Buffalo. — Application has 
been made to the Public Service Commission of the Sec- 
ond District of New York by Main Street merchants and 
property owners to require the International Railway to re- 
route its Hoyt and Elmwood cars, the two most important 
lines from the West Side residential district, down Main 
Street, as formerly. The cars were taken off Main Street 
last spring because of the heavy traffic on Buffalo's prin- 
cipal thoroughfare. Property owners and merchants say 
business has dropped off and property depreciated in value 
since these two lines have been routed down Franklin 
Street, two blocks to the west of Main Street. At a hear- 
ing before Commissioner Hodson held in Buffalo, E. G. 
Connette, president of the company, and Thomas Penney, 
former president, but now legal adviser, explained that 
sixty cars a minute are operated both ways in Main Street 
and during the rush hours 120 cars a minute are operated 
in both directions. They said it would be almost impossible 
to maintain schedules with two more lines operating up 
and down Main Street. Decision was reserved by the com- 
mission. 

Praise for the Public Service Railway. — In commenting 
editorially on the increase in the wages of its trainmen 
announced recently by the Public Service Railway the 
Newark News said: "The spirit underlying the announce- 
ment of an increase in wages for employees of the Public 
Service Railway is laudable for more reasons than one. 
It is generous, it is good business and it has an element of 
consideration for the public. The rate of increase is suf- 
ficiently large to enable each of the employees to better his 
mode of living. Increased wages will enable the company 
to set a higher standard in the personnel of its operating 
force through widening the field of available men. This 
means greater efficiency in smoother operation, a decrease 
in the wear and tear — because of carelessness and incompe- 
tency — on its rolling stock, and in diminished proneness to 
accidents, which are ■ expensive both in injury to the com- 
pany and frequently in damage suits. The public will be 
benefited, obviously, in greater safety, better service and 
more considerate treatment. The Public Service Railway 
has plenty of rules, and good rules, for observance by its 
employees, the difficulty having been in getting them car- 
ried out. With a greater incentive for the employees to 
obey the rules more carefully, the reward of the Public 
Service Railway should be found in greater facility and 
economy of operation." 

Ordinances in Interest of Interurban Lines Introduced 
in Little Rock. — Negotiations between the promoters of the 
Little Rock, Pine Bluff & Eastern Traction Company, the 
officials of the Little Rock Railway & Electric Company 
and representatives of the city of Little Rock which have 
been in progress since Sept. 8, 1913, have resulted in three 
ordinances being presented to the City Council to provide 
for an interurban railway to Pine Bluff and street railway 
connection with Argenta. These three ordinances, which 
represent the three-cornered agreement, have been read 
once and referred to the Mayor, city attorney, street, finance 
and ordinance committees. Mayor Taylor has effected an 
agreement with the Little Rock, Pine Bluff & Eastern 
Traction Company, the Little Rock Railway & Electric 
Company and the Inter-City Terminal Railway, which is 
to take control of the Argenta lines and extend street car 
service into Little Rock, whereby a 5-cent fare is guaran- 
teed from all points in Argenta to all points on the down- 
town loop, and transfer privileges are secured to all points 
in either city at the rate of 7 cents for one continuous pas- 
sage. The Inter-City Terminal Railway is to permit inter- 
urban cars to come in over its lines and along the down- 
town loop, which extends down Spring Street, Capitol Ave- 
nue, Main and Markham Streets. The city is to receive 
compensation from both the Inter-City Terminal Railway 
and the Little Rock, Pine Bluff & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany for entering the city, and each is to put up a $20,000 
bond. 



Personal Mention 



Mr. Robert E. Wirsching has been appointed to the Board 
of Public Utilities of Los Angeles, Cal., to succeed Mr. O. O. 
McReynolds. 

Mr. D. W. Pontius has been appointed traffic manager of 
the Visalia Electric Railroad, with headquarters in Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

Mr. C. B. Vorce has resigned as construction engineer for 
the British Columbia Electric Railway, Vancouver, B. C. 
Mr. Vorce became connected with the British Columbia 
Electric Railway in October, 1910, coming from New York, 
where he was connected with the engineering firm of San- 
derson & Porter. 

Mr. Howard Elliott, chairman of the board of directors 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, presi- 
dent of the Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn., and 
president of the Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. £., 
has been elected chairman of the board of the Rhode Island 
Company, a newly created position. 

Mr. Frank H. Funk has been appointed a member of the 
Illinois Railroad & Warehouse Commission by Governor 
Dunne in place of James A. Willoughby, resigned. In 
making this appointment the Governor let it be known 
that Mr. Funk would be a member of the new Public 
Utilities Commission when it is formed. Mr. Funk was the 
Progressive nominee for Governor in 1912, and served 
several terms as State Senator from the Bloomington dis- 
trict. 

Mr. A. E. Potter, general manager of the Rhode Island 
Company, Providence, R. I., has been elected president of 
the company to succeed Mr. Howard Elliott, who has been 

elected chairman of the 




board of directors, a newly 
created position. Mr. Pot- 
ter is a native of Provi- 
dence, and is forty years of 
age. He entered the em- 
ploy of the Union Railway, 
Providence, out of which 
grew the Rhode Island 
Company, in 1892, as as- 
sistant to the superinten- 
dent of tracks. He served 
in this capacity until 1895, 
when he was appointed su- 
perintendent of transpor- 
tation, the duties of which 
office he was subsequently 



elected to perform after the 
A. E. Potter Union Company was ab- 

sorbed by the Rhode Island 
Company in 1902. In 1906 Mr. Potter was promoted from 
superintendent of transportation of the company to general 
manager, to succeed Mr. R. I. Todd, who resigned to be- 
come general manager of the Indianapolis Traction & Ter- 
minal Company. Mr. Potter has served continuously as 
general manager of the company since that time. The 
system of the Rhode Island Company in Providence and 
elsewhere in Rhode Island comprises 383 miles of track. 

Mr. J. H. McClure has been appointed general superin- 
tendent of the Citizens' Traction Company, Oil City, Pa., 
one of the public utility properties operated by Day & 
Zimmermann, Philadelphia, as general managers. In the 
early part of the year Mr. W. W. Cole, of Day & Zimmer- 
mann, was sent to the Citizens' Traction Company property 
as acting general manager, to perfect a reorganization of 
the property and to direct a large amount of construction 
work. Mr. Cole has spent most of his time during the past 
nine months on the property, and has successfully concluded 
his labors. Mr. McClure has entered upon his duties and 
will be permanently located at Oil City. He has for several 
years been a member of the Day & Zimmermann forces 
and is one of the firm's prominent efficiency engineers, hav- 
ing given particular attention to schedules and car opera- 
tions. Mr. McClure has in the past few years made a num- 
ber of visits to the Citizens' Traction Company property on 
expert work. 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



61 




Mr. T. L. Miller, assistant to Mr. F. R. Coates, president of 
the Toledo Railways & Light Company, Toledo, Ohio, has 
been appointed purchasing agent for all the properties oper- 
ated by this company to succeed Mr. C. T. Munz, resigned. 
Mr. Miller's appointment as assistant to the president was 
announced in the May 18, 1912, issue of the Electric Rail- 
way Journal, accompanied with his biography. 

Mr. John F. Calderwood resigned as vice-president and 
general manager of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit System on 
Jan. 1, but will retain his connection with the company in an 
advisory capacity. He will 
take a year's vacation be- 
fore resuming active work. 
Mr. Calderwood became 
connected with the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company 
in 1902 as assistant to Mr. 
J. L. Greatsinger, then 
president of the company. 
He had previously been 
comptroller of the Twin 
City Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mr. Calderwood was born 
at Reford near Detroit, 
Mich., on May 27, 1859. He 
was educated in the public 
and high schools of Fenton 
and at the University of J. F. Calderwood 

Michigan. After teaching a 

year in a normal college he entered the employ of a lumber 
company at Bay City, Mich., and later became accountant 
and credit manager of a carpet concern in Minneapolis. In 
1888 he was elected comptroller of Minneapolis and at the 
close of the term accepted the office of comptroller of the 
Minneapolis Street Railway, which with the St. Paul City 
Railway was afterward consolidated as the Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company. For some time previous to the purchase 
of the Third Avenue Railroad in New York by the Metro- 
politan Street Railway in 1900 Mr. Calderwood spent some 
time in the East at the request of the owners of the prop- 
erty to rehabilitate it. The knowledge of street railway 
finance and management displayed by him during this period 
as well as his previous record led to his appointment with the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. The lines which were 
under Mr. Calderwood's management in Brooklyn consti- 
tute a system of 542^ miles of surface single track and 
71 1 / 4 miles of elevated single track, while the extensive 
subway system under the dual plan now under construc- 
tion will add very considerably to what is probably the 
largest trackage under any one city railway in the world. 
Mr. Calderwood was one of the founders of the American 
Electric Railway Accountans' Association and one of its 
first presidents. He was largely instrumental in the estab- 
lishment and adoption of the standard system of accounts 
of that association. Mr. Calderwood was a frequent con- 
tributor to the Street Railway Journal on accounting- 
topics, but was compelled to discontinue this work on ac- 
count of the exactions of his duties in Brooklyn. When 
Mr. Calderwood came to Brooklyn he took charge of a 
system which was still loose-jointed in many parts and 
operating with steam on the elevated lines and out-of-date 
cars on the surface lines. He leaves it as one of the most 
progressive electric railway organizations in the United 
States and one that has before it wonderful possibilities 
of still greater expansion through the development of the 
new rapid transit routes. The company has announced 
that with Mr. Calderwood's retirement the position of 
general manager will be abolished. 

Mr. W. W. Cole, who has been acting general manager of 
the Citizens' Traction Company, Oil City, Pa., to perfect 
the reorganization of the property and direct reconstruction 
work, will return to the eastern part of Pennsylvania and 
again take up his important field of work with Day & Zim- 
mermann, Philadelphia, Pa., who operate the properties at 
Oil City. Mr. Cole will divide his time largely between the 
Philadelphia and New York offices of Day & Zimmermann, 
as he did before he located temporarily in Oil City and will 
only occasionally visit the Citizens' Traction Company prop- 
erty hereafter, as it is necessary to look after certain expert 



work. As an indication of their recognition of his work and 
the high personal esteem in which he is held by the people in 
general, a number of the prominent citizens of Oil City ten- 
dered a complimentary banquet to Mr. Cole on the occasion of 
his leaving Oil City to return to Philadelphia and New York. 

Mr. Edward D. Bobbins, general counsel of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, has been appointed 
general counsel of the board of directors. He will be re- 
lieved of the administrative legal work by Mr. Edward G. 
Buckland, vice-president. Mr. Robbins will be called upon 
for advice regarding the corporate, intercorporate and 
financial relations of the company and the legal rights 
and duties of the several parts toward one another and 
about other important matters that may be assigned to him 
by the board. He will report to Mr. Howard Elliott, the 
chairman, and will maintain offices in Boston and New 
Haven. 

Mr. A. D. Furlong, who has been third vice-president, 
general manager and purchasing agent of the Springfield 
(111.) Consolidated Railway, has been appointed general 
manager of the Saginaw-Bay City Railway and has been 
elected vice-president of the Saginaw & Flint Railway, 
Saginaw, Mich., to succeed Mr. John A. Cleveland, who as 
noted in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 27, 1913, 
has been appointed to a position in the office of Hodenpyl, 
Hardy & Company, New York, N. Y. Mr. Furlong entered 
the service of the Hodenpyl, Hardy & Company syndicate 
in the summer of 1906 as a collector in the gas and electric 
light department of the Pontiac (Mich.) Light Company. 
Later he filled the position of stenographer to the local 
manager of the Pontiac Light Company. Subsequently he 
held the positions of bookkeeper and chief clerk and sec- 
retary and general manager of the same company. On 
Feb. 1, 1912, he left the employ of the Pontiac Light Com- 
pany to assume the position of general superintendent 
with the Springfield properties. In January, 1913, he was 
elected vice-president and appointed general manager of the 
Springfield Consolidated Railway, Springfield Gas Light 
Company and the Springfield Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany. 

Mr. Edward Karow, who for the past year has been in 
the office of Mr. Horace Lowry, vice-president of the Twin 
City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis, Minn., as assist- 
ant, has been appointed 
superintendent of the Min- 
neapolis division of the 
Twin City lines. Mr. Karow 
was born in 1884 and was 
graduated in 1905 from 
Princeton University, with 
the degree of civil engineer. 
In 1907 he received the 
post-graduate degree of 
electrical engineer from 
Princeton. He spent one 
year in the testing depart- 
ment of the General Elec- 
tric Company at Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., one year in the 
office of the same company 
designing direct - current 
Edward Karow machinery, and three years 

in the railway commercial 
department of the company. He then became connected 
with the Twin City Rapid Transit Company as assistant 
to the vice-president. 

Mr. Slaughter W. Huff, president and general manager 
of the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
has been elected vice-president of the Transit Develop- 
ment Company, Brooklyn, and will be elected vice-president 
of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the other com- 
panies in the Brooklyn Rapid Transit System, with assigned 
duties, to succeed Mr. J. F. Calderwood, whose resignation is 
announced elsewhere in this column. As stated on page 57 of 
this issue the Public Service Commission of the First District 
of New York has authorized the Coney Island & Gravesend 
Railway, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, to purchase 26,370 shares of the 29,839 shares of 
stock of the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad now out- 
standing. 




< 



62 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [VOL. XLIII, No. 1. 



Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 
ported. 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 
*Wisconsin, Illinois & Indiana Electric Railway, Chicago, 

111. — Application for a charter has been made by this com- 
pany in Illinois to build an electric railway from the north- 
ern line of McHenry County south through the counties of 
Cook, Dupage, Kankakee, Will, Livingston and McLean. 
Capital stock, $500,000. Incorporators: J. C. Williams and 
H. M. Walker, Evanston; J. B. Hubling, Downers Grove, and 
James L. Clark and C. H. Seeberger, Chicago. 

Fort Scott & Pittsburg Railway, Fort Scott, Kan. — In- 
corporated in Kansas to build a 38-mile line from Fort 
Scott to Pittsburg via Frontenac, Garland, Arcadia and 
Mulberry. Capital stock, $100,000. Incorporators: A. P. 
Dickman, C. D. Samble, W. J. Calhoun, A. N. Keene, J. R. 
Kearns, Robert B. Barr and Walter Glunz. [E. R. J., 
May 17, '13.] 

*Dan River Railway, King, N. C— Incorporated in North 
Carolina to build interurban electric railways in Stokes and 
other counties adjacent. Headquarters, King. Capital stock 
authorized, $500,000. Incorporators: Harlee Miller, Clem- 
mons, N. C; E. T. Knapp, Bethania, N. C, and Ernest C. 
Butler, Hamilton, N. Y. 

*Saluda-Hendersonville Interurban Railway, King's 
Mountain, N. C— Chartered in North Carolina to build an 
electric railway from Saluda to Hendersonville, 10 miles. 
Capital stock authorized, $125,000. Incorporators: J. M. 
Torrence, W. A. Mauray, C. E. Neisler and J. S. Stanton, 
Henderson, N. C. 

Charleston Northern Railway, Darlington, S. C. — Incor- 
porated in South Carolina to build an electric or steam rail- 
way from Andrews to Charleston, 57 miles. Capital stock, 
$28,000 to $1,000,000. Officers: D. T. McKeithan, Darling- 
ton, president, and George S. Dargan, Darlington, secretary. 

*Shelbyville, Petersburg & Decatur Railroad, Shelbyville, 
Tenn. — Incorporated in Tennessee to build a steam or elec- 
tric railway from Shelbyville, Tenn., to Decatur, Ala. Capi- 
tal stock, $10,000. S. P. Kirkpatrick, incorporator. 

FRANCHISES 

Little Rock, Ark.— The Little Rock, Pine Bluff & Eastern 
Traction Company has asked the Council for three fran- 
chises in Little Rock. 

Winslow, Ariz. — J. F. Mahoney, Winslow, has asked the 
Council for a franchise for an electric railway in Winslow. 

Jacksonville, Fla.— The Jacksonville & St. Augustine 
Public Service Corporation has received a franchise from 
the Council through South Jacksonville. This 40-mile line 
will connect Jacksonville and St. Augustine. Thomas R. 
Osmond, Jacksonville, general manager. [E. R. J., Aug. 
23, '13.] 

Atlanta, Ga.— The Georgia Railway & Electric Company 
has asked the Council for a franchise for extensions of its 
lines in Atlanta. 

Baltimore, Md.— The United Railways & Electric Com- 
pany has received the approval of its franchise on Callow 
Avenue from the Public Service Commission of the State of 
Maryland. 

Springfield, Mass. — The Springfield Street Railway has 
received permission from the Public Service Commission 
for a double-track location in North Main Street in Spring- 
field. 

High Point, N. C— The Yadkin River Railway has re- 
ceived a franchise from the Council in High Point. 

Sewickley, Pa. — The Pittsburgh Railways has asked the 
Council for a franchise for a line from the Edgeworth 
borough line to the approach of the Coraopolis bridge along 
the old Fort Wayne right-of-way. 

Dallas, Tex. — The Dallas Consolidated Electric Railway 
has received a franchise from the Council to double-track 
certain sections of San Jacinto Street and Washington 
Street in Dallas. 



TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, Birming- 
ham, Ala. — Among the extensions planned in the near 
future will be a 1-mile line from Vinesville to Fairfield and 
a 1%-mile line from Boyles to Dolcito Quarry. 

Northern Electric Railway, Chico, Cal. — Work will be be- 
gun in the spring on a 40-mile extension from Woodland to 
Colusa. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — A contract 
has been awarded to Robert Sherer & Company, Los An- 
geles, for 5 miles of grading between Hawthorne and El 
Segundo for a new short line from Ionia Avenue on Ro- 
dondo Beach line to El Segundo, via Hawthorne. Plans are 
being considered to extend the Daisy Avenue line from 
its present terminus at State Street to the new residen- 
tial section in the northwest section of Long Beach. 

Sacramento Valley West Side Electric Railway, Willows, 
Cal. — This company has asked the permission of the State 
Railroad Commission to begin the construction of the sec- 
tion of its line from Red Bluff to a point on the Oakland, 
Antioch & Eastern Railway 11% miles south of Dixon or 
a few miles from Denverton. The line will be extended to 
Rio Vista on the Sacramento River, where it will have 
water connections. This 160-mile line will extend through 
the west side of the Sacramento Valley. C. L. Donohoe, 
Willows, president. [E. R. J., Dec. 20, '13.] 

Kellogg, Idaho. — An electric railway to be built and oper- 
ated between Wardner and Kellogg is being promoted by 
local interests headed by C. Wiese. It is reported that the 
Bunker Hill-Sullivan Mining Company, Wardner, will be 
financially interested in the project. [E. R. J., Dec. 6, '13.] 

Southern Illinois & St. Louis Railway, Harrisburg, 111. — 
This company has increased its capital stock from $2,500 to 
$3,500,000. This line will connect Marion, Harrisburg, Ben- 
ton, Johnson City and Herrin. William Rothman, Chicago, 
is interested. [E. R. J., Dec. 27, '13.] 

*Kansas City Southwestern Electric Railway, Kansas 
City, Kan. — Plans are being made to build this line between 
Olathe and Ottawa. W. B. Strang, Overland Park, Kan., 
president. 

Madisonville, Ky. — James R. Rash, referred to recently in 
connection with a proposed electric line from Madisonville 
to Nortonville, Ky., states that the project has about been 
given up. [E. R. J., Aug. 16, '13.] 

Madisonville-Nortonville Light, Power & Traction Com- 
pany, Madisonville, Ky. — Surveys have been completed be- 
tween Madisonville and Earlington, 4 miles, and construc- 
tion will be begun in April on this 12-mile railway to connect 
Madisonville and Nortonville via Earlington, Martons, 
Barnsley and Victoria. James Breathitt, Jr., Hopkinsville, 
is interested. [E. R. J., Nov. 22, '13.] 

Osage, Ozark & Springfield Electric Railway, Fristoe. 
Mo. — It is stated that this railway has not yet developed 
beyond the preliminary stage on account of being unable to 
secure financial backing. E. E. Trippe, Fristoe, is interested. 
[E. R. J., April 15. '11.] 

Missouri & Kansas Interurban Railway, Kansas City, 
Mo. — Plans are being considered to build an extension to 
Lawrence, 25 miles. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha, Neb. — 

Residents of Kenwood and Fairfax additions to the city of 
Omaha have asked this company for an extension of the 
Dodge Lake Street line to Fontanelle Park. 

*Fair Haven, N. Y. — Frank Hendrick, Sterling, and asso- 
ciates are considering plans to build an electric railway 
to connect Oswego, Sodus and Fair Haven, along the shore 
of Lake Ontario. 

Long Island Railroad, New York, N. Y. — Surveys are be- 
ing made to double-track the section of the line between 
Easthampton and Montauk. 

Waynesville & Canton Electric Railway, Waynesville, 
N. C. — Work will not be begun on this line until financial 
backing has been secured. This 12-mile railway will con- 
nect Hazelwood and Canton via White Sulphur Springs, 
Waynesville, Clyde and Lake Junalu^ka. Headquarters, 48 
Patton Avenue, Asheville, N. C. Henry T. Sharp, Ashe- 
ville, promoter. [E. R. J., June 28, '13.] 



January 3, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



63 



Beach, N. D. — Preliminary arrangements are being 
made to build an electric line between Beach, Burkey, Wil- 
liams, Alha, Carlyle and Dennis to Baker, Mont. Ter- 
minals will be at Beach, N. D., and Baker, Mont. No names 
are yet given of those interested in the project. 

Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company. — This company has 
received permission from the Park Commissioners to build 
the new Bond Hill line in Cincinnati over the Reading Road. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway. — This company has placed in 
operation its new line through the Shaker Heights district. 

Cleveland, Alliance & Mahoning Valley Railway Com- 
pany, Cleveland, Ohio. — The Warren division was placed 
in operation between Ravenna and Newton Falls on Dec. 
15. Two-hour service is given between these points. It is 
planned to have the Alliance and Warren divisions merged 
into a line that will be extended to Cleveland. [E. R. J., 
Oct. 25, '13.] 

Toledo Traction, Light & Power Company, Toledo, Ohio. 

— Plans are being considered to build a line from Alvord- 
ton to Hillsdale. 

Ardmore & Western Interurban Railway, Ardmore, Okla. 

— Plans are being made to begin work in the spring on this 
100-mile electric railway to connect Ardmore, Springer, 
Glenn, Woodford, Milo, Oil City, Cornish, Orr and Brock. 
John Owens, Ardmore, president. [E. R. J., June 28, '13.] 

Imperial Traction Company, Ottawa, Ont. — Plans are be- 
ing made to begin work in the spring on the line from 
Smithsville to Bridgeburg via Hamilton. [E. R. J., Nov. 
8, '13.] 

Niagara, St. Catharines & Toronto Railway, St. Cath- 
arines, Ont. — The new St. Catharines-Niagara-on-the-Lake 
line of this railway has been placed in operation. 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — Plans 
are being made to straighten and shorten the line between 
Norristown and Allentown. 

Hershey (Pa.) Transit Company. — Plans are being made 
to build a line between Hershey, Grantville, Ono, Jones- 
town and Fredericksburg, via the counties of Lebanon and 
Dauphin. 

Montreal (Que.) Tramways. — Work will be begun early 
in the spring on the extension along Van Home Avenue 
to the western limits of Montreal. 

*Jackson, Tenn. — The Merchants & Manufacturers' As- 
sociation, Jackson, Tenn., is negotiating with New York 
interests for the construction of a trackless trolley line to 
Bemis. R. S. Fletcher, Jr., is secretary of the association. 

Nashville (Tenn.) Traction Company. — Preliminary ar- 
rangements are being made to begin work on Feb. 1, 1914, 
on the 34 miles of new track in Nashville. The Detroit & 
Nashville Construction Company is being organized for the 
purpose of doing the construction work for the traction 
company. W. 0. Parmer, Nashville, president. [E. R. J., 
Dec. 20, '13.] 

Ogden (Utah) Rapid Transit Company. — Surveys have 
just been completed for another possible route for a line 
between Ogden and Logan. 

Twin State Gas & Electric Company, Brattleboro, Vt. — 
An extension through Esteyville in the near future is being 
contemplated. 

*Blaine-Lynden Electric Railway, Blaine, Wash. — This 
company has been organized to build an electric railway 
between Blaine and Lynden and will connect with the British 
Columbia Electric Railway's extension from Cloverdale to 
White Rock. 

Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Railway. — Construction of 
38.4 miles of double track, or 84.25 miles of single track, as 
an addition to the municipal line, now consisting of a line 
4 miles long extending from Third Avenue and Stewart 
Street to Salmon Bay, is the plan of the city utilities com- 
mittee of the City Council in Seattle. 

*Minneapolis, Merrill & Marinette Railway, Madison, Wis. 
— An amendment to the articles of incorporation of this 
company has been filed to change its route from Merrill 
northwest to Prentice to a new plan to build from Merrill 
northwest to Antigo. John O'Day, president, and F. W. 
Kubasta, Merrill, secretary. 



SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 
Geary Street Municipal Railway, San Francisco, Cal. — 

Plans are being made to build a one-story addition to the 
Geary Street carhouses in San Francisco. The structure 
will be of reinforced construction. The cost is estimated to 
be about $60,000. 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Railway & Light Company, 
Cedar Rapids, la. — Plans are being contemplated to pur- 
chase a site in Davenport on which the company plans to 
Ituild new carhouses. 

Interstate Street Railway, Attleboro, Mass. — Work will 
be begun soon on a new passenger station at Jay Street in 
North Attleboro. 

Mesaba Electric Railway, Duluth, Minn. — Plans are being 
considered by this company to build a new carhouse next 
spring in Virginia, Minn. 

Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J. — A new office 
building will soon be built in West Hoboken, where all com- 
mercial offices of the company will be located. 

Salt Lake & Ogden Electric Railway, Salt Lake City, 
Utah. — This company and the Salt Lake & Utah Railway 
plan to build soon a new joint interurban terminal on the 
block bounded by Main Street, West Temple Street, Second 
Street and Third South Street in Salt Lake City. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 
Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — Work will be 
begun at once to build two new power houses. One will 
be located at San Bernardino and the other in the vicinity of 
Etiwanda. Contracts for construction of these will be let 
in the near future. Both structures will be of reinforced- 
concrete construction. 

Danbury & Bethel Railroad, Danbury, Conn. — This com- 
pany has ordered one 600-kw steam turbine with exciters 
and two 600-volt, 200-kw rotary converters with trans- 
formers and switchboards from the General Electric Com- 
pany. 

New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, New York, 

N. Y. — This company has ordered two 2000-kw rotary con- 
verters and six 735-kw transformers from the General Elec- 
tric Company. 

New York State Railways, Rochester, N. Y. — Work has 
been begun by this company on its new substation in Roches- 
ter. The structure will be of brick and reinforced concrete 
construction. There will be a main machine room with a 
separate room for office and separate transformer room. 
The equipment for the station has been ordered. 

Sand Springs Railway, Tulsa, Okla.— One 200-kw, 600- 
volt d. c, two-phase, sixty-cycle, 1200-r.p.m. a. c. self-start- 
ing rotary converter, two 110-kva, 2200-volt to rotary vol- 
tage, single-phase, sixty-cycle, O. I. S. C. transformers and 
one switchboard to control above will be installed by this 
company at its power plant in Tulsa. The apparatus has 
been ordered from the Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company. 

Chambersburg & Shippensburg Railway, Chambersburg, 
Pa. — This company will install one 200-kw, 600-volt d. c. 
three-phase, sixty-cycle, 1200-r.p.m. a. c. self-starting rotary 
converters, three 75-kw, 13,500 to rotary voltage, single- 
phase, sixty-cycle transformers and one switchboard for 
the control of the above apparatus in its power house in 
Chambersburg. The contract for this apparatus has been 
placed with the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company. 

Greenville (S. C.) Traction Company. — One 500-kw, 600- 
volt d. c, six-phase, sixty-cycle, 900-r.p.m. a. c. and d. c. 
self-starting rotary converter, three 185-kva, 12,900-volt 
to rotary voltage, single-phase, sixty-cycle, O. I. S. C. trans- 
formers and one switchboard to control the above apparatus 
will be installed by this company at its power plant in Green- 
ville. The apparatus has been ordered from the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

Greenville Railway & Light Company, Greenville, Tex.— 
This company has placed an order with the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company for one 200-kw, 600-volt 
d. c, three-phase, sixty-cycle, 1200-r. p. m., compound-wound, 
self-starting a. c. rotary converter and one switchboard for 
the control of same. 



64 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 1. 



Manufactures and Supplies 



ROLLING STOCK 

Greenville, Spartanburg & Anderson Railway, Green- 
ville, S. C, has ordered two parlor cars and ten trailers 
from the Southern Car Company. 

City of Batavia, New York, N. Y., is reported to be in the 
market for a number of small ears to be operated over the 
tracks of the Buffalo & Williamsville Electric Railway in 
Batavia, which the city is about to purchase. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company, noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Oct. 4, 1913, as having issued 
specifications for 100 steel subway cars, has ordered these 
cars from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

Chicago (111.) Elevated Railways, noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Dec. 6, 1913, as being in the market 
for 120 cars, has ordered 128 cars from the Cincinnati Car 
Company, including sixty-two motor and sixty-six trail cars. 
Wide and center-entrance doors, Baldwin M. C. B. trucks, 
General Electric field control motors, Westinghouse multiple- 
unit control and automatic air brakes are specified. 

TRADE NOTES 

United States Electric Signal Company, West Newton, 
Mass., has appointed Roland F. Gammons, 2d, vice-presi- 
dent and treasurer of the company. 

Railway Traction & Supply Company, Chicago, 111., has 
sold a trial order of 120 Wyoming vacuum sanders to the 
Cincinnati Traction Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Griffin Wheel Company, Chicago, 111., has elected Thomas 
A. Griffin as chairman of its board of directors. Franklyn 
L. Whitcomb, formerly vice-president of the company, has 
been appointed president to succeed Mr. Griffin. 

Barnes & Robert Manufacturing Company, New Haven, 
Conn., has organized a sales department and appointed as 
sales manager R. H. Harper, who for the past ten years 
has been manager of the railway department of the West- 
ern Electric Company. 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore, Inc., New York, N. Y., have 
appointed E. M. Chadwick, formerly with the Fairbanks 
Company, as manager of their Buffalo branch. D. A. 
Hamilton, formerly with the Reed Prentice Company, has 
been appointed assistant at the Detroit branch of the 
company. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has re- 
ceived an order from the Detroit United Railway for 252 
two-motor car equipments. This item is a correction of 
one in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 27, 1913, in 
which an error was made in regard to the number of motor 
equipments ordered. 

Weir Frog Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, announces that 
after litigation extending over seven years it has success- 
fully defended its right to make its well-known derailing 
device, in general use where steam roads are crossed by 
interurban roads and where the law requires that the de- 
railing device be operated at a distance from the railroad 
crossing. 

Standard Underground Cable Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 

has appointed E. J. Pietzcker Western and Southwestern 
sales manager in charge of its Chicago and St. Louis offices. 
W. M. Rogers has been appointed as assistant Western 
sales manager and R. C. Houck as assistant Southwestern 
sales manager. E. E. Woodbury has been transferred from 
the Pittsburgh to the St. Louis office. 

Lord Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y., an- 
nounces that hereafter it will manufacture and sell the 
standard railway appliances which for the past twenty 
years have been handled by the Sterling-Meaker Company, 
Newark, N. J. These snecialties are Giant brakes, Ster- 
ling safety brake, roller-bearing trolley bases, fenders and 
wheelguards, sand boxes and ticket punches. 

American Abrasive Metals Company, New York, N. Y., 
received an order for its Feralun safety treads to be used 
on the hundred new cars which were ordered by the Chi- 
cago City Railway from The J. G. Brill Company. This 
item is a correction of one which appeared in the Electric 



Railway Journal of Dec. 13', 1913, in which it was er- 
roneously stated that the step treads ordered were Uni- 
versal safety treads. 

Nichols-Lintern Company, Cleveland, Ohio, has received 
orders for sander equipment for 376 cars of the Columbus 
Railway & Light Company and fifty cars of the Cleveland 
Railways. Other sander orders have been received from 
the Scioto Valley Traction Company, Northern Ohio Trac- 
tion & Light Company, Toledo & Western Railway; for 
selector switches from the G. C. Kuhlman Car Company; 
for switches from the New York State Railways; for 
ventilators from the Union Traction Company of Indiana, 
Muncie & Portland Traction Company, Scioto Valley Trac- 
tion Company, Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, 
Fairmont & Mannington Railway, Youngstown & Ohio 
River Railroad, Lake Shore Electric Railway, Mahoning & 
Shenango Railway & Light Company. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 
Universal Trolley Wheel Company, Northampton, Mass., 

has issued a New Year's circular describing its composite 
self-lubricating trolley wheel. » 

Trussed Concrete Steel Company, Detroit, Mich., has 
issued a catalog describing its various methods of water- 
proofing and dampproofing by means of its technical points. 

The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., printed in the 
December, 1913, issue of the Brill Magazine an illustrated 
biography of J. B. Hamilton, general manager of the Leeds 
Corporation Tramways, Leeds, England. Among the fea- 
ture articles are the following: "Conditions which Govern 
the Type of Cars for City Service in Copenhagen, Den- 
mark," "Semi-Convertible Cars for the Lacroze System, 
Buenos Aires," "Cars of Various Types for Brazil," "Double- 
Deck Cars for South Africa," "Longitudinal Seat Car for 
Concepcion" and "Passenger and Freight Cars for Piraju." 



NEW PUBLICATION 



Illinois Public Utility Commission Law and Municipal Own- 
ership Law. By William J. Norton, M.E., Chicago, 111. 
Published by the author. Size, 8V2 in. x 11 in., 200 
pages. Price, $2. 
Mr. Norton's work as secretary of the rate research com- 
mittee of the National Electric Light Association and his 
former position as assistant secretary of the New York 
Public Service Commission, First District, especially fitted 
him to prepare the valuable volume which he has issued in 
reference to the new Illinois law. An index-digest arranges 
in convenient form references to the sections of the law 
which relate to special subjects, such as definitions of the 
principal terms used, references to administrative powers, 
points relating to proceedings before the commission, what 
the utility may do and what it must do. One of the most 
interesting features of this unique volume is the series 
of comments on different sections of the Illinois law 
appended at the bottoms of the pages. These do a great 
deal to interpret the measure for the benefit of public 
utility operators in Illinois who are confronted with regu- 
lation in 1914 and for others who want to study the measure. 
To those who study the subject of regulation and the affairs 
of the various commissions, the notes of Mr. Norton are 
the most interesting part of his work, because they throw 
into relief the conflicting practices of various commissions 
and provisions of various laws dealing with this topic. 
For instance, in the reference to valuation, Mr. Norton 
calls attention to the importance of the clause providing 
that the commission shall have power to ascertain any 
fact which in its judgment may or does have any bearing 
on the value of the property of public utilities. He calls 
attention to the clause of the Indiana law requiring that 
the commission shall give weight to the reasonable cost 
of bringing the property to its then state of efficiency and 
also cites various cases dealing with the subject of valua- 
tion. Again, Mr. Norton, in his reference to another clause, 
states that the Indiana commission in 1913 used a clause 
similar to that in the Illinois law to require utilities to 
give the value of all property useful to the public and to 
state the estimated amount of going value included. He 
adds: "This was a real abuse of authority and unnecessarily 
worried the utilities." In many ways the book invites 
careful study by observers of public utility regulation. 



Electric Railway Journal 



Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway / 


R^JEW^ € 

lai . — 


Vol. XLIII 


NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY, 10, 1914 \ 




No. 2 





PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

James H. McGraw, President. C. E. Whittlesey, Secy, and Treas. 
239 West 39th Street, New York. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. .Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London 



Terms of Subscription 

For 52 weekly issues,.and daily convention issues published from 
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cates the month at the end of which subscription expires. 

Copyright, 1914, by McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 8000 copies are 

printed. 



EQUIPMENT 
AND ITS 
MAINTENANCE 



With the first issue of this year 
we began to group in one depart- 
ment, now named "Equipment 
and Its Maintenance," the various short technical 
articles which formerly were scattered throughout each 
issue. A paper which covers every activity of the big 
and highly specialized field of electric railroading neces- 
sarily must print much matter that is essential only to 
a portion of its readers. This extension of the depart- 
mental plan which has been used in our news columns 
for years thus has the merit of keeping a certain class 
of electrical and mechanical data in the same relative 
position in each issue. By this means even the most 
casual reader will see all that is likely to interest him. 
While the character of the material is not new, we hope 
that its publication in a more prominent form will 
stimulate the writing of many similar articles by the 
very men who are solving daily the technical problems 
of the industry. We realize that the practical railway 
man has not got a great deal of time to write, but there 
is no reason why he should not be willing to send us 
occasionally a short description of any new device or 
method which he believes would help his fellow workers 
out of trouble in like circumstances. In short, we want 
the mechanical or electrical man, whether he is in the 
power, line, track or car department, to look upon 
"Equipment and Its Maintenance" as a feature of the 
Electric Railway Journal peculiarly his own. 

LIGHT WANTED ON It would greatly clarify the situa- 
ELECTRIFICATION tion on tne different systems of 
DECISIONS steam railroad electrification if 

each company when making a decision should state 
clearly the reasons which led to its adoption of the one 



finally selected. In the cas\<ll^the Melbourne electrifica- 
tion, for example, Mr. Mei///t'rankly published the 
figures which had led him to reT&mrriend high-tension 
direct current. Consequently, others had the oppor- 
tunity of checking his data with quotations supplied by 
the manufacturers of the several systems. Several de- 
cisions to electrify steam railroad track with one or 
another of the different systems have been reached in 
this country, but no definite statement of the reasons 
for the choice made has been made public by the rail- 
road company. It is time also that further details 
should be available in regard to the cost of maintenance 
of the different systems in use, as this has a direct 
relation to the cost of operation. At present there is a 
noticeable absence of data of this kind from several of 
the roads which have electrical equipments in opera- 
tion. It is not fair to other railroads considering elec- 
trification to oblige them to take up the subject abso- 
lutely from the beginning, but this is almost necessary 
under present conditions. 



INDECISION ON Within the last few weeks the 
MUNICIPAL OWNER- con ditions surrounding the pro- 
SHIP IN TORONTO p 0se( j mun i c jp a l purchase of the 
Toronto Street Railway and the Toronto Electric Light 
Company have become more involved than ever, largely 
as a result of the vacillation of the public authorities in 
acting upon Mayor Hocken's plan. When this plan was 
originally proposed and adopted the Board of Control 
ordered the corporation counsel to prepare a definite 
agreement based upon it, and this resolution was 
adopted by the City Council. On Dec. 16 a resolution 
was presented to the Board of Control to the effect that 
the negotiations for the purchase should be ended, but 
the resolution was voted down. On the day following 
the pendulum swung the other way, and upon recon- 
sideration the resolution was adopted by the board. 
Scarcely any time elapsed, however, before the City 
Council completely nullified this action of the Board of 
Control and voted to continue the purchase negotiations. 
Thus matters stood on Jan. 1 at the time of the city 
election, and it cannot be said that the result of this 
election has served to clear the atmosphere. At first 
glance it would seem that the governing idea in the 
minds of the majority was opposition to the street rail- 
way purchase, but, although Mayor Hocken was re- 
elected by a bare plurality over a young man whose only 
platform was that he was opposed to the purchase, yet 
by a decisive vote the people returned a Board of Con- 
trol composed of men who either were in favor of the 
purchase or had not opposed it. Evidently the citizens 
of Toronto looked with favor upon Mayor Hocken's 



66 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



recommendation for the creation of a commission of 
independent citizens to study the traction situation, and 
they returned municipal governing bodies that will at 
least keep the transportation question open until some 
plan is definitely submitted to the people for approval. 
In circumstances like these any predictions as to the 
ultimate outcome of the purchase plan seem futile. That 
there is a decided opposition to the city's taking over 
the property is certain, this being due partly to a dis- 
taste for municipal ownership and partly to the fact that 
the intangible values, as ascertained by Bion J. Arnold, 
were higher than most of those in favor of the plan 
expected. It is pertinent to state, in this latter connec- 
tion, however, that no one has yet proved them wrong. 
The fact is that the cost of taking over a prosperous 
railway, the task of creating and managing a unified 
and expanded service for the whole city and the respon- 
sibility of basing these extensions upon estimated future 
growth and development are burdens which the people 
of Toronto may well be reluctant to assume. Whether 
the glamour of municipal ownership, however, will com- 
pletely fade before the eyes of the citizens of Toronto 
upon a more complete investigation is a possibility of 
the future rather than a fact at present assured. 



COLLECTIVE LIFE INSURANCE 

The acceptance by 2000 employees of the partnership 
insurance offer made by the Third Avenue Railway, 
New York, in accordance with the plan described at 
length in our issue for Aug. 23, 1913, marks a note- 
worthy extension of welfare work on a businesslike 
basis. Hitherto the company has had only a mutual 
benefit association of the usual type. This association 
pays a death benefit of $250, but now those association 
members who enter into the insurance plan will receive 
in place thereof a life insurance policy for $1,000. The 
partnership feature of this agreement is that the com- 
pany contributes $4 a year for every $7 paid by the 
policy holder. To the employee this arrangement 
means that for the trifling sum of 15 cents a week his 
family will not be left in total distress in the event of 
his death. To the company it means that the expendi- 
ture of less than 9 cents a week per individual will prove 
a substantial incentive for the best men to remain in 
its employment. 

The "actuarial" aspect of this bulk insurance plan is, 
of course, of particular interest because the assessments 
are so much less than any mutual benefit association 
could afford to set. The obvious reason for this condi- 
tion is that on any single railway the fluctuating mor- 
tality from year to year must be absorbed by a few 
hundred or few thousand persons, whereas the policy 
holders of an important life insurance company are 
numbered by hundreds of thousands. Hence it would be 
dangerous to apply the standard mortality tables to any 
one place because extraordinary local epidemics or un- 
healthful weather conditions would not be canceled by 
a lower death rate elsewhere. 

The Third Avenue Railway has avoided this risk by 
having a standard insurance company underwrite all 



of the policies collectively. In this way it also avoids 
the burden of operating a separate insurance depart- 
ment. That the insurance company should be able to 
grant materially lower rates may be readily understood 
inasmuch as it is relieved of three sources of great ex- 
pense. The first of these is the abolition of examina- 
tions, made possible because the applicants as a whole 
present a low risk on account of their high average 
health. The second expense saved is the separate solici- 
tation and underwriting of thousands of small policies, 
and, finally, there is no expense of collection of pre- 
miums because all of the accounts are guaranteed by 
the railway. The saving in the actual cost of a policy 
to the employee by this system of collective insurance 
with part payment by his employer is especially evident 
in comparison with the cost of the industrial policies 
usually taken out by men who earn platform wages. 
These industrial policies are naturally the most costly 
since the premiums are usually collected in amounts of 
less than one dollar. 

It is not astonishing, therefore, that the employees of 
the Third Avenue Railway should have accepted the 
insurance proposition in such large numbers. As an 
indication of the trend of the times, it is worth men- 
tion that a still larger railway system is planning to go 
even farther by insuring absolutely free of cost all men 
who have been in its employ for a given number of 
years. The great attraction of collective partnership, or 
free insurance, in general, is that it can be adopted as 
evidence of good will by many a company which could 
not afford an increase in wages or the costlier forms of 
welfare work. 



SAFETY IN THE REPAIR SHOP 



The increasing attention now being paid to safe- 
guarding workmen from accidents in industrial plants 
suggests the desirability of similar campaigns in repair 
shops. Here and there, no doubt, a good deal of con- 
sideration has been given by railway companies to this 
subject, but a good many accident hazards remain to be 
eliminated and comprehensive studies of dangerous con- 
ditions in machine and woodworking shops generally 
offer helpful suggestions. Some studies of this kind 
have been made by the accident insurance companies 
and a recent bulletin published by one of them throws 
considerable light on the whole subject of industrial 
accident prevention. 

For instance, it is generally assumed by most of 
those who have not looked into accident prevention 
from the practical end that mishaps in the shop are 
attributable for the most part to the absence of safety 
devices in places where danger is known to exist. But 
in reality there are many other contributory causes. 
Ignorance, carelessness, unsuitable clothing, poor light- 
ing, ill-conditioned and crowded departments and de- 
fects in machines and buildings all bear upon the prob- 
lem. In the railway car shop there is a low density of 
labor which tends toward greater safety in the perform- 
ance of work, but the hazards associated with open 
belts and gears, with exposed shafting, poor wiring, 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



67 



loose material and equipment and poor lighting deserve 
careful study on many roads. 

In the car shop no less than in the industrial plant 
employees should receive so far as possible complete and 
detailed instructions as to their work, special emphasis 
being laid upon the dangerous features, with particular 
regard to newly employed men and apprentices. Atten- 
tion should be directed not only to the dangers incident 
to each individual's particular employment but also to 
hazardous conditions in his immediate vicinity. When- 
ever a man is transferred from one department to an- 
other or is placed in charge of a different machine, he 
should be fully instructed in his new duties and warned 
of any dangers that may be associated with its un- 
familiar operations. A workman who repeatedly re- 
ceives even minor injuries while performing the same 
kind of work should be transferred to safer employ- 
ment or even dismissed, if necessary, to eliminate a 
poor moral hazard exerting a dangerous influence upon 
fellow-employees. In the car shop as well as in the 
factory an unbuttoned coat or a torn sleeve may lead to 
a fatal accident in connection with machine rotating 
parts which look more or less harmless to the inexperi- 
enced eye. 

Obviously the best time to make safety provisions is 
when the machines are being laid out in the drafting 
room, and it is gratifying that designers of heavy ma- 
chine tools are giving more and more thought to pro- 
tective features. The designer can take care of the 
safeguard problem in the cheapest way while working 
on the details of the machine, but if the machine is 
built without regard to these features, it is often diffi- 
cult and sometimes impossible to add effective protec- 
tion after construction. Hence the shop foreman or 
master mechanic should specify to the tool builder cer- 
tain safety requirements and these should be demanded 
when the tool is bought. 

Only brief mention can be given of the safeguards 
which are rapidly becoming standardized in shop prac- 
tice, for their application depends in detail upon local 
conditions. The protection of moving parts by metallic 
nettings instead of solid metal screens is a step forward 
on account of the increased facility of inspection af- 
forded. Gear wheels always need careful protection, 
especially when they are within reach of the floor or 
near bearings or other machine parts requiring fre- 
quent attention. It is not uncommon to find gears which 
are only partly hooded or covered with a guard having 
too narrow a width. Complete inclosure of reversible 
gears and spoked wheels and the use of counterbored 
set screws turned flush with the surrounding surfaces 
are important protective measures, and unrailed plat- 
forms, detached belt shifters, unspiked or uncapped 
ladders- and exposed electric contacts within reach of 
the floor are all potent sources of trouble. Skilled labor 
abounds in most car repair shops in all departments, 
and the average of intelligence is far above that of the 
ordinary mill worker. But the high standard of em- 
ployees is no excuse for the absence of preventive 
measures indicated as necessary by periodical surveys 
of such establishments. 



EFFICIENCY IN SERVICE CARS 

The shabby, unkempt service cars of many electric 
railways look more like traction outcasts than like 
apparatus of high efficiency. In fact, it has been so 
customary to build service cars out of odds and ends 
and to operate them with valetudinarian motors and 
control that it is almost a shock to find some that have 
actually been designed and equipped to do their work 
in the best possible way. The small system on which 
a single service car of each type suffices may be readily 
excused for following the practice of using second- 
hand material because better equipment could not be 
exploited to its maximum efficiency and the savings 
possible in energy consumption, crew time and main- 
tenance from such modern service cars might not be 
enough to offset the higher first cost of a really new 
car. The large system, however, owes it to itself to 
see whether its fleet of junk-type service cars cannot 
profitably be displaced by cars which are capable of big- 
ger mileage because of specialized design and modern 
equipment. This is clearly an instance where true 
economy will be found to lie in the installation of equip- 
ment designed for the work in hand. 

Of two cases in point, one is afforded by an all-steel 
stores car which will operate the mileage of the three 
older cars, and the two men required to operate it will 
perform with greater ease the work formerly done by 
six. No elaborate calculations are required to show 
what this means in reducing labor cost and energy con- 
sumption, but there are also the less tangible advan- 
tages that one well-equipped car will have fewer mis- 
haps than three poorly equipped cars and that a spick 
and span vehicle advertises the company to its patrons 
more commendably than three near-pensioners in roll- 
ing stock. 

A second case is that of a company which has fol- 
lowed the same idea in the design of a steel ballast car 
which hauls 9 per cent more load per trip than three of 
the old-time trailers. The better unloading apparatus 
and motor equipment on this car also make it easy for it 
to do one more trip per day than the old trains. In 
this instance two men perform easily a job which be- 
fore was a hard task for four men. 

As many of the lines on the system in mind have 
heavy traffic, the reduction in track space from 80 ft. 
to 49 ft. for given loads is not to be despised. A re- 
cent accident where the last car of an old ballast train 
broke away on a grade and dashed off the curve into 
a house also proved an effective, though unexpected, ar- 
gument for the superior safety of single big-car opera- 
tion. One of the most satisfying facts is that the 
company which uses the new ballast cars is no longer 
flooded with complaints such as threatened to wipe out 
the prosperous business which it had created in the 
transportation of stone. It is not pretended that the 
new cars are altogether inconspicuous, but they do give 
an impression of massive strength and efficient design 
which make a pleasing contrast to strings of ever-tilting 
"dumpies," shedding stones in their journey, as Hans 
of the fairy tale marked his path by dropping pebbles 
between his home and the forest. 



68 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



New Interurban Railway in the Minnesota 

Iron Range 

A Description of the Mesaba Railway, a 35-Mile. 725-Volt Line with Interesting Construction and Operating 

Features and a Complete Cab-Signal System 



The new Mesaba Railway in the Minnesota Iron 
Range district is a good example of an interurban elec- 
tric line recently built in a growing community. The 
population served by this 35-mile line exceeds 55,000 
and is distributed among nine cities and "locations," 
as the mining settlements are called, varying in size 




Mesaba Railway — Map of Route 

from 500 to 15,000 people. This population is largely 
made up of the laborers in the open-pit iron mines 
along the Iron Range, which extends in an east and 
west direction across that part of Minnesota lying 80 
miles north of Duluth and Lake Superior. Although 
this great iron ore district is served by a network of 
steam railroads, none of them is interested in a pas- 
senger business. All their energies are being directed 
toward increasing the ore tonnage, which is a most 
profitable source of revenue 

In considering the possibilities of an electric railway 
through this district the promoters of the Mesaba 
Railway found that at least one of the steam roads, 



"locations" and the cities. This fact was quite evident 
from the amount of passenger traffic between these 
centers, even under the inconvenient service offered by 
the steam roads before the advent of the electric line. 

Another inducement to the promotion of an electric 
line in this locality was the possibility of a lighting 
and power business, inasmuch as the service rendered 
to most of the larger communities was by isolated, 
inefficient generating plants. Already three of the 
larger cities have made contracts with the railway 
company, and others are negotiating for a similar 
service. Then, too, the present terminals of the electric 
line are well within the iron-mining district. A terri- 
tory almost as rich in iron ore deposits as that now 
served and one which abounds in "locations" and grow- 
ing towns lies both to the west and east. The intention 
is to extend the line in the near future to serve these 
communities, and ultimately a lighting and power busi- 
ness will be developed in the entire territory. 

Some unusual difficulties were encountered in the 
'■obstruction of this line, although the natural topog- 
raphy is that of a slightly rolling country which, 
under ordinary conditions, would require the average 
amount of grading to produce a normal interurban line. 
These difficulties took the form of great mounds of earth 
stripping removed from the surface of the open-pit 
iron mines. To project the line through these would 
have increased the cost of grading to a point where 
it would have been prohibitive. Hence, it was decided 




Mesaba Railway — General View Showing Character of Mesaba Railway- 
Country and Construction 



-View Showing Siding and Contact Rails 
for Signal System 



the Duluth, Missabe & Northern Railroad, furnished 
passenger train service between most of the important 
towns, but that transfers were necessary at junction 
points on an indirect route, and long delays between 
trains were frequent. The principal industry of the 
district was iron mining and lumbering, and there was 
a natural channel of intercommunication between the 



to build the line around them with easy curves and at 
the same time obtain a reasonable grade line. Other 
characteristics of this country which tended to increase 
the cost of construction included sink-holes or bogs in 
which it was practically impossible to obtain a perma- 
nent bearing, and at other points the line was con- 
structed through fields of large boulders. 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



69 



TRACK AND ROADWAY 

The line was built on a private right-of-way, 50 ft. 
in width, through the rural districts and in the streets 
through the cities and villages. As the rural population 
was very small with little or no farming, it was un- 
necessary to fence the right-of-way. Fortunately, too, 
there were but few streams requiring bridges. In fact, 
the only waterways of any consequence were a few 
shallow lakes. To offset the advantage of a scarcity of 
waterways, however, numerous railroad crossings were 
necessary. Some were obviated from an operating 
standpoint by grade separations, and others were 
crossed at grade. Grade crossings were introduced 
only where a grade separation was not feasible or was 
unwarranted because the track was one on which only 
a few trains were operated each day. The most im- 
portant of these grade separations was at Kinross, 
where combination wooden-trestle approaches to a steel 
girder cross the intersection of two steam roads. A 

view of this cross- 
3 y, , ?s Augi. » a low j ng . j g snown j n one 

of the illustrations. 

The standard 
roadway construc- 
tion employed in- 
cludes a 1 4 - f t. 
roadbed on em- 
bankments with 3- 
ft. ditches on each 
side of the road- 
bed in excavation. 
The track is laid 
on 6 in. of gravel 
ballast taken from 
a pit on the com- 
pany's right - of - 
way and consists 
of 6-in. x 8-in. x 8- 
ft. tamarack ties, 
70-lb. A. S. C. E. 
rail, 24-in. angle 
bars and 26-in. 
Ohio Brass Com- 
pany's compressed 
terminal bonds. 
The latter are 
quite unusual as 
they are of the 
concealed type, but 
as they are longer 
than the joint, the 
terminals are ex- 
posed. This arrangement permits of easy inspection to 
determine when the bonds become defective. 

OVERHEAD CONSTRUCTION 

Except for one or two unusual features, the overhead 
lines conform to general practice. The trolley is sup- 
ported on pipe mast-arms, 17 ft. above the top of the 
rail, and in turn the mast-arm is attached to a 40-ft. 
Idaho cedar pole which also carries the telephone, 
signal and transmission line wires. 

One novel feature in the overhead line construction 
is the cross-arm used to support the transmission lines. 
This arm is a 4-in. x 4-in. x 7/16-in. structural-steel 
angle, set 2 ft. off center, in order to give a 4-ft. clear- 
ance between the two transmission lines on one side 
of the pole and a 5-ft. 6-in. interval between the middle 
line and the third line on the opposite side of the pole. 
Another structural angle, 4 in. x SV-? in. x % in. an 
section and 5 ft. 3 in. in length, is bolted to the side 
of the pole opposite the transmission line cross-arm 
and serves to support the ground wire. A direct ground 
is obtained by a connection both to the transmission 




Mesa foil 



Railway — Typical 
way Section 



Road- 



line cross-arm and the structural angle supporting the 
ground wire above the top of the pole. This ground 
wire is carried down the side of the pole on 2-in. 
porcelain knobs and connected to ground by l^-in. 
pipe 8 ft. long. The base of this pipe is provided 
with a cast-iron shoe for driving, and the top has a 
special grounding cap. In appearance this cap re- 




Mesaba Railway — Typical Way Shelter 

sembles an ordinary hexagon nut, except that it is 
tapped out only on one side to fit over the head of 
the l^-in. ground pipe. A horizontal slot is cut in 
the cap 7/16 in. below the top, and a tapered hole 
slightly off center is drilled from the top of the cap 
through this slot. The depth of the slot and the loca- 
tion of the tapered hole are such as to leave sufficient 
space between the inside edge of the slot and the hole 




Mesaba Railway — Combination Wooden Trestle Approaches 
to Steel (iirder Bridge at Kinross 

to wedge securely the grounding wire when a pin 
is driven into the tapered opening. 

POWER STATION 

The power station of the Mesaba Railway Company 
is situated on the property of the Virginia & Rainy 
Lake Lumber Company, approximately one-quarter 
mile from the main track where it enters the city of 



70 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



Virginia. At this location it was possible to obtain 
refuse from the lumber mill for fuel, and water is 
taken from a lake situated but a short distance from 
the power-house site. This location was selected also 
because it was desirable for a substation. 

Owing to the high cost of coal in this locality, the 
large quantity of wood fuel available from the lumber 
mill was practically a governing factor in the selec- 
tion of this power-house site. Prior to the construc- 
tion of the power house, however, it was ascertained 
that there was a large surplus of fuel over that re- 
quired to operate the lumber company's generating 
plant. The character of this fuel, which consists of 
wet or green sawdust and small pieces of pine wood, 
may be seen in the illustration showing the fuel deck. 
An overhead conveyor from the mill of the Virginia 
& Rainy Lake Lumber Company delivers this fuel 
into the firing room of the electric railway power 
station. The sixteen openings in the bottom of the 
conveyor trough, uniformly spaced across the boiler 
room, are opened and closed by hand levers. Twelve 
of them supply chutes which deposit the fuel directly 
into the fire box, and four open into short spouts which 




deposit it on the fuel deck. The quantity deposited on 
the fuel deck during the six days of the week when the 
lumber mill is in operation is sufficient to last during 
the period when the mill shuts down from Saturday 
night to Monday morning. During this time it is 
necessary to charge the fireboxes by hand. 

The power house proper is in a building 60 ft. x 120 
ft. in plan. It is built on concrete foundation sup- 
ported by piling, and the superstructure is of steel, 
brick and concrete. The power house building is di- 
vided into two sections, namely, the boiler room and 
the generator room, and each is built with a basement. 
The boiler equipment embraces three 300-hp Edge- 
Moor horizontal water-tube boilers with four fuel chutes 
and firing doors to each. These boilers were designed 
-or 175-lb. pressure at 75 deg. superheat and were guar- 
anteed to develop 450 hp each, with a 1-in. draft at the 
breeching outlet. They are served by three 150-ft. 
guyed steel stacks 4 ft. 6 in. in diameter. The boiler 
feed water is heated to approximately 204 deg. in 
Hoppes heaters, which are served by a turbine-driven 
boiler-feed pump. The feed-water heater is supplied 
with exhaust steam from the boiler-feed-pump, the gen- 
eral service pump and the turbine-driven exciter. 



Wood fuel made it necessary to equip the fireboxes 
with unusually large grate areas, and each contains ap- 
proximately 90 sq. ft. No attempt is made to spread 
the fuel over the grate after it has passed through the 
firing doors from the fuel deck. It forms a cone-shaped 
pile on the grate under each firing door and burns 
around the edge of the pile. As it is necessary for the 
fireman to attend to the fuel chutes on a floor directly 
over the fireboxes, the essential insulation against heat 
was obtained by supporting the floor on a Dutch oven 
extension with thick arches. 

It was originally intended that the line voltage of the 
Mesaba Railway would be 1200 volts, but before actual 
construction had begun it was decided that the motor 
generators should be designed for 750 volts d.c. and 
operate at 600 volts. Shortly after operation started 
it was found the traffic was much heavier than antici- 
pated and that the copper was barely sufficient during 
the peaks. Accordingly, it was decided to take advan- 
tage of the higher pressure for which the generators 
were designed and raise the voltage to 750. This could 
be done without any other serious difficulty, as the rail- 
way motors, although designed for 600-volt operation, 



m 



were of the interpole type which permitted an increase 
in pressure to 750 volts without danger to economy of 
operation. Sixty cycles have been used for the trans- 
mission frequency, partly because of the lighting and 
power business and partly because that is the fre- 
quency used in the Virginia & Rainy Lake Lumber 
Company's power plant. A three-phase line has been 
installed between the two switchboards so each station 
may synchronize with the other in case an interruption 
does occur, and as an extra precaution, the main steam 
headers of the two stations are also connected. 

The generating equipment includes two 750-kw, 600- 
volt, three-phase, 60-cycle horizontal condensing tur- 
bines operating at 80 per cent power factor and 3600 
r.p.m. At the present time one of these units is held as 
a spare, but the rapid increase in the load anticipated 
in the near future, owing to new contracts for light and 
power service, will soon require the spare unit to be 
placed in regular service. The governors on the turbo- 
generators are controlled by a motor from the switch- 
board and each generator panel is also equipped with a 
wattless component indicator. Station excitation is ob- 
tained from a 35-kw, 125-volt, 3600-r.p.m. non-con- 
densing turbine exciter. In conjunction with this self- 




January 10, 1914.] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



71 



contained unit, a motor-driven exciter designed to run 
in parallel has been installed for regular service, the 
turbine exciter being used only in case the plant is shut 
down. The motor-driven exciter set consists of a 75- 
hp, 1200-r.p.m., 600-volt, three-phase induction motor 
direct-connected to a 60-kw, 125-volt compound-wound 
exciter. 

In the portion of the turbine room used as a substa- 
tion two 300-kw, 750-volt synchronous motor-generator 
sets have been installed. These are General Electric 
two-bearing machines with compound-wound generators 
which feed the line at 750 volts d.c. One of these units 
serves as a spare at the present time. The motor-gen- 
erator sets are served by three 250-kva water-cooled 
transformers. 

A switchboard gallery is located in one corner of the 
turbine room and the space under it is utilized for the 
transformer equipment. All circuits to the switchboard 
are arranged so that no switches are on the high-tension 
side of the transformers. This arrangement as well as 
the location of the switchboard gallery over the trans- 




Mesaba Railway — Fuel Deck Over Boiler Room Floor 



formers reduced the copper to a minimum and at the 
same time provided ample room for operation. The 
switchboard contains fifteen panels and a swing bracket 
at each end. All wiring between the switchboard and 
the generator and substation units is housed in metal 
conduit embedded in the concrete building floors, and 
the board is thoroughly grounded. 

SUBSTATIONS 

At present the substation in the power house and the 
substation at Chisholm, 20 miles west, are all that are 
required to operate the line. A transmission line, con- 
sisting of three No. 2 copper wires, connects the power 
station with the Chisholm substation, and current is 
transmitted at 22,000 volts. Two 400,000-circ. mil d.c. 
feeders feed both ways from the power house. One 
connects it with the Chisholm substation and the other 
extends east to Gilbert. A 300,000-circ. mil feeder is 
installed between Chisholm and Hibbing, the west termi- 
nus of the line. 

The substation at Chisholm is operated in conjunc- 
tion with the passenger and freight station, a single 
agent serving both. The substation proper is housed 



in a one-story building constructed of brick and steel. 
The three-phase transmission line enters this structure 
by way of a structural-steel bracket and 15-in. tile open- 
ings through the building wall. It is supported on the 
building wall inside the station by insulated pipe 
brackets, and after passing through choke coils and 
disconnecting switches this 22,000-volt line is connected 
to the 200-kva, 22,000-to-600-volt self-cooled transform- 




Mesaba Railway — 750-kw Turbo-Generators 



ers by way of oil switches. The transformer set is in- 
stalled immediately back of the switchboard that occu- 
pies the transverse center of the substation building, 
which is 24 ft. by 44 ft. in plan. The floor space oppo- 
site the transformer section is occupied by two 300-kw 
motor-generator sets, which convert the sixty-cycle a.c. 




Mesaba Railway — View of Motor-Generator Sets and 
Switchboard Gallery 



into d.c. at 750 volts. Both interior and exterior views 
of this substation are shown in the illustrations. 

SIGNAL SYSTEM 
A complete installation of the Simmen system of rail- 
way signaling has been installed on this line. The dis- 
patcher set includes a nine-lever board, interlocked and 
equipped with time and location recording mechanism 
and record sheets such as have been described in the 



72 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



Electric Railway Journal. Six telephone dispatcher 
lines are also connected into the board, and each line 
is equipped with a bell of a different tone instead of the 
usual drop. 

The third-rail installations on this 35-mile line pro- 
vide for a block approximately 6 miles in length, with 




Mesaba Railway — Exterior of Chisholm Substation 



home and distant rails protecting each siding. The 
third-rail locations were also selected with a view to 
eliminating difficulties which might arise through drift- 
ing snow. The method of installing the third-rails con- 
forms to the standards employed on the Indianapolis & 
Cincinnati Traction line, as well as the Nashville-Galla- 
tin Interurban line. Certain refinements in the opera- 
tion of this signal system, however, have been included. 

Probably the most important of these additions to the 
system is the directional movement protection, which is 




Mesaba Railway — Motor-Generator Sets in Chisholm 
Substation 



essentially as follows: When a west-bound train is 
about to take possession of the block the circuits are 
arranged so that an east-bound train receives a red 
light if it attempts to oppose the west-bound train in 
the same block. Each block may be set for either an 
east or west-bound movement, but the moment it is set 



for one the other is disengaged. This might be accom- 
plished in the usual way — that is, by two separately 
controlled circuits — but the Simmen system accom- 
plishes the east-bound and west-bound control over a 
single wire. The principal features of this arrange- 
ment include three phases of control. One gives a green 
light to an east-bound movement by energizing a third- 
rail positive, another gives a west-bound movement a 
clear light by energizing the third-rail negative, and a 
stop indication is given to each by totally de-energizing 
the rail. 

In further explanation of this feature, suppose that 
all east-bound movements require a positive current to 
produce a green light, then all east-bound trains with 
a green light must be governed by a positively energized 
rail. In this example the east-bound movement is pro- 





Mesaba Railway — Cross-Section of Chisholm Substation 

tected by making all west-bound movements clear with 
a negative current. Hence, if a west-bound train passes 
a positively energized rail, it receives a red indication. 

The operating advantages of this arrangement are 
that the east-bound train may take a siding, and in case 
there are two or more sections of the west-bound train, 
the east-bound train must be in the clear before the 
west-bound train can receive a proceed signal. If all 
rails are negatively energized — that is, if they are pro- 
viding a clearance signal for west-bound trains — the 




Mesaba Railway — Switchboard and Transformer Section 
of Chisholm Substation 



east-bound car is held at that siding until all the sec- 
tions of the west-bound train have passed, and it can- 
not leave until the dispatcher changes the levers and 
positively energizes the rail. 

The added cost of this construction over the simple 
form of control, such as is used on the Toronto & York 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



73 



Radial Railway, is practically negligible. The principal 
addition necessary in the installation is the additional 
batteries in the dispatcher's office. These two batteries 
are arranged with one positive to ground and the other 
negative to ground. To obtain the advantage of the 
directional indications, it is also necessary to change 
the ordinary relay on the car to a polarized relay and 
install a directional switch. 

In actual practice it has been found that the propul- 
sion current, which is positive to trolley and negative to 
track, tends to go through the signal circuits. Accord- 
ingly, it has been necessary to increase the battery 
positive to the signal line so as to overcome this shunted 
propulsion current. It has also been found that the 
amount of propulsion current flowing over the signal 
lines increases with the number of defective bonds. 
Hence a periodical test of the signal circuits provides a 
close check on the bonding conditions of a line. When 
the shunted propulsion current becomes excessive it 
produces a red cab signal, owing to the fact that the 
signal current is counteracted by leakage of the propul- 
sion current. 

On the Mesaba Railway signal lines a 40-volt signal 
current was used in one direction, and the propulsion 
current assists in energizing the signal lines with the 
proper polarity. In the other direction it was neces- 
sary to use 80 volts, as the signal current is decreased 
by the propulsion current leakage, which is of the oppo- 
site polarity. The voltage of the current in arranging 
this signal system for directional indications depends 
on the relative location of the power house and the 
dispatcher's office. No difficulty has been experienced, 
however, in the operation of the directional indication, 
and it has now been installed on the lines of the In- 
dianapolis & Cincinnati Traction and of the Nashville- 
Gallatin Interurban Railway as well as on the Mesaba 
Railway. 

The directional switch provided in the cab of each 
car in addition to the polarized relay has three posi- 
tions — one for west-bound movement, one for east- 
bound movement and a neutral position which entirely 
disconnects the car batteries. The latter position is 
used when the car is in the carhouse or is making a 
long lay-over on a side track. Although the position of 
the directional switch is under the control of the motor- 




Mesaba Railway — Signals in Vestibule of Car — Revolving Contact Shoe — Equipment in Dispatcher's Office 



The east-bound and west-bound movement has made 
possible the use on each car of a single shoe, which 
makes contact with those third-rails on the right-hand 
side of the track. The removal of one shoe from the 
single-end car more than offsets the added cost of the 
polarized relay. On a double-end car, however, two 




Mesaba Railway — View at Center Siding Showing Signal 
Rails and Switch Box 



shoes are required, and also a small four-pole switch. 
Two poles of this switch connect the shoes, and the 
other two poles connect either one or the other set of 
cab signals. If a motorman changes from the front 
to the rear cab, he cannot get the cab signal permitting 
him to proceed until this four-pole switch is in the 
proper position. 

Open-switch protection is also provided in a simple 
and inexpensive way. This is done by passing the sig- 
nal wire through an ordinary switch box before con- 
necting it to the third-rail. In this way, when the 
switch is open or partly open, the signal current cannot 
reach the third-rail as the circuits are broken at the 
switch box. 

The passage past a non-energized third-rail produces 
a red cab signal on the car at the distant rail, which is 
2000 ft. away from the home rail on this road. Both 



man, it does not depend on the human element. In 
case the directional switch is not in the proper position, 
a car cannot receive a green light because the terminal 
third-rails can be energized only with one polarity, 
namely, only positive for east-bound and negative for 
west-bound terminal rails. 



trailing and facing open-switch protection are feasible, 
because, after passing through the switch box, the 
energy may take a secondary line connecting the home 
and distant signals on both sides of the point to be 
protected. 

The length of the third-rail as well as the size and 



74 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



quality of the signal wires were adopted only after 
careful investigation. Heretofore it has been the prac- 
tice to use a copper-clad wire for signal wire, but the 
Mesaba Railway employed a No. 10 galvanized-iron 
wire with glass insulators. This represented a saving 
in the cost of the signal circuits and the iron wire has 
been just as satisfactory in the operation of the signal 
system as the copper-clad wire. The third rails are 
70 ft. in length and are made up of two sections riveted 
together. Recent speed tests have shown that a 25-ft. 
rail was sufficient in length to give the necessary time 
element for relay action at a speed of 89 m.p.h. A 70- 
ft. rail was used merely to provide a factor of safety. 

At the Hibbing and Gilbert terminals the track was 
in paved streets and a third-rail signal installation was 
not practicable. To meet this condition the signal cir- 
cuits were extended to the telephone booths at the ter- 
minal, where red and green light signals similar to 
those in the car were installed. These lamps were con- 
nected in and operate on the principal signal circuit, 
which is opened and closed manually. When the motor- 
man or conductor obtains an order from the dispatcher 
over the telephone he closes the signal circuit and ob- 
tains the light indication before starting his run. 

ROLLING STOCK 

The initial rolling stock equipment for the Mesaba 
Railway includes five motor passenger cars, five motor 
combination cars, four trail cars and two express, bag- 



posite construction with two 6-in. I-beams reinforced 
under the platforms with Vz-in. x 5-in. steel plates in 
the center sill and two %-in. x 7%-in. steel plates in 
the side sills. The body is thoroughly rodded and 
trussed and reinforced with steel plates. Each side of 
the car body at the rear end and the right side at the 
front end are fitted with 31-in. single-swing doors, 
triple steps with safety treads and steel trap doors. 
The car bodies are mounted on Baldwin locomotive 
trucks, equipped with four GE-201 600-volt interpole 
motors rated at 50 hp. They are equipped with the GE 
type-K control and Westinghouse combination auto- 
matic and straight air brakes. Other special equip- 
ment includes the Peter Smith Heater Company's 
forced-draft heaters and Ohmer registers. Car illumi- 
nation is obtained from 145-volt lamps, arranged five in 
a series and direct-connected to the 750-volt propulsion 
circuits. 

OPERATION 

From the beginning of operation an hourly schedule 
has been maintained over the entire line. In many in- 
stances this service has not been adequate, and it was 
necessary to utilize all the passenger equipment the 
company had on hand to move the traffic. Most of the 
extra service takes the form of a two-car train consist- 
ing of a motor and trailer. At the present time the 
largest proportion of passenger traffic is between Vir- 
ginia and Evelyth. The Mesaba Railway carhouse is 




Mesaba Railway — Side View Passenger Motor Car — Interior View. 



gage and freight cars. The general dimensions of the 
passenger motor cars are as follows: Length over 
buffers, 47 ft. ; length over vestibule, 47 ft. 2 in. ; length 
of car body, 37 ft. ; length of main compartment, 25 ft. 
7 in.; length of smoking compartment, 11 ft. 5 in.; 
length of vestibule, 5 ft. ; seating capacity, fifty ; weight 
of car body, approximately 26,000 lb. The general di- 
mensions of the express motor cars are as follows: 
Length over buffers, 46 ft. ; length over car body, 43 ft. 
4 in. ; length inside for freight, 35 ft. ; weight of car 
body, approximately 21,000 lb.; weight complete with 
trucks, air-brake equipment and motors, approximately 
27 tons. 

The most important consideration in the design of 
the passenger equipment was to provide protection 
against the extremely cold weather common in this 
locality. In order to accomplish this end the cars have 
double side walls sheathed outside with Vs-in. x 34-in. 
steel plates, and the windows are provided with remov- 
able storm sashes. Owing to the fact that a large per- 
centage of the passengers carried are ore workers in 
soiled clothing, it was deemed advisable to make in- 
terior finish in dark oak and to upholster the seats in 
rattan. 

These cars were designed and built by the Niles Car 
& Manufacturing Company for local interurban service, 
medium speed and frequent stops. They are of a com- 



especially well located to handle this, as it is just west 
of Virginia, where a trailer may be added to the car 
going to Evelyth and may be removed from the car on 
the return trip. The Egry train order system is used 
exclusively and all telephone booths and other points at 
which orders are received from the train dispatcher 
are equipped with Egry dispatchers. 

Owing to the fact that the Mesaba Railway has just 
begun operation, the freight service has not been thor- 
oughly developed. At present an l.c.l. express business 
is being handled at rates approximately 30 per cent 
above standard steam-road freight rates. As the terri- 
tory served is almost frontier in character, the novelty 
of it all has not worn off, and the shippers as well as 
the consumers are just beginning to realize the value 
of the high quality of express service which the electric 
line can offer. This business is developing rapidly, 
however, and undoubtedly will become quite an item in 
the gross revenue of the company in the near future. 
As evidence of what may be expected when all classes 
of traffic have been fully developed, the present gross 
earnings average 49 cents per car mile. 

COMBINATION CARHOUSE AND SHOPS 

As mentioned earlier in this article, the carhouse and 
shops are located just west of Virginia, on a strip of 
property, 200 ft. in width, paralleling the main track 
between Virginia and Hibbing. The carhouse proper 



January 10, 1914.] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



75 



was a brick, steel, wood and concrete structure, 86 ft x 
122 ft. in plan, but since this article was prepared this 
carhouse and an adjoining two-story office building were 
destroyed by fire. As originally built, four tracks ran 
through the carhouse, and two of them passed over a 
repair pit, 56 ft. in length, situated at one end of the 
building opposite the repair shop space. The shop and 
storeroom occupied a 20-ft. aisle on one side of the car- 
house, and the former was inclosed with brick parti- 




Mesaba Railway — General View of Carhouse and Shops 
Before Destruction by Fire 



tions. The eight track entrances, four at each end of 
the carhouse, were provided with rolling steel doors so 
that the building could be entirely inclosed. Im- 
mediately after the fire the company constructed tem- 
porary quarters for the cars and, as soon as weather 
will permit, intends to replace the temporary structure 
with a permanent carhouse and shops. 

The Mesaba Railway was built by the present owners, 
assisted by the Cleveland Construction Company, of 
Cleveland, Ohio. The former did all the grading, 
bridging and track laying, and the latter acted as elec- 
trical engineer in charge of all electrical design and 
construction. 



MEETING OF AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION 

An account was published last week of the opening 
sessions of the American Economic Association at 
Minneapolis. ■ 

Prof. Karl F. Theodor Rathgen, of the Colonial In- 
stitute of Hamburg, Germany, was the first speaker to 
discuss the paper by Mr. Brooks on "Syndicalism." He 
disagreed mildly with Dr. Brooks. Syndicalism, he 
said, was essentially a growth of the Romance nations, 
partly because in these nations there had been no great 
trades union organizations. It had very little hold on 
German workingmen. It was the socialism of the small 
workshop, not of the large enterprise. He thought that 
syndicalism would split up, one portion going into 
trades unions and another would gradually disintegrate 
because it underestimated the persistent force of 
society as organized at the present day. 

Several other speakers took part in the discussion. 
One remarked that if syndicalism could only discipline 
itself it might bring about a tremendous change in the 
social structure. Another doubted if anything like true 
syndicalism had ever been experienced in this country. 
A third gave a brief account of the situation in New 



Zealand. Still another speaker expressed the hope that 
the American Federation of Labor would be able to 
reach the unorganized mass of laborers in this coun- 
try, which it has not done hitherto. Mr. Eastman, of 
St. Paul, declared that the movement was serious and 
was entitled to respect and sympathy. A professor 
from Ohio State University who had been in England 
recently praised the effort making there to give col- 
lege training to labor leaders with the understanding 
that they were to stay in their own class and help their 
fellows and not to grow out of it as a result of their 
education. 

THE TRUST QUESTION 

Professor Gray, of the University of Minnesota, pre- 
sided at the closing session of the afternoon of Dec. 
30. The principal paper was by Prof. Willard E. 
Hotchkiss, Chicago, Northwestern University, on "Re- 
cent Trust Decisions and Business." In regard to the 
enforcement of the Sherman law the speaker said it 
might be a question whether the Attorney-General, with 
due regard to his oath of office, could in the future 
safely omit to take cognizance of specific acts of prima 
facie violation when the court had already established 
the illegality of similar practices. In the main the en- 
forcement of the Sherman law has had, and still has, a 
patriotic and beneficial purpose. However, the serious 
need of a definition for "fair competition" was clear. 
The speaker devoted considerable attention to the effi- 
ciency of trusts and concluded that the alleged superior 
efficiency of combinations had not yet been established. 
DISCUSSION 

Prof. E. Dana Durand, of the University of Minne- 
sota, advocated an amendment to the Sherman law de- 
fining the limitations of fair competition. Railroads 
were recognized as monopolies, but to regulate monopoly 
of the manufacturing industry was a far different 
proposition. Another question to be asked was, If 
the trusts were dissolved could competition be restored? 
Professor Durand thought that it could be in the long 
run. The bringing of a suit for the dissolution of a 
trust or for violation of the Sherman law should not 
rest in the discretion of a single individual. There 
should be a permanent government industrial commis- 
sion to advise the Attorney-General and the Supreme 
Court in the matter. 

Prof. W. A. Rawles, Indiana University, favored an 
exhaustive investigation by an interstate industrial 
commission, the amendment of the patent laws and 
federal control over industrial capitalization and ac- 
counting. 

Others who discussed the question were Dr. F. L. 
McVey, University of North Dakota; Prof. J. E. 
Le Rossignol, University of Nebraska; Prof. G. E. 
Putnam, University of Kansas; Prof. M. S. Hildman, 
Stanford University, and Dr. W. W. Folwell, University 
of Minnesota. 

NEW OFFICERS 

At the business sessions of the association Dr. John 
H. Gray, professor of economics in the University of 
Minnesota, was elected president of the association, and 
Prof. A. A. Young, of Cornell University, was elected 
secretary and treasurer. The next annual meeting will 
probably be held in Princeton, N. J. 



The London County Council has been considering 
the opportunities for co-ordinating, as far as possible, 
the various electric systems in London and expanding 
them on economical lines. The committee that has 
this matter in hand was granted $14,550 for obtaining 
expert opinion, and though the experts' report is not 
expected for some time, it is rumored that the pro- 
posals are likely to be of a drastic character. 



76 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 

Rapid Transit Report in Philadelphia 

Further Details Concerning Report of A. Merritt Taylor, Director of Department of City Transit, for New 
Subway and Elevated Lines — Tables Showing Estimated Increase in Gross Revenue, Future Invest- 
ment, Overhead Percentages, Rate of Return and Time-Saving 



The Electric Railway Journal of Aug. 9, 1913, and 
of Oct. 4, 1913, contained brief accounts of the two- 
volume report of A. Merritt Taylor, director of the de- 
partment of city transit, on the subject of an enlarged 
subway and elevated system for Philadelphia. Volume I, 
mentioned in the first of the above-named issues, con- 
tained the general recommendations for new rapid tran- 
sit routes, while Volume II, described in the other issue, 
was devoted to maps and plans, mostly in colors. The 
engineering portion of this report was prepared under 
the supervision of Ford, Bacon & Davis as consulting 
engineers. 

Undoubtedly the most interesting features of the en- 
tire report are its completeness and the rapidity with 
which it was prepared. Director Taylor was appointed 
by Mayor Blankenburg on May 27, 1912, and with an 
allowance of one or two months for organization the 
submission of the report on July 24, 1913, meant that 
only about one year was required for its completion. 
During this time, too, Director Taylor devoted a portion 
of his energy to obtaining the necessary legislation at 
Harrisburg. Under the all-Philadelphia program for 
improved transit facilities three bills were necessary — 
the first a revenue-producing bill, making the personal 
property tax a county instead of a state tax and thereby 
raising the borrowing capacity of Philadelphia by 
$45,000,000 ; the second a bill authorizing a city expendi- 
ture of $40,000,000 to be realized from the sale of 
bonds and to be restricted to the building of subways, 
wharves, docks and other permanent improvements, and 
the third a bill providing that as soon as the people had 
approved the issuance of the bonds for subway building 
the city might proceed to make contracts without first 
waiting for the bonds to be sold. These bills were 
passed, other details were arranged, and on Nov. 4 the 
voters of Philadelphia registered their approval of a 
first bond issue of $1,800,000 to cover the cost of re- 
moving sewers on the Broad Street subway and to pay 
engineering and organization costs, etc. — all in much 
less time than it has taken for the details of rapid 
transit construction to be thought of, planned and con- 
summated in other cities. 

When the rapidity with which the entire plan has been 
worked out is considered, the completeness of the report 
rendered becomes all the more striking. Philadelphia 
is the first American city that has ever had a careful 
scientific analysis made of the business possibilities of a 
proposed rapid transit system. In some cases estimates 
have been made for various additions as they have been 
required, or partial estimates for future traffic on one 
particular line, but this is the first case where the prob- 
able traffic, gross receipts, net operating revenue and 
return on the investment for an entire system have all 
been calculated on a scientific basis for a definite period 
of years, with exact allowances made for the future 
cumulative investment in property and equipment ne- 
cessitated by the future increase in population and 
traffic. 

Aside from the exemplary completeness of the report 
as a whole, however, several concrete methods of traffic 
analysis used therein deserve a more amplified descrip- 
tion than was accorded them in the two issues of this 
paper previously mentioned. 

As stated in those issues, the report recommends for 
immediate construction a four-track subway in Broad 



Street from the City Hall northward to Pike Street and 
a two-track subway southward from the City Hall to 
League Island, with a central delivery subway loop at 
Fifteenth, Walnut, Eighth, Arch and Filbert Streets. 
It also proposed several elevated railway extensions. 
The total cost of these lines is estimated at $57,587,000, 
of which $34,682,000 is to be paid by the city and 
$22,896,000 by the lessee for the equipment of the diffi- 
cult sections in the business district. 

The diagram, reproduced herewith, shows the esti- 
mated time for engineering and completion. 

ESTIMATED INCOME FOR 1921 

From a mass of data systematically compiled the en- 
gineers estimated the future traffic from 1918 to 1930. 
An allowance was made for light traffic during the early 
years, but for the year ended June 30, 1921, the operat- 1 
ing revenue was estimated at $5,705,200 and the operat- 
ing expenses at $2,729,200, leaving net earnings for the 
year of $2,976,000. From this amount there were sub- 
tracted deductions from income to the extent of 



Department uf Work. 


l'Jii j 1613 


11)14 


1915 


1910 


1917 


1918 


1919 


Investigation and Report 
on 1rafU, Earning llU 
Construct iod Cost. 


~ la i 


lot. ^ 














Preparation of Working 
Plane and fci ■ ■ ■' < iti. . . 
(Bee -Note A) for fcul.. contracts, 
Advertising for Bids and 
awaiting Contracts, 






Mos. 












Constructive Period . 

North Broad St. 
South Broad M. 
Delivery Loop 
Frankfort! Elevated 
Darby Elevated 


ISee Note 

ISce Note 
( .. .. 


£) 

o) 

C) 


jQ 




Kos. 
































Installation of 
Equipment and Preparation for 
Operation by Operator 


























Operation of. 

— — Elevated ^inen 

























Electric : ,i.Jn. r,-i 



Note A — No allowance has been made for delays due to obtain- 
ing state and local legislation and the testing of its legality by the 
courts or delays due to injunctions, determination of routes, sta- 
tion locations, sizes of subways, etc., financing, securing of oper- 
ating contractor and submitting loan ordinance for public ap- 
proval. This time assumes no delay will occur in obtaining engi- 
neering organization for preparation of these plans owing to 
requirements of the Civil Serice Commission. 

Note B — No allowance has been made for delays caused by de- 
linquencies of contractors, legal or other unforeseen obstructions. 

Note C — Estimated time based on connection to present Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit line. 

Philadelphia Report — Diagram Showing Estimate of Min- 
imum Time Required for Engineering and Construc- 
tion of Subway and Elevated System 

$534,100, and a surplus applicable to the return on the 
investment was ascertained, amounting to $2,441,900, 
or 4.1 per cent. The rate of return on the investment 
for the individual new lines was as follows: North 
Broad Street subway line, 2.9 per cent; South Broad 
Street subway line, 5 per cent; Frankford elevated line, 
8 per cent, and Darby elevated line, 4.4 per cent. The 
average subway return was 3.2 per cent and the average 
elevated 6.4 per cent. 

In arriving at the above estimated surplus of 
$2,441,900, the unit costs of operation were determined 
from the present unit costs on the Market Street line 
and by comparison with those on subway and elevated 
systems in other cities. Deductions were then made for 
taxes to the extent of 0.5 per cent on the entire invest- 
ment, for reserve funds for contingent operating ex- 
penses in the amount of 3 per cent of the total operating 
expenses and reserve funds for renewals to the extent 
of 0.3 per cent for subway lines and 0.5 per cent for ele- 
vated lines upon the cost of construction and equipment. 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



77 



FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM 

With the recommended lines previously mentioned 
forming the main trunks, extensions or branches, ac- 
cording to the report, should be built later in the out- 
skirts to act as feeders, and the main lines should be 
supplemented by others until a complete system is 
formed. The estimated increase of gross revenue on 
the surface and rapid transit system as recommended 
and projected for the period from 1920 to 1960 is shown 
by Table I. 

Table I — Estimated Increase of Gross Revenue on Surface 
and Rapid Transit System with Adequate Facilities 
Such as Those Recommended and Projected 

Population Increase 

within , Gross revenue , for 

city limits Amount Per capita ten years 

1920 1,825,000 $28, 105, 000 $15.40 $7,921,700 

1930 2,1 08,000 35.83fi.000 17.00 7,731,000 

1940 2,391,000 43.635,750 18.25 7.799,750 

1950 2,tiS9,000 50.997,900 19.10 7,342,150 

1960 2,936,000 57,986,000 19.75 7,008,100 

Total $37,802,700 

The estimates ©f population for Philadelphia con- 
tained in Table I are based on a study of the growth 
of population in New York, Chicago, Philadelphia and 
Boston during the last fifty years. Besides New York, 
Philadelphia is the only one of these cities that shows a 
steady growth or cumulation as the decade increases ; 
but, unlike New York, its increase indicates a gradually 
declining tendency. On the basis of population and gross 
revenue statistics for 1890, 1900 and 1910, the gross 
revenue per capita was plotted in a curve, showing an 
increase of 3 per cent per year between 1900 and 1910. 
The viewpoint was taken, however, that so large a rate 
of growth is unlikely to continue, and the future reve- 
nue per capita at the present fare standards was pro- 
jected at a decreasing rate of increase, being 1.3 per 
cent per year from 1913 to 1919. This factor of gross 
revenue per capita, applied to future estimated popula- 
tion, made possible the approximation of future gross 
revenue shown in Table I. 

Of the increased revenue shown in Table I a portion 
is required to support additional investment in the sur- 
face car system for additional track, cars and equip- 
ment, at a ratio of $4 of investment for $1 of increase of 
revenue. This figure of $4 is obtained by allowing 10 
per cent for interest, taxes and depreciation or sinking 
fund, to be carried by net earnings equaling 40 per cent 
of the gross revenue. After the revenue necessary to sup- 
port the additional surface system investment is de- 
ducted the remainder is available to support rapid tran- 
sit lines. In order to determine how much additional in- 
vestment in rapid transit lines such increased revenue 
would permit, it is assumed that the operating expenses 
and taxes will be 50 per cent of the gross revenue, and 
that the interest and sinking fund, including deprecia- 
tion at 2 per cent, will amount to 7 per cent on the in- 
vestment. The application of this 7 per cent to the 50 
per cent of gross earnings remaining as net earnings 
shows that for each dollar of additional revenue ap- 
proximately $7 of investment would be supported. 

From these figures Table II is derived, showing the 
investment in rapid transit facilities that can be sup- 
ported. 



Table II — Possible Future Investment in Rapid Transit Lines 



Tear 

available Total 

1920 $7,921,700 

1930 7,731,000 

1940 7,799,750 

1950 7,342,150 

1960 7,008,100 

Total fifty 

years . . $37,802,700 



Necessary 

to support 
increased 

investment 
in sur- 
face system 

$2,190,000 
1,868,750 
1,898,750 
1,798,750 
1,565,000 



Remainder 
available 
to support 
increased 
invest- 
ment in 
rapid tran- 
sit svstem 
$5,731,700 
5,862,250 
5,901,000 
5,543,400 
5,443,100 



Increased 
invest- 
ment made 
possible at 
seven times 
increased 
gross revenue 
$40,121,900 
40,035,750 
41,307,000 
38,803,800 
38,101,700 



$9,321,250 $28,481,450 $1 99,370,150 



ESTIMATED COST OF CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT 
As it is manifestly important that the new rapid tran- 
sit lines be operated in conjunction with the existing 
surface car lines, which are natural gatherers and dis- 
tributers of rapid transit traffic, so as to afford the 
greatest facilities to the greatest number of people, 
only such estimates for cost of construction and equip- 
ment are made in the report as assume the operation of 
the system in conjunction with the lines of the Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Company. The general design of 
the proposed lines, exclusive of single construction de- 
tails fixed by route selection, is as follows: 

1. Minimum radius of track curves, 165 ft., and 
maximum ascending grades, 5 per cent. 

2. Twelve-foot headroom and 12-ft. track centers for 
subways. 

3. No grade crossings in subways. 

4. Steel-frame construction for side walls and roof 
of subway. 

5. Subway floor finished with cement and track laid 
on short fixed ties without ballast. 

6. Solid floor construction for elevated lines. 

7. Open cut on South Broad Street line south of 
Bigler Street. 

8. Provision for third-tracking portions of proposed 
elevated lines. 

9. Type of car generally similar to present Market 
Street subway-elevated car with three wide doors 
spaced more efficiently. 

The cost of construction on the above basis also in- 
cludes the following percentages for overhead charges: 
on subway construction, 30 per cent; on elevated con- 
struction, 25 per cent, and on equipment on either sub- 
way or elevated construction, 20 per cent. These per- 
centages are based on itemized construction costs as 
shown in Table III. 

Table III — Overhead Percentages 

Subways, Elevated, Equipment, 

per cent per cent per cent 

Incidentals and contingencies 10 7% 5 

Engineering and contingencies.... 10 7% 5 
Organization, administration, legal 

and financial expenses 3 3 7% 

Interest during construction (aver- 
age) 7 7 2% 

Total 30 25 20 

The item to cover incidentals and contingencies was 
adopted after a consideration of the difficulties to be 
encountered and the uncertain elements included in each 
class of construction and equipment. The engineering 
and superintendence percentage, comparing with ap- 
proximately 7.9 per cent of the amount of the contracts 
and extra charges on the New York rapid transit sys- 
tem and with approximately 10.5 per cent of the con- 
struction cost on the Boston subway, includes the cost 
of the transit commissioner's report and the cost of 
maintaining and operating the department of city tran- 
sit during the period of design and construction. The 
allowance for the cost of organization, administration, 
legal and financial expenses compares with 2 per cent 
of the cost of structures on the New York rapid transit 
system. The interest during construction was 6.4 per 
cent in New York and 8 per cent in Boston. 

There is also included in the cost of construction the 
total cost of real estate pertaining to right-of-way 
and right-of-way easements, estimated at $2,761,000. 
Credits, however, may be made to the subway invest- 
ment of $1,920,000 for reserve space for water mains 
and of $236,000 for excavated material to be used by the 
city for street filling. 

Additional equipment will be needed from year to 
year with attendant expenditures for substation capac- 
ity, electrical distribution system, yards and shops. A 
subway on Chestnut Street with elevated connection 
will probably be required by July 1, 1927, costing 



78 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



$7,226,000 with equipment. Taking into account these 
additions to investment, the report gives the estimated 
total cumulative cost of construction and equipment of 
the recommended system from the beginning of opera- 
tion of all lines, including interest during construction, 
as ranging from $57,578,000 in 1919 to $73,393,000 in 
1930. 

RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT 

Rates of return of 3.2 per cent for the average subway 
and 6.4 per cent for the average elevated line have been 
mentioned heretofore in connection with the return on 
the investment that has been recommended for the im- 
mediate future. If, however, the additional debits and 
credits to investment as indicated in the preceding para- 
graphs be taken into account, the rates of return are 
somewhat increased for the later years, varying from 
4.1 per cent in 1921 to 6 per cent in 1930 and averaging 
5.21 per cent. 

ECONOMIC VALUE OF PROPOSED SYSTEM 

The effect of the development of high-speed trans- 
portation upon the taxable value and utility of real 
estate is shown by the Market Street subway-elevated 
line, both in West Philadelphia and in the business dis- 
trict along Market Street. From 1900, before the Mar- 
ket Street line was projected, to 1912 the assessed val- 
uation of real estate west of Market Street increased 
90.9 per cent as compared with a 127.6 per cent increase 
east of Market Street, 25.7 per cent on Chestnut Street, 
38.7 per cent on Arch Street and 22.3 per cent in the 
other sections of the city outside the business district. 

SURVEY OF PRESENT TRAFFIC 

In considering the construction of a rapid transit 
system it was of vital importance that the volume, origin 
and destination and channel of flow of each portion of 
the present traffic movement during each hour of the 
day be determined accurately and without substantial 
approximations or assumptions. This was done by 
means of a traffic survey on the lines of the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company extending from Oct. 14, 1912, 
to Nov. 18, 1912, and later on the suburban lines of 
other companies terminating in the vicinity of Philadel- 
phia. The traffic survey was more complete in scope 
and detail than any ever before attempted, and its suc- 
cess was made possible largely because the information 
was obtained for the use of the city and because the 
co-operation of the public was secured through wide 
publicity which was given through the courtesy of the 
newspapers. 

In making the survey, Mr. Taylor's own idea was 
followed out in that each passenger was labeled and 
records were made of both the beginning and the ending 
of the ride. Two observers were placed on approxi- 
mately every fifth car of each line practically during 
the entire day. The record obtained from each passen- 
ger embodied the following information: (a) time of 
day; (b) route of car; (c) direction; (d) street of en- 
trance; (e) street corner of destination; (f) route on 
which destination is situated if reached by transfer or 
exchange tickets; (g) fare presented — whether cash, 
exchange ticket, transfer or free; (h) transfer or ex- 
change ticket issued, if any. 

During the period of the survey a group of lines was 
under observation each day, excluding Saturdays, Sun- 
days, holidays and other days when abnormal conditions 
prevailed, the purpose being to obtain information on 
normal business days. To check the results, the survey 
was repeated on several lines, and the two records in 
each case were found to agree closely. The magnitude 
of this undertaking is apparent when it is considered 
that about 284,500 passengers were counted, represent- 
ing a similar number of slips or tickets with the above 
information recorded thereon, which had to be carefully 
compiled. 



TIME ZONES AND TIME SAVING 

The most important factor bearing upon the proposed 
rapid transit system and causing in large part the 
growth of population, increase in land values and tax- 
able assessments in the district served is the time saved 
by the high-speed system over the existing surface sys- 
tems. In connection with this point the Philadelphia 
report contains some interesting data and novel maps. 
In order to determine accurately the extent and influ- 
ence of this time-saving element, Map No. 24 in Volume 
II of the report was prepared, showing as of July 1, 
1912, the time zones of transit for the present traffic by 
the shortest possible existing routes outward from the 
business section on Market Street between Eighth 
Street and City Hall or on Broad Street between Arch 
and Walnut Streets. The following constants were 




Philadelphia Report — Portion of Map Showing Estimated 
Time Saving by Rapid Transit Lines as Com- 
pared with Present System 



used: the average subway-elevated speed, 16 m.p.h. ; the 
average surface car speed, 8 m.p.h., and the average 
pedestrian speed, 3 m.p.h. A differential of three min- 
utes was allowed for walking up and down the stairs 
at subway-elevated stations. Using these same con- 
stants the investigators prepared Map No. 25, showing 
the time zones after the construction of all the rapid 
transit lines recommended for the immediate future. 

TIME-SAVING CONTOUR MAPS 

The most striking and novel map, however, is No. 26, 
reproduced in part herewith, which is used for the first 
time and which shows graphically by contour lines at 
five-minute intervals the time-saving that will be ef- 
fected by the proposed lines on an equal fare basis as 
compared with the electric railway system as of July 
1, 1912. These time-saving contours were obtained 
by superimposing Map No. 25 over Map No. 24 and by 
connecting the intersections made by the time contours 
or zone boundaries on Map No. 25 with those on Map 
No. 24 which differ by the same interval. The points 
of zero time saving or equal time of transit by the pres- 
ent system and by the proposed system were obtained in 
the same manner. 

POPULATION BENEFITED 

Inasmuch as the distribution of population through- 
out the city was shown on the time-saving map, it was 
possible to estimate the number of people that will be 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



79 



convenienced by the proposed facilities. Tributary to 
the proposed North Broad Street line, approximately 
338,000 people, as of 1912, would save time in traveling 
to and from the central business district; tributary to 
the South Broad Street line, 122,000 people would save 
time; tributary to the Frankford line, 298,000 people 
would save time. The present subway-elevated line in 
West Philadelphia saves time for approximately 165,000 
people, making a grand total, when the four proposed 
lines are built, of 983,000 persons benefited, or 60 per 
cent of a total population within the city limits esti- 
mated at 1,623,200 in 1912. A large part of the re- 
maining 40 per cent is within the central part of the 
city and is served more expeditiously by surface lines 
to the business district. These people will, of course, 
be benefited in traveling to outlying districts or to other 
parts of the city. 

CASH VALUE OF TIME SAVING 

The time saving thus estimated has a distinct eco- 
nomic value. If estimated at an average of 15 cents 
per hour, the cash value of the time saved by each line 

Curve No. 1 — For Traffic Between Delivery District and Sections 

on Rapid Transit Line 
Curve No. 2 — For Traffic Between Sections Requiring Extra Trans- 
fer by Rapid Transit Line 
Curve No. 3 — For Traffic Between Sections Requiring Two Extra 
Transfers by Rapid Transit Line 



100 

90 





























































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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
Time Saving in Minutes -Via Rapid Transit Line 

Electric Ry Journal 



Points show actual division of traffic in West Philadelphia, num- 
bers indicating traffic sections. represents traffic sections 
through which Market Street Elevated line runs. O represents 
traffic sections reached by surface transfer lines froin Market 
Street Elevated line. 

Philadelphia Report — Curves Showing Relation of Pas- 
sengers Using Rapid Transit Lines to Time Saving 

of the proposed system would be as shown by Table IV 
for the traffic as of the fiscal year 1913 and as estimated 
for 1921. 



Table IV — Amount and Monet Value op Time Saving by Pro- 
posed Rapid Transit Lines Compared with Present System 

Equivalent money value 
Time saving (minutes) (at 15 cents per hour) 

( ■ » , , " , 

Years to June 30 1913 1921 1913 1921 

North Broad line 275,377,000 420,600,000 $689,000 $1,052,000 
South Broad line 67,381,000 104,000,000 168,000 260,000 

Frankford line.. 108,467,000 151,000,000 271,000 377,000 

Darby line 48,941,000 100,000,000 122,000 250,000 



Total 500,166,000 775,700,000 $1,250,000 $1,939,000 

Value capitalized 

at 5 per cent 25,000,000 38,780,000 



RAPID TRANSIT TRAFFIC IN PROPORTION TO TIME SAVING 

From the traffic survey made in West Philadelphia 
and a study of the time-saving maps previously men- 
tioned, fixed relations were developed between the time 
saving in minutes and the proportion of passengers 
using the high-speed lines in preference to the surface 
lines. This relation between the division of traffic and 
time saving is shown in a distinctly novel manner by 
the curves in the accompanying diagram. The upper 



curve shows the proportion of passengers from traffic 
sections along the high-speed line to the delivery dis- 
trict. The middle curve shows the proportion for 
traffic sections reached by surface transfer lines. The 
lower curve is estimated for cases where two transfers 
are involved. 

These three time-saving curves were all determined 
for time saving to the central delivery district. They 
were used, however, in estimating the probable volume 
of certain other movements between traffic sections 
in the areas served by different rapid transit routes, 
proper allowances being made for inferior delivery and 
for extra transfers. While the division of local traffic 
varies, the averages for all such movements are found 
to follow the middle and lower curves, which indicates 
that the few stops or points of delivery on the rapid 
transit line place it at a disadvantage equivalent to that 
of one transfer. For short distances, however, where 
the time saving is small, the actual proportions of rapid 
transit traffic are higher than are indicated by the 
curves. 

SUBWAY VERSUS ELEVATED LINES 

In discussing the relative cost of subway and elevated 
lines, the report states that a subway system with two 
tracks without equipment will average $1,000,000 per 
mile of track as compared with about $400,000 per 
mile of track for an elevated structure with solid floor, 
or about two and one-half times as much. Travel in 
subways is less comfortable than on elevated lines, it 
is stated, and with modern design the objections to the 
latter are largely eliminated ; hence free use of elevated 
lines has been made in the recommendations embodied 
in the report. 



DESIRABILITY OF OLD-LINE EXPRESS COMPANIES ON 
ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 



Practically all the. interurban roads, either those of 
large mileage in themselves or with interchange rela- 
tions with other electric lines, have contracts with old- 
line express companies. Generally the basis of contract 
is on a guarantee per month or year, with the railway 
company sharing in a percentage of the gross over and 
above a fixed amount, and this provides a fixed source 
of revenue without the assumption of any liability and 
without requiring additions to the regular traffic or- 
ganization. 

Generally the guarantee is more than the electric 
railway might expect in the way of net revenue from 
operating its own express company. The old-line ex- 
press is handled in the regular express or local passen- 
ger cars under the supervision of a messenger furnished 
by the express company. The way station agent re- 
ceives a commission for the business he handles for 
them, and this enables the traction company to employ 
more competent men without increasing salaries. The 
fact that very little is required on the part of the rail- 
way company, except space in the regular cars and a 
special service from time to time, which is furnished at 
an extra charge, makes the guaranteed return practi- 
cally all net. 

On roads where the old-line express company is 
operating and the electric railway company carries on 
a dispatch freight business, one does not interfere with 
the other, and they are not considered competitive. In 
fact, most of the contracts made between electric rail- 
ways and old-line companies provide for the operation 
by the railway of a local interurban express which, if 
properly handled, represents practically all the business 
which the railway could obtain if it were operating its 
own service exclusive of that of the old-line express 
company. 



80 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY REPORTS OF BUREAU OF CENSUS 



Preliminary figures of the forthcoming quinquen- 
nial report on the electric railways of Maine, Vermont, 
New Hampshire and West Virginia have been given 
out by Director W. J. Harris of the Bureau of the Cen- 
sus, Department of Commerce. The statistics relate to 
the years ended Dec. 31, 1912, and June 30, 1902. The 
totals include electric light plants operated in con- 
nection with electric railways and not separable there- 
from, but do not include reports of mixed steam and 
electric railways or railways under construction dur- 
ing the census year which had not begun operations. 

The detailed figures as presented in the accompany- 
ing table for Maine show that during the decade 1902- 
1912 there were substantial gains in the industry. 



shows an increase of horse-power of 565.1 per cent, 
chiefly in hydroelectric power. The number of operat- 
ing companies was the same in 1912 as in 1902. 

The figures for New Hampshire show that during the 
decade 1902-1912 there were substantial advances. 
The gross income shows a gain of 107 per cent, while 
the net income increased only 22 per cent. Revenue 
passengers increased in number 109.4 per cent and the 
number of persons employed 119.1 per cent. The miles 
of line increased during the decade 40.2 per cent and 
the number of companies 15.4 per cent. 

The West Virginia figures show that during the ten 
years ended in 1912 substantial gains were made in the 
electric railway field in that State. The increase of 
the twenty operating companies reported in 1912 over 
1902 was twelve, or 150 per cent, and their aggregate 



Comparative Financial and Operating Statis 1 

Maine ^ , Ver 

1912 1902 1912 

Number of companies. . . 17 20 10 

Operating companies. lfi 19 9 

Lessor companies 1 1 1 

Miles of line 486.16 304.71 96.65 

Miles of single track. . . . 536.38 331 55 102 85 

Miles of single track in 

state (a) 530.49 328.50 120.83 

Cars, number 794 598 155 

Passenger 519 476 119 

All other 275 122 36 

Electric locomotives ... 8 2 

Persons employed 1,771 ' 1,634 268 

Salaried employees . . 175 65 43 

Wage earners ( average 

number) (b)l,596 969 (b)225 

Power plant equipment : 

Horse-power, total... 10,090 13,065 7,655 

Steam and gas en- 
gines, including 
turbines — 

Number HI 25 14 

Horse-power ... 14,526 9,740 3,000 

Waterwheels — 

Number 24 23 12 

Horse-power ... 25,564 3,325 4,655 

Kilowatt capacity of 

dynamos 31,234 9,371 6,744 

Output of stations, 

kilowatt hours .... 54,148,656 25,578,242 6,867,675 
Current purchased, 

kilowatt hours .... 20,818,159 (c) 2,121,669 

Passengers carried 53,184,598 27,506,582 8,761,648 

Revenue 47,049,038 25,495,164 8,135,725 

Transfer 5,008,992 2,011,418 517,841 

Free 1,126,568 (e) 108,082 

Car mileage (passenger, 

express, freight, etc.) 11.124,224 6,815,671 1,776,244 
Condensed income ac- 
count, operating com- 
panies : 

Gross income ( d ) $3,593,617 (d ) $1,571,562 (e)$631,241 

Operating expenses. 2,002,617 1,127,660 345,268 
Gross income less 

operating expenses 1,591,000 443,902 285,973 
Deductions from in- 

com» ( taxes and 

fixed charges) . . 1,193.095 337.050 169,912 

Net income 397,905 1 06,852 116,061 

(a) Evcludine- track lying outside of state of companies within 
state and including track hi state owned bv outside companies. 

(b) Number employed Sept. 16, 1912. 

(c) Figures not available. 

(d) Income from sale of electric nirrpnt for light or power 
included in 1912, $789,166, and 1 902, $102,318. 



ncs for Electric Railways of Several States 



1902 



-New Hampshire- 



1912 



■1902 



-West Virgin ia- 



1912 



1902 



The gross incomes of the sixteen operating companies 
reported in 1912 show an aggregate gain of $2,022,055, 
or 128.7 per cent, over 1902. A noticeable feature of 
operations of the decade 1902 to 1912 is the net in- 
come increase of 272.4 per cent, due, possibly, to con- 
solidations, there being a decrease in the number of 
companies of 15 per cent. Other notable gains were in 
miles of line, 59.5 per cent, revenue passengers car- 
ried, 84.5 per cent, and transfer passengers, 149 per 
cent. 

The figures as presented for Vermont show substan- 
tial gains during the decade 1902-1912. The gross in- 
come less operating expenses shows an increase of 
495.2 per cent, while the number of revenue passengers 
carried shows an increase of 90.3 per cent and the num- 
ber of miles of line an increase of only 26.8 per cent 
during the decade 1902-1912. The power equipment 



76.20 
80.55 

86.05 
105 
80 
25 



190 

25 

165 
1,151 

5 

1,011 

2 

140 
1,621 
1,804,195 

(c) 
4,561,523 
4,274,806 
286,717 

(c) 

1. 112,528 



15 


13 


22 


8 


13 




20 


8 


2 


6 


2 




217.42 


155.03 


357.10 


133.06 


246.26 


167.65 


390.72 


140.00 


268.15 


174.45 


318.21 


140.56 


368 


287 


521 


287 


304 


244 


457 


272 


64 
2 


43 


64 


15 


837 


382 


1,861 


667 


68 


25 


144 


46 


(b)769 


357 


1,717 


621 


4,102 


4,015 






8 


13 


44 


34 


1,920 


4,015 


25,740 


12,050 



2,182 

2,735 

5,356,050 

12.198,773 
26,651,471 
2.3,673,362 
2,708,290 
269,819 

4.726,1 81 



2,513 
5,172,718 

(c) 
12,234,120 
11,304,908 

929,212 

(c) 

3,214,879 



19,995 

59,854,180 

6,296.842 
54,802,105 
51,457,150 
2,331,733 
1,013,222 

11,380,865 



7,490 

11,744,895 

(c) 
22.183,794 
21,706,870 
476,924 
(c) 

6,734,171 



$249,228 (f )$1,250,391 (f)$604,131 
201,179 987,934 478,849 



$3,585,626 (g) $1,102,171 
1,825,694 652,862 



4S.049 



45.089 
2,960 



262,45 



211.831 
50,626 



1 25,282 



83,786 
41,496 



1,759,932 



956,177 
803,755 



449,309 



265,842 
183,467 



(el includes income from sale of current for light and power 
in 1912. 

(f ) Tnwm from sale c f current for light and power included ; 
1912, $386,598, and 1902, $126,117. 

Tr)^^rv,o from sale of current for light and power included 
in 1902, $10,625. 



income shows an increase of $2,483,455 (225.3 per 
cent), and their net income an increase of $620,288 
(338.1 per cent). The miles of track increased 250.72 
(179.1 per cent), and the number of revenue passen- 
gers carried was 29,750,280 more in 1912 than in 1902, 
an increase of 137.1 per cent. 



On the Paris subways a comparison of the figures of 
1912 with those for 1911 shows that there is an in- 
crease of 5,339,106 fares for the former year. This is 
due to the larger number of return and collective tickets 
sold. First-class tickets decreased by more than 500,- 
000. The receipts of the subway for 1912 were as fol- 
lows: From return tickets, $3,083,265; first-class, $1,- 
581,315; second-class, $5,733,845; collective tickets, 
$685; supplementary charges, $58,170; total, $10,- 
457,280. 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



81 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RAIL, AMERICAN RAIL- 
WAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 



The October, 1913, Bulletin of the American Railway 
Engineering Association contained a report of the com- 
mittee on rail, subdivided into two discussions. In one 
H. B. McFarland, engineer of tests Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe System, and a member of this committee, dis- 
cussed the "Influence of Seams or Laminations in Base 
of Rail on Ductility of the Metal." 

Six rails for special investigation were selected 
from a lot of failed rails that had been sent to the 
laboratory for test. This lot included rails from differ- 
ent manufacturers, of different section and of different 
weight. Three weights of rails were investigated — 
75-lb., 85-lb. and 9Q-lb. rails. Three different rail sec- 
tions were investigated — A. S. C. E., A. R. A. and Santa 
Fe. The rails investigated came from four different 
manufacturers — Illinois Steel Company, Maryland Steel 
Company, Colorado Fuel & Iron Company and Lacka- 
wanna Steel Company. 

In selecting the rails for investigation, no particular 
regard was given to the manufacturer, as the principal 
idea was to secure specimens with dissimilar failures 
in order to determine whether or not seams and lami- 
nations such as are found in the base of rails failing 
with characteristic half-moon base failures and with 
square and angular breaks could be traced through all 
rails. All of the rails, with the exception of the 90-lb. 
rail from the Gary plant of the Illinois Steel Company, 
were of Bessemer steel. One of the rails, that from the 
Lackawanna Steel Company, was a titanium rail. The 
rest of the rails represented a very large percentage 
of rails now in track service. 

A careful study of detailed and average results ob- 
tained from this investigation concerning laminations 
in base of rails leads to certain general conclusions : 

1. Rails failing in track may generally be found to 
contain, upon investigation, numerous black seams in 
the base. 

2. Base seams are not continuous throughout a rail 
and vary in depth at different intervals. 

3. Seams materially decrease tensile properties of the 
metal in the rail base. 

4. Seams decrease strength of rail bases for de- 
creased temperatures. 

5. Transverse strength of rail base is decreased about 
10 per cent, owing to seams in the base. 

6. The seams in the rail base may be periodical, 
owing to methods of manufacture causing variation in 
tensile properties at different portions of the rail. 

To reduce rail breakage efforts have been made to in- 
crease the rail section, when probably the decreased 
strength of the rail is due more to physical defects con- 
tained therein than to the weight of the sections. More 
attention should be given to the elimination of base 
seams and the direct production of a rail with a uni- 
form homogeneous structure. 

The second discussion on rails was a report on "Seams 
in Rails as Developed from Cracks in the Ingot," by 
M. H. Wickhorst, enginer of tests, rail committee. An 
investigation was made concerning the development of 
seams in billets and rails from cracks in the surface of 
the ingot. A cold ingot with a badly cracked surface 
was taken and its four sides "skinned" off in a planer to 
show well the condition of the surfaces. The four sides 
were photographed and photographs were also made 
at succeeding stages, showing the surfaces of blooms 
and rails. 

The work was done at South Bethlehem, Pa., at the 
works of the Bethlehem Steel Company, which furnished 
the facilities and material. 



The cracks in the ingot were, in a general way, trans- 
verse or obliquely transverse of the ingot. When first 
bloomed, the cracks on the right and left sides of the 
ingot as it first entered the blooming rolls opened up 
or "yawned" open, forming double V's, one inside the 
other. Further blooming elongated and closed in the 
cracks, forming them into elongated Y-shaped flaws or 
clusters of them. Still further rolling finally resulted 
in long narrow Y-shaped seams in the rail, or clusters 
of them, generally several feet long, as shown up by 
pickling in sulphuric acid. The cracks on the top and 
bottom sides of the ingot as it first entered the rolls did 
not open up and finally disappeared so far as could be 
determined by the appearance of the surfaces of the 
blooms and rails after pickling in sulphuric acid. 

The difference in behavior of the cracks on the top and 
bottom sides in rolling from the behavior of those on 
the right and left sides suggests the interesting conclu- 
sion that the metal ahead of the rolls is compressed, 
while that between the rolls is pulled. The work indi- 
cated that seams resulting from cracks in the ingot will 
be on the web of the rail if what were the right and left 
sides of the ingot as it first entered the rolls form the 
sides of the rail, and that they will be on the top of the 
head and bottom of the base if these sides of the ingot 
form the tread and base of the rail. 

To sum up, the cracks on the right and left sides of 
the ingot as it first entered the blooming rolls resulted 
in seams in the rails, while the cracks on the top and 
bottom sides of the ingot did not result in seams. 
Seams may therefore possibly be oriented to appear on 
the sides of the rail or on the tread and the bottom of 
the base. 



TWIN CITY MAINTENANCE-OF-WAY NOTES 



The city of Minneapolis did a great deal of paving 
during the past summer, mostly with creosoted wood 
blocks. As a consequence the Twin City Rapid Transit 
Company has taken the opportunity to relay more track 
and special work than it would otherwise do. A total 
of 52 per cent of the total street length in the city is 



4'SYj 




Cross-Section Track Construction Without Special Drainage 

now paved. The railway company has 170 miles of 
single track within the city limits. Among the items of 
new equipment bought for this work were a Brown hoist 
crane car and a second truck-mounted concrete mixer. 
The mixer is motor-driven, but the car is not. 

Two forms of track construction were installed 
last year, one for streets with good natural drainage, 
the other for track laid on the heavy blue clay soil 
which is found in some parts of the city. As this clay 
contains a great deal of water, the track must be artifi- 
cially drained. Drainage is accomplished by means of 
a drain tree which slopes from the manhole summits to 



82 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



connections to the city sewers midway between man- 
holes. Cross-sections and plans of these two standard 
constructions are shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tions. The cast-welded joints illustrated are used in 
the paved streets and Continuous joints elsewhere. The 
molds for making the cast joints are cast in the com- 
pany's shops. 

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Laid by City 















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Electric Ry-Journal 

Cross-Section of Track Construction Equipped with Drain- 
age Tiling 



AVOIDING TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH DISTURB- 
ANCES FROM SINGLE-PHASE LINES 



G. Girousse, engineer of State telegraphs, France, 
discusses in the Dec. 6, 1913, issue of La Lumiere Elec- 
trique several methods which are available for reducing 
or preventing single-phase distribution systems from 



— I 



Electric Ry. Journal 



Line 



I L R Receiver 

— m$Sl3 (MM)- |g„ 



-wws^ 



Electric Ry. Journal 



Methods of Protection from Telephone and Telegraph Dis- 
turbances 



As shown in one of the accompanying drawings, a 
novel feature of the track construction is the use of 
cast-iron drip boxes with grating covers which are 
placed about a block apart. The boxes are mounted on 
concrete bases and are connected by drain pipe with the 
city sewers. It is possible to do this as the sewer sys- 
tem in Minneapolis, as well as in St. Paul, is a com- 
bined one which takes care of storm water as well as 
regular sewage. 

While the company buys special work from the lead- 
ing manufacturers, its shop facilities have made pos- 
sible much home manufacture of built-up crossings, 
switches, frogs and even of entire track layouts. The 
6-in. construction is largely of built-up type, while steel 



disturbing telephone and ground-return telegraph cir- 
cuits. Four remedies are mentioned, namely: using 
compensating devices, shifting the circuits to pole 
lines at least 1 mile distant from the high-tension 
route, placing them underground, and doubling them 
by adding return wires. All remedies but the first are 
rejected by M. Girousse as too costly. He states that 
for telegraph lines very satisfactory results have been 
obtained with the following inexpensive schemes as 
first tried in the latter part of 1911 on the 6000-volt, 
twenty-five cycle Maritime Alps, 10,000-volt, twenty- 
five-cycle Haute-Vienne and 12,000-volt, twenty-five- 
cycle Oriental Pyrenees single-phase systems. Since 
then complete installations have been made for the 




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Section B-B 



Section A-A 



Electric Ry-Journal 



Plans of Cast-Iron Track Dips 



castings are used for the 7-in. pieces. A regular lay- 
ing-out floor is provided, and on this templates for use 
in the shop are prepared. Full-size drawings are made 
for switches and mates. All special work, whether pur- 
chased or manufactured, is set up and fitted in a yard 
provided for the purpose. The same men set the work 
up in the yard and the street. Thus, mistakes at the 
location are avoided. 



The Santa Fe Electric Tramway Company, Argen- 
tine Republic, is said to be interested in extending its 
lines 12 miles to the city of Esperanza. A concession 
will be applied for. 



first two lines named, and equipments for the Oriental, 
Haute and Basse Pyrenees lines will soon be in place. 

PROTECTION OF TELEGRAPH CIRCUITS 

As shown in the accompanying wiring diagram, use 
is made of a receiver which has two coils with the 
same number of turns and connected differentially. 
One of the coils is in series with a condenser C and a 
self-inductance L; the other is in series with a re- 
sistance R v As the telegraphic current is continuous, 
it does not traverse the former coil, and, consequently, 
the receiver acts in the normal fashion. 

If the two circuits present the same resistance and 
the same reactance, the disturbing alternating cur- 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



83 



rent will divide in two parts alike in amount and 
phase, and consequently the receiver will not be dis- 
turbed. It is clear that these conditions are satisfied 
theoretically when there is resonance between the 
capacity C and the self-inductance L for the frequency 
of the disturbing current, and that R, the resistance of 
the self-inductance coil, is equal to the resistance i?,. 
When the conditions are carefully determined in ad- 
vance, an arrangement of this kind will give good re- 
sults without necessity for regulation from time to 
time. 

PROTECTION OF TELEPHONE CIRCUITS 

Telephone circuits require two important precau- 
tions, good insulation and minimum inductance. The 
insulators should be of the industrial type with large 
petticoats instead of the present French type with 
two bells. The petticoat insulators are much easier 
to maintain, particularly in cleaning, and they cost 
little more. The insulating points on telephone cir- 
cuits which leave most to be desired are the under- 
ground sections, which until lately have been freely 
installed at crossings with heavy-current transmis- 
sion lines. These underground sections, especially at 
the junctions with aerial lines, constitute the weakest 
points of a telephone circuit and should be avoided 
wherever possible. To minimize induction, the number 
of transpositions must be increased. It would probably 
suffice to make such transpositions every 125 meters 
(410 ft). 

M. Girousse states that it is also necessary to take 
certain precautions at the telegraph offices, for it is 
useless to insulate the line carefully if the office equip- 
ment suffers ground losses. To remove the interurban 
circuits from the bad influences due to losses either on 
the lines or the inside equipments, it is best to isolate 
the circuits by means of transformers. Excellent 
transformers which insulate against high-tension cur- 
rent are now available. 

On some of the existing installations the derange- 
ment of lines within the influence of induction from 
single-phase track circuits has been caused frequently 
by carbon lightning arresters. The extreme sensitive- 
ness of this arrester is usually a valuable quality, but 
when its nearness to single-phase circuits causes ex- 
cessive operation the particles of carbon become de- 
tached. 

This disintegration causes leakage to ground which 
cannot be neglected. Therefore it is desirable to 
replace such apparatus either by horn or vacuum- 
type lightning arresters. This change will eliminate 
the destruction of the arresters, but it is still neces- 
sary to have a device to avoid shocks. If transformers 
were used, they would protect the office force, but they 
would not protect the workmen on the line. In order 
to eliminate all dangerous high tensions, grounding 
discharge coils should be installed. These coils should 
be of the Cailho type which are used for telegraphing 
on telephonic circuits. This coil, however, as ordi- 
narily made, is not intended to take care of the high- 
voltage currents induced by single-phase circuits. A 
modification for the latter purpose known as the 
Perego coil is the one which has given good results 
on the telephone circuits of the Oriental Pyrenees 
lines. 

CONCLUSIONS 

In conclusion, M. Girousse states that the single- 
phase lines as usually installed up to the present time 
offer grave difficulties to telephone and telegraph cir- 
cuits. It is desirable that these troubles be made 
negligible. While it is difficult to make these changes 
on existing lines, the methods described do permit the 
satisfactory operation of telephone and telegraph cir- 
cuits at a very small additional expense. 



THE NEW TARIFF IN THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY 
INDUSTRY 



The Wilson-Simmons-Underwood tariff bill, which 
went into effect at midnight Oct. 4, 1913, has been the 
subject of inquiries from several correspondents of the 
Electric Railway Journal, and in answer there is sub- 
mitted herewith a comparison of the new rates and 
those of the old Payne-Aldrich tariff law of 1909. The 
list, of course, includes only such items as are of direct 
interest in the electric railway field, no attempt being 
made to cover materials of general use, although the 
rates on these underwent the largest reductions. 

As a whole, a very decided decrease in import duties 
has taken place, particularly on foodstuffs and fabrics, 
and the free list has been very largely extended, in- 
cluding in the new law most raw materials as well as 
books for special purposes, scientific apparatus, most 
forms of iron and steel, and works of art. The changes 
in rates on materials generally used by electric railways 
are shown in the following table : 

Old Rate New Rate 

Axles (not on wheels) %c. per lb. 10 per cent 

Aluminum, plates, bars or rods 11c. per lb. Z%c. per lb. 

Asbestos yarn 25 per cent 20 per cent 

Woven in fabrics 40 per cent 20 per cent 

Bauxite, crude $1 per ton Free 

Bearings, ball, or roller 45 per cent 35 per cent 

Bolts l%c. per lb. 10 per cent 

Ceramics : 

China and porcelain (vitrified).... 55 per cent 50 per cent 
Other earthy or mineral substances 35 per cent 25 per cent 

Calcium carbide 25 per cent Free 

Carbon : 

Brushes 30 per cent 25 per cent 

Electrodes 30 per cent 25 per cent 

Pots for electric batteries ■ 20 per cent 15 per cent 

Chair cane made from rattan or reeds 10 per cent 10 per cent 

Chains 45percentJ 20 per cent 

Cork, bark 8c. per lb. 4c. per lb. 

Copper : 

Plates, rods, strips and pipes 2%c. per lb. 5 per cent 

Sheathing or yellow metal 2c. per lb. 5 per cent 

Chemical compounds 25 per cent 15 per cent 

Glass : 

Common window glass 1%C. per lb.* leper lb.* 

Incandescent bulbs 45 per cent 30 per cent 

Glue and glue size 2%c. per lb. lc. per lb. 

Tron and steel : 

Plain steel bars and castings 30 per cent§ 15 per cent 

Boiler or other plates 0.5c. per lb.f 12 per cent 

Structural steel 0.4c. per lb.f 10 per cent 

Tubes, pipe or flues 30 per cent§ 20 per cent 

Sheets, galvanized or coated 0.7c. per lb. 15 per cent 

Indurated fiber ware 35 per cent 25 per cent 

Iron castings 0.8c. per lb. 10 per cent 

Leather, rough or for belting 5 per cent Free 

Lead pigments 2 %c. per lb. 25 per cent 

Manufactures of india rubber or gutta 

percha 35 per cent 10 per cent 

Manufactures of hard rubber 35 per cent 10 per cent 

Manufactures of amber asbestos or wax 25 p,er cent 10 per cent 
Machine tools and steam engines.... 30 per cent 15 per cent 
Mica : 

Manufactures of (10c. per lb. 30 per cent 

_ ( plus 20 per cent 

Ground 20 per cent 15 per cent 

Magnesia, calcined 7c. per lb. 3y 2 c. per lb 

Nails (wire) and staples 0.4c. per lb.* Free 

Oils, mineral and fish Free Free 

Paints, enamels, colors, stains, frost- 

ings, fluxes, etc 30 per cent 15 per cent 

Quicksilver 7c. per lb. 10 per cent 

Rails, T, flat and girder 0.175c. per lb. Free 

Railway fishplates or splice bars 0.3c. per lb. 10 per cent 

Rope : 

Cables and cordage of manila, etc.. %c. per lb. %c. per lb 

Cables and cordage of hemp only . . 2c. per lb. lc. per lb 

Wire cables 40 per cent 30 per cent 

Screws, wood 5c. per lb. 25 per cent 

Steel alloys : 

Titanium, tantalum or tungsten un- 
der $200 per ton 25 per cent 15 per cent 

Same, but valued at over $200 per 

m , to" , 20 per cent 15 per cent 

Tin, block Free Free 

Tools, blacksmith and track l%c. per lb. 10 per cent 

Varnishes 25 per cent 10 per cent 

Wheels tor cars, either steel or iron. . l%c. per lb 20 per cent 
Wood : 

Railroad ties 10 per cent 10 per cent 

Telephone, trolley, lighting poles... 10 per cent 10 per cent 
Wires : 

Telegraph telephone and other wires 

of metal and rubber 40 percent! 15 per cent 

Galvanized or coated with metal — 

xt *i. da «: • • • : • Y vi 0.2c. per lb. No addition ' 

Not otherwise provided for 35 per centt 15 per cent 

Zinc, b lock l%c. perlb. 15 per cent 

•Varies somewhat according to size. fVaries slightly with value 
{Minimum. § Approximate. 

In some instances the actual rates are variable and 
in such cases on account of space limitations approxi- 
mations have been made as shown. 



84 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



New Steel Cars for Chicago Elevated Railways 

A General Description of One of the 128 Ail-Steel Cars Recently Ordered for Chicago — The Features Include 

Fireproof Interior Finish, Special Bolsters and Center Bearings 



The Chicago Elevated Railways on Jan. 1, 1914, 
placed an order for 128 all-steel, arched-roof cars. 
This is one of the largest contracts for this type of 
equipment to be closed within the past few years, if not 
the largest ever placed at one time by an electric rail- 
way company. Of the total number ordered, sixty-two 
will be motor cars and sixty-six trail cars. Before 
adopting this design samples of the materials and equip- 
ment purchased for the new cars were carefully tested 
by placing them on cars in regular service. The all- 
steel construction was selected because a fireproof car 



From 1909 to 1913 the passenger traffic had in- 
creased but little. Consequently, there was no neces- 
sity for additional rolling stock. However, following 
the inauguration of through routing, which was accom- 
panied by the introduction of universal transfers, the 
traffic showed an increase of more than 3 per cent in 
one month. In order to meet the abnormal growth as 
well as future demands, the new all-steel cars have been 
purchased. 

The old type of elevated railway car had only two 
doors, which were insufficient to expedite boarding and 




was desired which, at the same time, would not weigh 
more than the heaviest cars now used by this company. 
This design was also considered more economical from 
a maintenance standpoint, as it was believed that this 
type of car would give a much longer life than those of 
composite construction. 

For the past four years the growth of the elevated 
railways has been limited by the capacity of the Union 
Loop. This had a capacity for 700 cars an hour, and 
about this number were being looped by the four divi- 
sions of the elevated railway system, then owned by as 
many different companies. About three years ago these 



alighting to a point where schedules would not be re- 
tarded during the present rush hours. To meet this 
difficulty, the new cars are equipped with three doors, 
one at each end of the body and one in the center. 
Their adoption necessitated the use of longitudinal 
seats, which, however, permit a larger standing load. 

The principal general dimensions of the car body are 
as follows: 

Distance between center of trucks 33 ft. 8 in. 

Length of car body on center line over end plates 48 ft. in. 

Length of car body over corner posts 37 ft. 10 in. 

Extreme width of car over window sills 8 ft. 8 3/16 in. 

Width of sliding door opening 3 ft. 8 in. 

Height of car from top rail to top of roof 12 ft. 3% in. 



Mall. Iron Cap Washers 




J L4 



N^r 

j ?i . / | lo" 20 II). C 

Drill & Ream 
(or i"Tup'er Bolts 



6" 8 lb C | Machine Fit 




\< >k- 



Anti Friction Side Bearing 



tor 



lU Bolt " tUclrU y. Journal 

Chicago Elevated Car — Cross-Sectional Elevation of Body Bolster and Longitudinal Sills 



were put under a single operating management, follow- 
ing which negotiations for their merger with the sur- 
face lines were undertaken by the City Council. In the 
latter part of 1912 these negotiations were broken off, 
and in the summer of 1913 the Elevated Railways ap- 
plied to the City Council for the right to rearrange the 
loop structure to permit through routing of cars. This 
request was granted with the result that the capacity 
of the loop was increased from 700 to 1200 cars per 
hour. 



The car body is built throughout with structural 
steel and pressed-steel shapes and is designed with con- 
tinuous, structural-steel center sills and plate side gird- 
ers. The lower members of the side girders form the 
side sills, and the upper members form the letterboard 
and deck plate above the windows. The floor and side 
framing is designed to include cross-bearers which 
transfer the floor load to the side trusses. Special pre- 
caution against the destructive effect of collisions is 
provided for in the end vestibule framing. The entire 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



85 



car body, exterior and interior, is made fireproof and is 
thoroughly insulated against extremes of heat and 
noise, as well as the effect of vibration. In fact, the 
structural steel is so arranged that no part is exposed 
to both the outside and inside of the car except the 
sashes. The underframe is composed of 6-in. channels 
and I-beams, which form the side sills and end sills and 
center sills respectively. Hedley anti-climbers are riv- 
eted to the end sills. 

Another important feature of the underframing in- 
cluded in the design is contained in the body bolsters. 




Chicago Elevated Car — Cross-Section of Car Body 

These are made of two soft-steel plates with a cast- 
steel separator in the center. The steel casting in ad- 
dition to serving as a separator for the top and bottom 
plates is designed to form a housing for the draft 
springs by extending it beyond the bolsters toward the 
end of the car body. The center bearing plates are also 
of special design and provide for self-lubrication, giv- 
ing also large contact and wearing areas. The center 
plates are designed with an oil well surrounding the 
upper member of the bearing plate which, when filled 
with oil, permits this member to operate in oil. Each 
bolster is equipped with a roller side bearing. 

The side and end framing of the car body is made up 
of pressed-steel sections, sheathed on the outside below 



the windows with 3/32-in. cold-rolled steel plates which 
are secured to the posts, belt rail, side sills and other 
parts by rivets. Agasote 3/16 in. in thickness is fast- 
ened back of the letter board and between the posts, 
and Vg-in. agasote on the sides that face the window 
posts between the top of the sash and the deck plates. 
Agasote % in. in thickness extends from the under- 
side of the deck plate to the head lining and from the 
floor to the windows. In fact, the entire interior finish 
of the car excepting the arm rests on the windows is 
supplied in agasote, finished mahogany. The floors are 
to be of a fireproof, sanitary composition. 

At each end of the car are provided vestibules which 
afford entrance from each side and from the ends. The 
right-hand corner of each vestibule, on the motor cars, 
contains a motorman's brake valve, air gage, master 
controller and other necessary apparatus inclosed in a 
cab formed by a door hinged to swing approximately 
120 deg. This door in one position forms the cab, and 
in the other it engages with a swinging panel which 
forms a part of the finished bulkhead. 

The body is fitted with six sliding doors, two at each 
end of the car and two in the center. These doors re- 
cede into pockets provided in the car body and are op- 
erated with pneumatic apparatus, either from the 
guard's niche or from the motorman's cab. They are 
made of pressed steel, suitably insulated, and are 1% 
in. in thickness, being equipped with rubber cushions 
and weather stripping. The vestibules are fitted with 
doors at the ends to permit an uninterrupted passage 
from one car to another. 

Twelve windows are provided on each side of the car 
body, the upper sash being fixed and the lower sash 
arranged to raise. The sashes are made of bronze 
and fitted with brass stops and curtain grooves. Both 
the upper and lower sashes are glazed with 3/16-in. 
plate glass, set in rubber channels. As mentioned 
earlier in the article, the car body is provided with four 
longitudinal seats 16 ft. 4% in- in length. These are 
provided with 2-ft. 6V2-m. spring backs built into the 
car body. Both the back and the seat are upholstered 
in canvas-lined rattan of small mesh. Twenty-four 




Chicago Elevated Car — Self-Lubricating Center Plates 



sanitary hand straps, six on each side of the car ceiling 
in each end of the car body, are provided for the con- 
venience of standing passengers. 

An electric heating system of the forced-ventilation 
type, and provided with a thermostat control, will be 
installed in each car. This system is to be operated 
in conjunction with eight exhaust ventilators installed 
in the roof of the car. Each ventilator is provided with 
register control and the six in the car body will be con- 
nected to two continuous operating mechanisms. All 
electric wires both for the heating system and the light- 
ing circuit are inclosed in metal conduit, provided with 
junction boxes and other necessary fittings to insulate it 
thoroughly. 



86 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



The steel car bodies are mounted on Baldwin loco- 
motive trucks equipped with General Electric field-con- 
trolled motors. The motors are operated by Westing- 
house multiple-unit control similar to that now in gen- 
eral use on the elevated railways. Other special equip- 
ment includes automatic air brakes of the Westinghouse 
schedule AMR type, arranged for quick recharge and 
graduated release. The entire order, including the 
sixty-two motor and sixty-six trail cars, was placed 
with the Cincinnati Car Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



JOINTCONFERENCE ON STEEL-WHEEL SPECIFICATIONS 



A meeting of the sub-committee on steel wheels, com- 
mittee on equipment American Electric Railway Engi- 
neering Association, was held at the association head- 
quarters, New York, on Tuesday, Jan. 6. Those in 
attendance were J. P. Barnes, Syracuse, chairman of 
the sub-committee; W. E. Johnson, Brooklyn, and E. 
Dietz, Brooklyn, also representing the electric rail- 
ways; G. Aertsen, Midvale Steel Company; A. A. 
Stevenson, Standard Steel Works; L. W. Conroy and 

H. P. Tiemann, both of the Carnegie Steel Company, 
representing the manufacturers of steel wheels. 

The subject of discussion was Appendix B, Section 

I, of the 1913 report of the committee on equipment, 
namely, "Proposed Specifications for Solid-Wrought 
Carbon-Steel Wheels for Electric Railway Service." 

One important point brought out in the discussion 
was on chemical composition. It was pointed out that 
the specification applied only to the basic process, and 
that the silicon content requirement, in particular, 
worked unnecessary hardship upon the user of the 
acid process. Arrangement was therefore made to add 
a chemical composition based on the acid process in 
which the silicon content of 0.10 to 0.30 per cent will 
be set at 0.15 to 0.35 per cent with no change in the 
other constituents except carbon. 

There was some discussion as to whether or not the 
meaning of segregation was modified by the word "in- 
jurious" in clause 2, reading: "The ingots from which 
the blanks are made shall have sufficient discard to in- 
sure freedom from injurious pipes and segregation." 
This was referred to the committee as a whole. 

Clause 5 was elaborated to include "necessary identi- 
fying records" with complete record of each shipment. 

In clause 6 "laminations" was substituted for "flaws." 
Following this, Mr. Tiemann offered to submit in writ- 
ing for the consideration of the committee on equip- 
ment a number of similar verbal improvements. This 
offer was accepted. 

Clause 7 was modified to eliminate the bracketed 
words in the following: "or, if specified by the pur- 
chaser, wheels may be furnished [with the contour] 
unmachined." Two sets of tolerances for the choice 
of the purchaser will also be submitted to the equip- 
ment committee. These tolerances will be given in the 
present tabulated forms, the textual repetitions now 
in use being omitted as far as possible. The possibility 
of increasing certain tolerances will also be consid- 
ered. An eccentricity clause will be added to cover 
dimensions of the hub more closely than at present; 
also that the thickness of the wall shall not vary more 
than % in. at any one point. 

Clause 9, "Branding," is to be modified to include 
manufacture from one-wheel ingots, and the method of 
identification and branding may also be changed some- 
what. It will be recommended that clause 10 (e) 
be changed to read that rejection based on tests be re- 
ported within ten working days from the receipt of 
"samples" instead of "wheels." In clause 10 (f) the 
words "a rehearing" are also to be replaced by the word 



"reconsideration." Part of clause 10 (g) on wheel re- 
placement was abbreviated to read "that may prove 
defective in material or workmanship." 

The questions of chemical analysis and hardness tests 
irrespective of composition were considered in connec- 
tion with mating. It is proposed to add a ladle analysis 
to clause 4 of the Engineering Association's specifica- 
tion. It was suggested that the association appoint a 
committee to secure data from the electric railways on 
wheel life obtained under specified conditions, and then 
to check these results by securing from the manufac- 
turers all pertinent physical and chemical information 
as shown by the heat numbers. 

As to check analysis, clause 4, it was suggested that 
"drillings taken from two holes may be analyzed sepa- 
rately or mixed at the discretion of the engineer." 

After a discussion on the changes which appeared 
desirable in the standard car-wheel measurements by 
means of tapes, gages and templates, the meeting was 
adjourned. 

PLANS FOR AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY 
ASSOCIATION DINNER 

Further details in reference to the annual dinner of 
the American Electric Railway Association, which is to 
be held on the evening of Thursday, Jan. 29, have been 
made public. As stated previously, the dinner is to be 
held at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria in connection with 
the midyear conference in New York. An interesting 
program has been arranged. Charles N. Black, presi- 
dent of the American Electric Railway Association, will 
preside. The speakers will include Guy E. Tripp, chair- 
man of the board of directors of the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric & Manufacturing Company; Cornell S. Hawley, 
president of the American Electric Railway Manufac- 
turers' Association, and Henry W. Anderson, vice-presi- 
dent of the Virginia Railway & Power Company, Rich- 
mond, Va. 

E. B. Burritt, secretary of the association, has sent 
a letter to members calling attention to the plans. As 
announced some time ago, the dinner this year is to be 
in the nature of a pay-as-you-enter" affair. Tickets 
will be $10 each. 

A number of committees of the various associations 
will hold meetings at the time of the midyear confer- 
ence. Among the committee meetings announced up to 
the present time are the following: joint committee on 
block signals, Jan. 29 ; committee on way matters, Jan. 
28 ; committee on power distribution, Jan. 28. 



COMMITTEE AFFAIRS OF THE AMERICAN ELECTRIC 
RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 



President J. H. Hanna of the American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Association has announced the follow- 
ing committee on standards : H. H. Adams, chairman ; 
Martin Schreiber, vice-chairman; F. R. Phillips, B. F. 
Wood, G. W. Palmer, Jr., E. R. Hill, C. S. Kimball, W. 
H. Roberts, F. B. H. Paine, E. B. Katte, G. H. Pegram 
and Norman Litchfield. 

In connection with the work of the committee on way 
matters of the American Electric Railway Engineering 
Association, the following sub-committees have been 
appointed : 

Proper foundation for tracks in paved streets : R. C. 
Cram, C. H. Clark and E. H. Berry. 

Use of T-rail in paved streets: E. H. Berry, W. F. 
Graves and J. B. Tinnon. 

Pavement for use in connection with girder and high 
T-rails : H. F. Merker, C. H. Clark and C. S. Kimball. 

Alloyed steel rails : G. W. Gennet, Jr., E. P. Roundey 
and H. F. Merker. 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



87 



SALT LAKE & UTAH RAILROAD 

Service between Salt Lake City and Provo, Utah, on 
the Salt Lake & Utah Railroad will begin the first of 
the year. The new line is known locally as the "Orem 
Line," for W. C. Orem and F. M. Orem are its chief 
promoters. The portion of the new line to be put in 
service in January is 48 miles long. Present plans 




Salt Lake & Utah Railroad — Track-Laying Machine 



provide for an early extension of the line to Payson, 
20 miles south of Provo, and ultimately to Nephi, 25 
miles south of Payson. 

All of the grading of the right-of-way has been 
completed to Provo, and track laying by machine is 
progressing at the rate of a mile a day, using 75-lb. 
steel with Continuous rail joints and 2880 ties to the 
mile. The line's heaviest grade is llo per cent, made 
to reach a very thickly populated, intensive fruit-grow- 
ing tract on Provo Bench, near Provo. The heaviest 
grade outside this point is 0.8 per cent. The line's 
sharpest curve is 8 deg. 

The line will use catenary construction and 1500-volt 
direct current. A fifty-year contract for power has 
been made with the Utah Power & Light Company. 
Electrification will not be finished until about April 
1, 1914, prior to which time gasoline motors will be 
used. Forty-two-ton cars, manufactured by the Niles 
Car Company, Niles, Ohio, will be used, and hourly 
service will be maintained. The electrical equipment 
is Westinghouse. 




Salt Lake & Utah Railroad— Material Yard, Salt Lake City 



The Orem line will connect with the Salt Lake & 
Ogden electric line, known as the "Bamberger Road," 
at Salt Lake City. Joint terminal facilities have been 
bought at Salt Lake City by the Salt Lake Terminal 
Company, a corporation owned equally by the two rail- 
roads. The terminal station is in the business center 



of the city, with entrances on four streets. The Provo 
terminal is situated close to the business center of that 
city. 

The new railroad reaches a population of 50,000 per- 
sons south of Salt Lake City, which has a population of 
about 110,000. It passes through twenty towns and 
villages. For more than half its length it traverses 
thickly settled farming areas that have no railroad fa- 
cilities at present. 

The financing of the line has been completed and all 
equipment has been ordered. The work has been done 
lapidly, considering the heavy nature of the construc- 
tion necessary to maintain the low grades and curves. 
Work was begun in March, 1913, and only a few miles 
of track remain to be laid. 



COMMUNICATION 



PERPETUAL INVENTORIES FOR STOREROOMS 



Pittsburgh Railways Company 

Pittsburgh, Pa., Dec. 30, 1913. 

To the Editors: 

Concerning the proposed association of purchasing 
agents discussed in your editorials and in several com- 
munications recently, it seems to me that Mr. Ingle, 
assistant purchasing agent of the Rockford & Interur- 
ban Railway Company, has hit the nail squarely on the 
head when he says that the electric railway purchasing 
agents and storekeepers should form an association to 
discuss subjects of interest to them. At any rate, they 
should become familiar with the various recommended 
practices of the Railway Storekeepers' Association, to 
which Mr. Ingle refers. If the perpetual inventory 
plan, mentioned in your editorial of Dec. 6, is used by 
any considerable number of electric railway manage- 
ments it is time that we got together to find out what 
should be done along such lines. This perpetual inven- 
tory plan may have been good enough before we knew 
any better — I should say about ten years ago — but if it 
is possible that any considerable number of companies 
do business on this basis, it is the more reason why 
some action should be taken on the part of those com- 
panies to find out the up-to-date methods of carrying 
on their business. 

The Railway Storekeepers' Association has accom- 
plished wonders in securing from general managers, 
etc., recognition of the importance of the functions of 
the stores department. Its proceedings are textbooks 
on up-to-the-minute management. The Railway Store- 
keepers' Association would be pleased to receive, as 
members, representatives of electric railway purchas- 
ing and stores departments; in fact, quite a few are 
members at the present time. It is inconceivable how 
an association of that kind could be in existence for 
ten years without having the representatives of elec- 
tric railways clamoring for admission. 

The president of the association has informed the 
writer that within a few weeks a determined effort will 
be made on the part of the association to bring into its 
membership representatives from the electric railways, 
and it will endeavor to discuss topics of particular in- 
terest to them at its next convention. 

B. F. Yungbluth, General Storekeeper. 

[The "perpetual inventory plan," described in the 
editorial in our issue of Dec. 6, has recently been in- 
troduced into the storerooms of a very large electric 
railway company in the Central States. It represents 
one of the steps taken by the efficiency engineering de- 
partment of the company in its motion time studies. 
— Eds.] 



88 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



Equipment a nd Its Maintenance 

Short Descriptions of Mechanical and Electrical Practices from Every Department of Electric Railroading 

(Contributions from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will Be Paid for in 
Accordance with Our Regular Rates.) 



STEEL STORES CAR FOR MONTREAL The principal framing members of this car, includ- 

ing the roof, are of standard commercial shapes as 

The Montreal Street Railway has recently designed shown in the drawing. Part of the car is open to permit 

and constructed a steel car for handling stores which room for a crane track, hoist, etc., for handling wheel 

is provided with more efficient conveniences than is sets and other heavy parts from either side of the car. 

customary in rolling stock for this purpose. Owing to Another interesting feature is the use of a double floor 




Steel Stores Car of the Montreal Street Railway, Which Has Replaced Three Non-Specialized Cars 

its larger size, better equipment and labor-saving facili- in the inclosed section to form a compartment in which 

ties, the new car has replaced three supply cars which armatures can be kept free from injury. The car is 

were formerly used to handle all stock and scrap be- built with solid ends to insure increased bulkhead stiff- 

tween the Youville shops and five carhouses. Its daily ness and to protect the crew. 

GuRset Plate Tied to Cornerb of Car 

i %"Tie Kudu with Turnbuckles 2"x 2V> zh L 







GC lb. 

., . J 




2 i 2)4 i % L : 


% J l\ 3 H 


PL. 


a". a'i yd 


J 10 1 % 1 












I 3 I 3'U.Pitc 



Electric Ry- Journal 

Framing Plan of the Stores Car of Montreal Street Railway 

run approximates 35 miles. The company feels that the The car is 44 ft. over all, is operated with four GE-80 

investment of $1,800 for construction of a special body motors and K-28 controller and weighs 47,600 lb. It 

is well worth while when contrasted with the saving was designed at the Youville shops under the direction 

which the car effects in power and maintenance. of D. E. Blair, superintendent of rolling stock 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



89 



PROTECTED THIRD-RAIL 



CUTTING CONDUIT AT ALBANY 



S. G. Redman, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and C. H. Merz, 
London, who is consulting engineer for the high-ten- 
sion d.c. Melbourne electrification, have recently de- 
vised the protected type of third-rail shown in the 
accompanying drawing. The prin- 
cipal novelty of this construction 
is the special form of inverted 
channel which is designed to serve 
as the current conductor. This 
channel is of irregular form, as 
the non-contacting flange is used 
to secure more cross-sectional con- 
ductivity and to keep the contact- 
making flange in place. The 
rectangular base of this channel 
is supported on a fiat insulator, an 
mectnc Hy. j.umai i nter mediate bracket and a founda- 
Protected Third-Rail tion insulator. The capping of 
- the conductor channel may be of 
fiber, stoneware or other material keyed into the con- 
ductor as indicated. 




WHEEL AND GEAR TESTING AT CINCINNATI 



In order to be positive that all wheels and gears are 
true and accurately pressed on the axle before they are 
placed under trucks, the Cincinnati Traction Company 
has installed a testing set in its machine shop. This set 
shows not only that the wheels are true but that they 
as well as the gears are accurately centered and that the 
axles are perfectly straight. The outfit employed for 
this purpose consists of a hydraulic jack to lift the 
wheels to a pair of adjustable centers arranged beside 
a track leading from the machine shop. The jack is 
installed under the floor at the exact center of the track, 
and the head rises through an opening. The centers 
are set on concrete foundations on each side of the track 
in line with the jack. 

When it is desired to test a pair of wheels they are 
set so that the axle will engage with the head of the 
jack, which then raises the wheels until they may be 
supported on the centers. In this position the centering 




Some time ago the United Traction Company, 
Albany, N. Y., rigged up the old compressor motor 
shown in the accompanying halftone to serve for cut- 
ting conduit at its several shops from time to time. 




Compressor Carrying Dasher-Iron Disk and Grindstone 
for Cutting and Smoothing Conduit 

The compressor was readily adapted for this purpose 
by mounting on the shaft a disk of dasher iron for 
cutting the conduit and a plain grindstone for re- 
moving the burrs at the edges afterward. 



SIGNALS ON WASHINGTON & GREAT FALLS RAILWAY 



The Washington & Great Falls Railway & Power 
Company extends from Bethesda, Md., to Great Falls, 
and it is operated with cars and energy supplied by 
the Washington Railway & Electric Company. This 




Cincinnati Traction Company's Wheel and Axle Testing 
Sets and Templet 



Automatic Signals as Installed on the Washington & Great 
Falls Railway 



of the wheels and straightness of the axle are checked 
by spinning the wheels and noting whether there is 
variation in the space between any fixed object, usually 
a sledge handle, and the face of the wheel or gear. This 
testing set is shown in the illustration above. The 
wooden templet also shown is employed to check the 
location of the gear on the axle in relation to the posi- 
tion of the wheels. 



line was built to develop an extensive tract of land 
for high-class residential purposes in the environs of 
Washington. From Wisconsin Avenue and Bradley 
Lane to Great Falls the distance is 10.2 miles, com- 
prising six blocks of single track. Spring switches and 
stands are used at the turn-outs which are located at 
Offutt, Wilson, Kefauver, Bradley and Lynch. About 
1000 ft. east of the switch point at Bradley is a stub 



90 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



siding to a quarry, which, however, is only temporary. 
The line has a maximum grade of 5 per cent and many 
curves, the longest tangent being '% mile. Bracket 
catenary construction is used almost entirely, this in- 
cluding a No. 0000 grooved trolley suspended from a 
%-in. Siemens-Martin messenger cable on 30-ft. and 
35-ft. chestnut poles. The present transmission po- 
tential is 6600 volts but it will be raised to 13,200 
volts. The trolley potential is 600 volts. 

The time of a trip is forty-three minutes. Cars keep 
to the main line at sidings except at a meet. Signal 
protection is afforded by ten Nachod automatic signals, 
type CD, as illustrated. These signals permit follow- 
ing, while preventing all opposing moves until the 
block is clear. The principal features of this signal 
were described in the Electric Railway Journal for 
June 22, 1912, page 1083. The signal installation for 
a block of single track between sidings comprises two 
signals and four trolley contactors. The signals are 
located at the switch points whereas the trolley con- 
tactors are from one to two spans in advance of the sig- 
nal. The signals permit any desired safe car move- 
ment. A work car, for instance, may shift around the 
terminals of the block in any manner without disar- 
ranging the signals of a regular car in the block. Two 
No. 12 copper-clad line wires are required for the 
signals. 

PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY'S CONCRETE SHELTERS 

The Pacific Electric Railway, operating in the ter- 
ritory contiguous to Los Angeles, Cal., recently desired 
to adopt a more permanent type of shelter than the cus- 
tomary wooden building. Since brick was too expen- 
sive for buildings of this size, reinforced concrete was 
suggested. Upon investigation, however, it was found 
that reinforced concrete structures of the monolithic 
type would cost too much, but that one constructed 
according to the unit system might be built within the 
limit of cost desired. Upon invitation designs and esti- 
mates were submitted which were acceptable. 

By the unit method, as the name implies, the differ- 
ent structural elements of the building are cast in molds 
or forms on the ground as separate units. As soon as 




Pacific Electric Shelters — Rafters, Columns and Copings 
After Removing Forms 

these have hardened sufficiently they are removed from 
the forms and placed in a stockyard where they are 
allowed to season from one to four weeks, after which 
they are erected much after the manner of structural 
steel. The connections are made by means of bars pro- 
jecting into the joint and embedded in a rich concrete 
grout. The joints are placed at predetermined places 



made necessary by the structural requirements, and the 
completed building is a structure not differing in essen- 
tials from the monolithic type. 

While several large electric railway structures have 
been built in this way, notably the Luzerne Street and 
Callowhill Street carhouses of the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company and the Fairview office and carhouse 
of the Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa., 




Pacific Electric Shelters — Casting Yard, Showing Roof and 
Wall Slabs with Forms Ready for Pouring 



this is the first instance in which minor structures for 
electric railways have been tried. The following de- 
scription and the accompanying photographs should 
convey a clear idea of the character of these shelters. 

The buildings are 8 ft. 3 in. x 12 ft. outside dimen- 
sions, with a clear height of 8 ft. Each building con- 
tains 119 units, the weight of which varies from 400 
lb. for the columns, which are the heaviest pieces, to 
about 33 lb. for the lightest pieces. The units can be 
handled by three or four men and thus require no 
expensive equipment for their erection. A complete 
structure contains 4.85 cu. yd. of concrete exclusive of 
the column footings, which, owing to variation in 




Pacific Electric Shelters — View of Completed Building, 
Except for Setting of Window Frames and Door 



grades, are cast monolithic, being mixed and placed by 
hand. All the units are cast at a central casting yard 
by a force of from three to four four men and are loaded 
on a car and transported to the building site ready for 
the erecting gang. 

The roof slabs of these stations are 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 
2 in. in size and weigh 190 lb. each. They were cast with 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



91 



a lV^-m. overlap, which, with the red coloring that was 
used in the finish, gave the appearance of a tile roof. 
No waterproofing was Used in the concrete for the roof. 
It consists simply of a rich mixture, well worked and 
hard troweled to a smooth finish, giving a water-tight 
roof with no other covering. The slabs are reinforced 
with American Steel & Wire Company's standard wire 
mesh. 

The tops of the wall slabs which form the exterior of 
the station are troweled to a smooth, straight surface, 
which is brushed afterward to remove the trowel glaze 
from the surface. The undersides of the slabs are left 
as they come from the forms, as they are smooth enough 
to give a good finish to the building interior. All col- 
umns, girders and lintels have one side troweled and 
brushed and the other three sides left as they came 
from the forms, the forms being so constructed that no 
seams show in the finished concrete. These units were 
reinforced with wire mesh and small deformed bars. 

The erection of these shelters after the monolithic 
footings were in place was carried on about as follows : 
The columns were set in sockets provided for them and 
grouted in place. Then the wall slabs and sills which 
fit in slots in the columns were set in place and 
grouted. Next, the lintels were set and grouted, fol- 
lowed by the girders and finally the roof slabs, and all 
were carefully grouted with a rich concrete. All units 
were connected and held by projecting steel bars or 
dowels which, on being grouted, provided a perfectly 
rigid connection. The completion of the shelter in- 
cluded placing the unit benches and laying the floors. 
The units were all very carefully marked before they 
were removed from the forms, so as to make the erec- 
tion simple. The marking conformed to that shown on 
the erecting plan. Under ordinary conditions it was 
found that one of these buildings could be completed in 
from four to six days and that the cost did not exceed 
that of a wooden building of the same type by more than 
12 or 15 per cent. No arrangements were made for 
heating these stations as the California climate made 
this unnecessary ; but this, of course, could be done 
very simply and conveniently by installing some stand- 
ard type of electric heaters under the benches. 




Pacific Electric Shelters — Rear and End View of Completed 
Building Showing Column Footings 



In the accompanying illustrations it will be seen that 
the shelters are simple, permanent structures, very at- 
tractive to the eye. In fact, the Pacific Electric Rail- 
way is so well pleased with this type of building that it 
has been made standard, and the company will construct 
about 200 of them along its lines. The Van Sant- 
Houghton Company, of San Francisco, designed these 



shelters for the Pacific Electric Railway as Western 
representative of the Unit Construction Company, St. 
Louis, Mo., the patentee of the method of construction. 

RECENT TRACK WORK OF THE UNITED RAILWAYS 
& ELECTRIC COMPANY OF BALTIMORE 

During 1913 the United Railways & Electric Com- 
pany's way department was very busy owing to the 
extensive paving operations of the city of Baltimore. 
As a result 17 miles of single track were overhauled, 
although only 6V2 miles actually required reconstruc- 
tion. In addition to this work the company recon- 
structed in the course of ordinary maintenance 3 miles 
of single track and, on account of the operations of the 
State Roads Commission, % mile of single track — -mak- 
ing a total of 20% miles of single track overhauled 
during 1913 up to Dec. 1. The only extension of any 
consequence made during the year was on Monument 
Street, between Washington Street and Patterson Park 
Avenue, involving 0.33 mile of single track. 

A noteworthy feature of the company's track con- 
struction is the continued use of either gravel or 
broken-stone ballast, which, under Baltimore conditions, 
has so far proved to be entirely satisfactory. It is 
worthy of mention that the standard riveted and welded 
thermit joint described in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal, Dec. 21, 1912, has not had a single failure since its 
adoption. 

During the year 1913 the Lorain Steel Company 
electrically welded 2983 joints on old 9-in. girder tracks. 
The company's experience with this joint was identical 
with that elsewhere, namely, that, while it makes a very 
satisfactory joint and serves to prolong the life of old 
rails, it has about 1 per cent of failures owing to breaks 
during the first year after application. 



ARCH-R00F CARS WITHOUT BODY DOORS FOR 
HARRISBURG RAILWAYS 

The Harrisburg Railways Company has lately re- 
ceived from The J. G. Brill Company seven arch-roof 
cars. This design, as illustrated, is an example of 
the strong tendency, even in Northern climates, 
toward the omission of body-end doors. The cars are 
47 ft. 1 in. over the vestibules, 30 ft. 8 in. over the 
body, 8 ft. 5V2 in. wide over all and 7 ft. 10% in. 
wide over the sills. The vestibule doors open at right 
angles to and beyond the car-body line as illustrated. 
The height from the sill to the trolley base is 8 ft. 
9 7 /s in. The underframe is of steel, the body of wood 
and the headlining of agasote. Bronze is used for the 




Arch-Roof Pay-Within Car with Exhaust-Type Ventilators 
for the Harrisburg Railways 

interior trim. The bodies are mounted on No. 27 
M.C.B.-l trucks carrying four Westinghouse 101-B-2 
motors. These cars are also furnished with the car 
builders' exhaust ventilators, Hedley anti-climbers, 
Peacock handbrakes, National air brakes, Consoli- 
dated heaters and the General Electric Company's arc 
headlights. The seating capacity is forty-four. 



92 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



IMPROVED HIGHWAY CROSSING SIGNAL CONTROL 



In the issue of this paper for Dec. 21, 1912, an ac- 
count was published of the highway crossing signal 
system made by the Protective Signal Manufacturing 
Company, of Denver, Col. Since that time a number of 
these signals have been installed by electric and steam 
railways. The system consists of a signal bell, oper- 
ated by battery or trolley current and controlled by 
oscillators attached to the running rails. When de- 
sired, an illuminated crossing sign may be use in con- 
nection with the bell. 

The most novel feature of this highway crossing sig- 
nal system is the oscillator, in which a change has been 
made since the original type was illustrated in this 
journal, the oscillator being arranged to work on a 
closed instead of an open circuit. Briefly described, the 
present oscillator is a contact-opening device, which is 
clamped to the under side of the track rail and oper- 
ated by the motion of the rail caused by the passage 
over it of the train or car. On single track an oscilla- 
tor is placed at either side of the crossing to be pro- 
tected, the distance from the crossing being governed by 
the speed of the traffic. The movement of a car over 
either of the end oscillators opens the circuit, drops a 
relay and starts the bell ringing. The bell-operating 
mechanism has a timer in connection with it so that it 
will stop ringing after any predetermined period, un 
less it has been stopped by the train passing an oscil- 
lator. Where movements from side tracks are to be 




Section of Oscillator 



protected against, additional oscillators are placed in 
the branch tracks leading toward the crossing where 
the bell is located. 

The oscillator itself is a simple, rugged contacting de- 
vice inclosed in a waterproof iron casing, so arranged 
that it may be fastened mechanically, in a rigid way, to 
the base of the running rail. All of the binding posts 
and connections are coated to prevent corrosion, and 
the contacts are made from iridium platinum. The 
essential electrical parts within the case, such as the 
vibrator and its connections, are thoroughly insulated 
from the casing and from the conduit, which forms a 
waterproof lead for the wires carrying the control to 
the near-by pole line. 

These oscillators, the manufacturer states, have 
shown through severe service tests that they will with- 
stand the shocks of the heaviest high-speed trains and 
yet are sensitive to the movement of lighter electric 
railway cars. One of the important features is their 
simplicity, both mechanically and electrically. 

This system of highway crossing protection requires 
no bond wires, no track circuits and no insulated joints. 
Therefore it does not interfere with existing signal sys- 



tems and operates on a separate and distinct circuit, 
which, if desired, can be entirely free from the trolley 
circuit. 

The manufacturer states that by the introduc- 
tion of a small motor these oscillators can be used to 
control the operation of automatic signals, the current 
supply being obtained from the power line. Some of the 
many uses which this oscillator is now fulfilling, in ad- 
dition to the control of this company's highway crossing 
bell, are those of the control of annunciators, tower in- 
dicators, time relays, electric horns and similar pro- 
tective indications. 



CONCENTRATION OF ENERGY PRODUCTION IN CHICAGO 

Practically all the energy requirements of the surface 
and elevated railway companies of Chicago are now 
supplied by the Commonwealth Edison Company. Re- 
cently three of the old elevated railway generating sta- 
tions have been taken over by the central-station com- 
pany — the Fullerton Avenue station of the Northwest- 
ern Elevated Railroad Company, the Loomis Street 
station of the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Rail- 
way Company and the Fortieth Street station of the 
South Side Elevated Railroad Company. The station- 
operating forces of the elevated-railway companies have 
been incorporated into the operating department of the 
Commonwealth Edison Company. It is probable that 
eventually all of the railway generating stations will be 
shut down, although some of them, notably the South 
Side company's station, have an excellent record of 
economy. Five railway substations also have been 
taken over by the substation department of the Com- 
monwealth company. 

The highest total-output maximum of the Common- 
wealth Edison Company up to Nov. 1, 1913, was 257,830 
kw. This occurred on Oct. 31, 1913. The highest peak 
of last winter was 232,950 kw on Dec. 11, 1912. It is 
estimated that this winter's total-output maximum will 
be about 300,000 kw. The highest twenty-four-hour 
kilowatt-hour output up to Nov. 1 of last year was 
3,365,900 kw-hr. and was recorded on Oct. 30, 1913. 
It is probable that the maximum day's output for this 
winter will be 3,700,000 kw-hr. or more. 

The number of employees on the pay roll of the Com- 
monwealth Edison Company on Nov. 6, 1913, was 4713. 
This large number is accounted for not only by the ad- 
ditions from the railway companies but by the large 
amount of construction work that the company is carry- 
ing on at present. 



THE STREET RAILWAY AND COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY 



In connection with the study of commercial geography 
in schools in Boston and its vicinity, the Bay State 
Street Railway Company supplies folders and maps free 
of charge to educational institutions, and thereby en- 
courages interest in trolley facilities over a wide area. 
Recently the general passenger agent of the company 
addressed a letter to the superintendents of schools in 
upward of 200 cities and towns served by the company's 
940 miles of line, inclosing a map of eastern Massa- 
chusetts, southern New Hampshire and eastern Rhode 
Island and offering to furnish such maps upon request 
for instruction purposes. About 2000 maps have thus 
far been sent to schools, and the company also supplies 
the maps tinned at each end for wall hanging. Among 
the responses received was a letter from the superin- 
tendent of the immigrant department of the Fall River 
(Mass.) Y. M. C. A., which stated that the company's 
maps are being successfully used in thirteen schools for 
foreigners in this representative mill city. 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



93 



News of Electric Railways 



Seven Additional Subway Construction Contracts Awarded 



On Dec. 31, 1913, the Public Service Commission for the 
First District of New York executed seven new construc- 
tion contracts for as many different sections of the dual 
system of rapid transit. It also awarded the construction 
contract for Section No. 6 of the Seventh Avenue subway 
in Manhattan to the Rapid Transit Subway Construction 
Company, the lowest bidder, for $2,292,943. This section 
lies in Seventh Avenue between Thirtieth and Forty-second 
Streets. The total of the seven contracts executed was 
$11,106,038, bringing the total amount of contracts awarded 
to date to about $91,000,000. This is more than half of the 
money which the city is pledged to contribute toward the 
cost of construction of the new system. The contracts 
executed were as follows: 

Section No. 2 of Route No. 39, which is the greater 
part of the New Utrecht Avenue- elevated railroad in 
Brooklyn; Post & McCord, Inc $1,672,190 

Section No. 1-A of Routes Nos. 19 and 22, which is that 
part of the Southern Boulevard and Westchester 
Avenue branch of the Lexington Avenue subway 
between 147th Street and Whitlock Avenue ; 
Rodgers & Hngerty 2,253,159 

Section No. 1 of Route No. 16, which is that part of 
the Jerome Avenue branch of the Lexington Ave- 
nue subway (elevated construction) between 157th 
Street and 182d Street; Oscar Daniels Company.. 1,077,978 

Section No. 3 of Routes Nos. 4 and 38, which is that 
part of the Seventh Avenue subway in Manhattan 
running under Varick Street and Seventh Ave- 
nue extension from Beach to Commerce Street ; 
Degnon Contracting Company 2,185,063 

Section No. 5 of Routes Nos. 4 and 38, which is that 
part of the Seventh Avenue subway in Manhattan 
running under Seventh Avenue from Sixteenth to 
Thirtieth Street: Canavan Brothers Company.... 2,401,306 

Section No. 2 of Route No. 18, which is that part 
of the White Plains Road extension of the existing 
subway (elevated construction) running over 
White Plains Road from Burke Avenue to 241st 
Street; Alfred P. Roth 958,484 

Route No. 50, which is the extension of the Steinway 
tunnel from its present terminus in Queens Borough 
to the Queensboro Bridge Plaza (subway and ele- 
vated construction) ; Degnon Contracting Company 557,856 



Total $11,106,038 

The Public Service Commission for the First District has 
received several protests from magazine publishers against 
the approval of a renewal contract between the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company and Artemus Ward, of Ward & 
Gow, for the advertising and news-stand privileges on the 
existing subway and elevated lines in Manhattan and the 
Bronx. The old contract expired on Dec. 31, 1913, and the 
commission was informed that the Interborough Company 
intended to renew it for a period of fifteen years. The 
Autosales Gum & Chocolate Company, Ulysses D. Eddy 
president, wrote to the commission that it was prepared to 
enter into such a contract upon much more advantageous 
terms to the city and to the Interborough Company than 
the terms proposed in the renewal contract, and it asked 
for a hearing before the commission takes action. Other 
publishers criticise the practice of the company under the 
old contract of making an extra charge to magazine pub- 
lishers for the display of their publications on the subway 
and elevated news stands. 



Mayor Hocken of Toronto Re-elected 



Mayor Hocken of Toronto, Ont., who favors the pur- 
chase of the property of the Toronto Railway and the 
Toronto Electric Light Company by the city, was on Jan. 1, 
1914, re-elected Mayor. F. G. McBrien, aged twenty-six, 
Mr. Hocken's opponent, ran on the platform "A vote for 
Hocken is a vote for the Mackenzie deal." The people 
also returned a board of control which will support the 
Mayor. Corporation Counsel Geary of Toronto announced 
on Jan. 3 that the work of drafting the agreement for the 
purchase of the property of the Toronto Railway and 
Toronto Electric Light Company had so far progressed 
that he would be able to submit it to the other side prob- 
ably by Jan. 15. 

Corporation Counsel Geary on Jan. 3 notified Works 
Commissioner Harris of the passage by the ratepayers of 
the by-law to raise $89,393 for the purchase of the portion 



of the Mimico division of the Toronto & York Radial Rail- 
way from Sunnyside to a point west of the Humber 
bridge. Two plans are under consideration, one to permit 
the Toronto & York Radial Railway to continue to operate 
the line temporarily and the other to operate a civic car 
line. 

On Dec. 23 the City Council of Toronto by a vote of 
twelve to ten refused to ratify a motion passed by the 
Board of Control to the effect that all negotiations for the 
purchase of the property of the Toronto Railway and the 
Toronto Electric Light Company should be ended, as noted 
in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 27, 1913. 
Alderman Wanless offered a motion that the negotiations 
to clean up the franchises be continued, that an effort be 
made to have the purchase price reduced, that a vote be 
taken on Jan. 1, 1915, and that all the franchises of the 
Toronto Railway in and out of the city be included in the 
agreement of purchase. A vote was not taken. Mayor 
Hocken wrote on Dec. 24 to the Toronto Board of Trade, 
the Canadian Manufacturers' Association, the Trades and 
Labor Council and the University of Toronto asking that 
these bodies appoint each a representative to form a com- 
mission with a view of sifting all the evidence in the trac- 
tion situation and seeking to evolve a solution of the prob- 
lem out of the several schemes proposed. The Mayor 
suggested that Sir William Meredith, Chief Justice of On- 
tario, be asked to act as chairman of the commission, which 
has been done. 

Chief Justice Meredith has written Mayor Hocken that 
he will be glad to act as chairman of the proposed com- 
mission to investigate Toronto's transportation problems 
and to report on the various schemes that have been ad- 
vanced. Mayor Hocken has also received replies from the 
Board of Trade and the Canadian Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation. 



Akron Franchise Before Council Again 



Earnest efforts have been made to frame a franchise 
ordinance at Akron, Ohio, which will be satisfactory to 
both the city officials and the Northern Ohio Traction & 
Light Company. The City Council has held a number of 
meetings to consider various phases of the ordinance which 
was outlined in the Electric Railway Journal some time 
ago, with the result that numerous changes have been 
made in it both as to wording and meaning. Officers of the 
company say that the grant now presents a wide departure 
from the points agreed upon between the company and the 
committee of the Chamber of Commerce in the beginning 
and that it will be impossible to accept it in its present 
form. 

The clause of the ordinance relating to service has, per- 
haps, been the greatest stumbling block. Certain members 
of Council have insisted that it be very rigid. In the latest 
draft the company is subject to a fine of $50 a day for 
the violation of any requirement made by the Council and 
the burden of proof as to the reasonableness of the require- 
ment is placed upon the company. As now amended the 
ordinance provides that the company shall build 1 mile of 
track for each 2000 increase in population. This is a 
reduction of 3000 from the original figures and would 
greatly increase the new construction work. An attempt 
has also been made to provide that the city may name a 
buyer for the property at the end of ten years, instead of 
fifteen, as originally stipulated. The company objects to 
the requirement that all single-truck cars be retired from 
service within two years. It insists that the term should 
be ten years. The clause relating to cars will allow the 
city at any time to order improvements in cars or the pur- 
chase of new cars. The company has withdrawn proposi- 
tion No. 2 to the effect that it will undertake to make the 
additions which the city seeks to require without an ex- 
tension of franchise. 

The principal features of the ordinance before the Council 
before it was amended were summarized in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Dec. 13, 1913, page 1251. 



94 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



Attempt to Break Terre Haute Agreement 



It is charged that attempts are being made to induce 
the employees of the Terre Haute division of the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, In- 
dianapolis, Ind., to abrogate their agreement with the com- 
pany of Nov. 11, 1913, under which the Public Service Com- 
mission of Indiana is named as an arbitration board to 
settle any grievances not settled between the employees 
and the company. Early in December 80 per cent of the 
employees met and appointed a "grievance committee" to 
represent them whenever any matters might arise to be 
taken up with officials of the company, and the men ex- 
pressed themselves as being desirous of maintaining their 
relations with the company in this manner. Organizers 
from outside succeeded, however, in enrolling a few men 
and forming a local of the Amalgamated Association. 
Representatives of this local then presented to the com- 
pany a set of so-called "grievances" providing for an arbi- 
tration board and covering many classes of employees not 
in service in the Terre Haute division. 

The company declined to receive these grievances on the 
ground that more than 80 per cent of the employees had 
previously delivered to the company a signed statement to 
the effect that they had no grievances to present at that 
time and asking the protection of the company and the 
public from labor agitators who sought to intimidate them 
into violating their contract with the company, to which 
Governor Ralston was a party. The company further stated 
that it could not consider the appointment of any arbitra- 
tion board other than the Public Service Commission, as 
specified in the agreement of Nov. 11, and suggested that 
the grievances in proper form be filed with the commission. 
This was done later. 

The work of trying to create dissatisfaction among the 
employees continued during December, and plans were 
made by the organizers to call a strike about Jan. 4. 

On Jan. 3 the Fidelity Trust Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
filed a suit in the federal court for the district of Indiana, 
at Indianapolis, asking for a restraining order and tempor- 
ary injunction against the officials of the State Federation 
of Labor, United Mine Workers of America, Central Labor 
Union of Terre Haute, the local officers of the Amalgamated 
Association and the outside organizers to prevent them 
from calling a strike or interrupting the operation of the 
lines of the Terre Haute division. The petition of the 
Fidelity Trust Company shows the conditions existing be- 
tween the company and its employees, and represents that 
the payment of the interest on bonds of the company under 
the mortgage of which the Fidelity Trust Company is 
trustee would be imperiled by the failure of the company 
to operate its cars and conduct its light, power and steam- 
heating business from which it derives its revenue. Writs 
were at once issued by the federal court and served by 
a United States marshal on each of the labor leaders, with 
notice to appear on Jan. 7 and file answer Jan. 23 to the 
complaint. This action evidently changed the plans of the 
labor men in regard to calling the strike at the mass meet- 
ing of Jan. 4, and there has been no interference with the 
operation of the lines of the Terre Haute division of the 
system. 



Recommendations of the New Jersey Commissioners 



The report of the Board of Public Utility Commissioners 
of New Jersey for the year 1913 contains a number of sug- 
gestions for future legislation. The board urgently recom- 
mends the prompt enactment of laws giving it additional 
authority to control the issuance of securities by public 
utility corporations. The three supplementary acts urged 
in this respect are outlined as follows: 

"1. Legislation specifically empowering the commission 
to require proof when approval of proposed securities issues 
is asked that there has been an adequate attempt on the 
part of the petitioners to ascertain and to obtain the high- 
est price at which such securities may be sold; and in 
default of satisfactory proof thereof to impose as a condi- 
tion of granting such approval the advertising for sealed 
competitive bids . for such securities, accompanied by cer- 
tified checks guaranteeing the responsibility of the bidders. 

"2. An act amending the present law under which the 



board's approval of the purpose of proposed security issues 
is made a prerequisite to such approval, whereby said clause 
shall be defined by a prescribed rule indicating in general 
terms in what respect the purpose of the issue may be 
scrutinized by the board with a view to approval or disap- 
proval thereof. 

"3. An act making void all security issues by public utili- 
ties whether put out by way of sale or by way of pledge or 
hypothecation, and making such unauthorized issue a mis- 
demeanor unless the prior approval of the board has been 
granted." 

Three other recommendations for supplementary legisla- 
tion were also made by the board, these relating to the 
procedure in the elimination of grade crossings and limita- 
tion of the bonded debts that may be incurred by railroads 
and prescribing more precisely the terms under which 
public utilities may lease or be leased. These recommenda- 
tions as outlined by the board are as follows: 

"1. The establishment of specific procedure in cases in- 
volving the elimination of grade crossings, determining 
with greater precision who are parties to such proceedings 
and permitting parties other than public utilities and mu- 
nicipalities directly affected to be served with notice of the 
hearing by advertisement in the newspapers, and imposing 
upon the petitioners the duty of furnishing a general plan 
of elimination sufficient to determine the feasibility of said 
elimination and of approximating the cost thereof. 

"2. An amendment to the general railroad act, and in par- 
ticular of Section 70 thereof, whereby the limitations to be 
imposed upon the bonded debt that may be incurred by a 
railroad company incorporated in this State, or by a foreign 
corporation as regards its property situate in this State, 
may be made uniform, whether said company is operated 
independently or under lease, or by virtue of merger or con- 
solidation with another railroad company. 

"3. Legislation prescribing more precisely the terms un- 
der which railroad companies or other public utilities may 
lease or be leased to railroads or other public utilities, such 
legislation to fix the maximum term of the lease and to 
make mandatory the requirement that the property of the 
lessor company shall be at all times capable of identifica- 
tion either physically or by the fixing of the value thereof 
upon the books of said lessor company and lessee company 
respectively." 

Reference is also made in the report to the Supreme 
Court decision in the Phillipsburg horse car case in which 
the board's order permitting the company to change the 
gage of its tracks was upheld. The importance of this 
decision was in the fact that the order of the board was 
upheld, notwithstanding that it was in conflict with a local 
ordinance granting a franchise to the railroad. 



The Indianapolis Arbitration 



On Dec. 29 the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Com- 
pany resumed the presentation of its testimony in the hear- 
ing before the Public Service Commission of Indiana re- 
garding the matter of wages and working conditions of 
employees of the company. A number of motormen and 
conductors testified as to conditions before the strike of 
Nov. 1, stating that they had not known of any feeling of 
dissatisfaction among the men. They described how the 
mobs threatened them and pulled some of them off the 
cars. The local managers of the Western Union Telegraph 
Company and Postal Telegraph-Cable Company produced 
copies of a number of telegrams sent by J. J. Thorpe and 
other labor leaders and organizers prior to and during the 
strike. The commission ruled that as an arbitration board 
it had no power to require the production of the telegrams, 
but that as the Public Service Commission of Indiana it did 
possess such power, and that it was as the Public Service 
Commission that the commission had issued subpoenas for 
the managers to produce the telegrams at the hearing. 

The majority of the witnesses, both old employees and 
men on the extra list, indicated to the commission that the 
graduated scale of wages would be preferable to the fiat 
rate. The commission asked local officers of the union to 
produce a statement giving the total number of members 
of the local union, and just how much it costs to maintain 
this local a year. Chairman Duncan stated that all this 
money must come from the street railway because the men 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



95 



pay their dues out of their wages, and the commission 
wished to ascertain just what additional burden membership 
in the association imposed on the men. 

Governor Ralston testified on Dec. 31 as to how he and 
Ethelbert Stewart, a representative of the Department of 
Labor, acted as intermediaries in the settlement of the 
strike. The Governor told of a form of agreement sub- 
mitted by the union men and transmitted by him to the 
company. The company objected to one line of this form 
of agreement because it involved recognition of the union. 
Testifying in regard to the first form of grievances pre- 
sented by the employees after the settlement agreement 
was signed, Governor Ralston said that Ethelbert Stewart 
objected to this form when shown to him and said that it 
did not in any way comply with the original agreement 
and that it represented "Thorpeism" and he would so tell 
Mr. Thorpe. On account of a death in the family of 
Chairman Duncan, the commission adjourned to Jan. 5. 

On Dec. 5 James P. Tretton, assistant superintendent of 
the company, presented a mass of technical data regarding 
the operation of cars, schedules, etc. John J. Mahoney, 
superintendent, testified that there has been a deterioration 
in discipline among the men since the strike and that acci- 
dents have been more frequent. Mr. Mahoney told the 
commission that the company did not object to proper arbi- 
tration of grievances of the employees or men who were 
discharged, and that the men have always had the right 
to take their cases to the highest officials of the company. 
Figures were introduced showing that receipts of the city 
property have fallen off since the strike; that the earnings 
of the company for the forty days preceding the strike 
were $4,833 more than for the corresponding period of 1912, 
while for the forty days since Nov. 8, the day on which the 
strike ended, the receipts have been $15,376 less than for 
the same period of 1912. The company's average daily 
earnings for the forty days subsequent to Nov. 8, 1913, 
were $7,695 as against an average of $8,080 for the same 
period of 1912. For the forty days prior to Nov. 1, 1913, 
the average daily earnings were $8,269 as against an aver- 
age of $8,148 for the corresponding period of 1912. 

The following statement was submitted by the company, 
showing the amount of wages paid annually by the com- 
pany to employees of the various departments, the totals 
under the present demands of the employees, the amount 
of increase and the per cent of increase: 



Motormen and conductors. 

Shop employees 

Carhouse employees 

Power station employees. . 
Track department 



$510,287 
176,460 
55,491 
32,291 
293,294 



is! 

SSI 
$732,907 
293,798 
106,133 
50,749 
476,766 



21,620 
17,926 
50,641 
18,458 
83,472 



Totals 



.$1,067,825 $1,660,355 $592,529 



Charts were also handed to the commission showing the 
actual distribution of total earnings, adding to actual rev- 
enue from each passenger an arbitrary proportion of earn- 
ings from other sources. The figures shown for the year 
1912 were as follows: 

Cents 

Maintenance of way and structures n. 004372 

Maintenance of equipment 0.003184 

Power 0.005471 

Conducting transportation 0.009281 

Injuries, damage and insurance 0.001708 

Administration expenses 0.002517 

Taxes 0.003029 

Fixed charges 0.013548 

Sinking funds 0.001322 

Balance for construction, dividends, etc 0.001813 



Total 0.046245 

Statements were also filed with the commission showing 
how the bonds of the Indianapolis Street Railway and bond 
and stock issues of the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal 
Company were applied to the construction of terminal build- 
ings and stations, power station machinery, cars and equip- 
ments, new track construction, etc., and the proportion of 
stock and bonds issued as part consideration for the pur- 
chase of the property, franchise and assets of the Citizens' 
Street Railroad, which was taken over by the Indianapolis 
Street Railway. A statement showing the number of cars 
purchased under car trust certificates was also filed with 



the commission, giving the amount of such certificates still 
outstanding. 

Otto Frenzel, president of the Merchants' National Bank, 
Indianapolis, appeared as the last witness for the com- 
pany, giving his views as to the business outlook for the 
next three years, which is the length of time the decision 
of the commission will be binding upon the company and its 
employees. Mr. Franzel said in part: 

"In my judgment it is not the proper time now to expand. 
A general curtailment in industrial and commercial lines 
has been going on for the last twelve months. The finan- 
cial conditions of the country were such that this had to be 
done in order to avoid serious disturbances and possibly a 
panic. This has resulted in many men being let out of em- 
ployment. It makes no difference what conditions come up 
to make the future look brighter, they cannot be brought 
to bear on general conditions so as to justify going ahead 
full tilt as in the past." 

Counsel for the employees submitted a statement show- 
ing that the local union had 1270 members on Jan. 1, 1914, 
and that the annual receipts from dues from this member- 
ship would be $15,240, of which half would go to the inter- 
national organization and half to the local. The president 
of the local receives a salary of $1,320 a year, financial 
secretary $1,320 a year, recording secretary $192 a year, 
twenty delegates to the Central Labor Union $120 a year, 
five dues collectors $210 a year, hall and office rent $456, 
telephone $18, light, stationery and stamps (estimated) $84, 
and monthly buttons $185 a year. 



Amendments to Kansas City Ordinance Considered 



One of the important developments of the week ended 
Jan. 3, 1914, in connection with the consideration of the 
new franchise ordinance of the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way, Kansas City, was a proposal to use Convention Hall 
as an interurban passenger station. The suggestion was 
informal, but was approved by Frank Hagerman, attorney 
for the receivers for the company. Convention Hall is 
located at Thirteenth and Central Streets and would be 
available for a depot with a few changes. Most of the 
sessions of the Council committee hearing amendments to 
the ordinance were spirited. Mayor Jost charged Alder- 
man Edwards with attempting to "load" the ordinance with 
so many amendments that the receivers for the company 
would be forced to decline the grant. The following amend- 
ments were accepted and held for further consideration: 

Preserving in the contract an agreement to build the 
Woodland and Prospect Avenue crosstown lines as assents 
for them were secured during the life of the existing fran- 
chise. 

Including the surrender of all existing franchises held by 
the companies connected with the Metropolitan Street 
Railway. 

Excluding franchise value from the capital value. 

Third man to arbitrate technical questions when the 
board of control disagree, he to be disinterested, experi- 
enced and competent to pass on such questions to be arbi- 
trated. 

The board of control to furnish proper equipment with- 
out unnecessary delay. 

Aldei ■man Hoffman's amendment providing for six tick- 
ets for a quarter or twenty-five for $1 is pending. The 
receivers stated, however, that such a provision would 
mean bankruptcy for the company. 

On Jan. 6 a letter was read from R. J. Dunham, one of 
the receivers for the company, asking that the committee 
cease consideration of the ordinance and leave the disposi- 
tion of the property to the bondholders and creditors. 
Mr. Dunham asserted that the committee had not dealt 
fairly or sincerely with the receivers in its work, and he 
made his request in view of that fact. Alderman Edwards, 
who has held out for six tickets for 25 cents since the 
committee has been in session, suggested that before ad- 
journing the committee report the ordinance back to the 
Council unfavorably. Though Alderman Hoffman seconded 
this motion, the adjournment was made without voting on 
it. The letter from Mr. Dunham was addressed to Forrest 
A. Brown, chairman of the joint committee, and read as 
follows : 

"It has been apparent for some time that certain mem- 



96 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



bers of your committee are not in sympathy with Mayor 
Jost and his policies, and that they are determined to 
'play politics' against him upon every feature of the pend- 
ing proposition for the people to vote for or against a set- 
tlement of the street railway problem. The purpose seems 
to be to offer every conceivable and impossible amendment, 
not to better the proposed contract, but to belittle the ef- 
forts of the Mayor and in the end prevent the people from 
voting upon the proposition. It was at first hoped there 
was some mistake about the purpose. The last few meet- 
ings, however, have demonstrated that the matter is being 
deliberately precipitated into a political contest over an 
effort to settle a vexatious problem upon non-political and 
business grounds. 

"In view of the foregoing situation, speaking for myself 
in the absence of my associate, Mr. Harvey, and subject to 
his approval, I think there is nothing to do but to ask you 
to withdraw your further consideration of the ordinance, 
leaving the disposition of the property to the bondholders 
and creditors. Vast interests are in jeopardy and enor- 
mous sums of money must be raised to put the property in 
shape to meet the demands of the public. The contract 
must be approved by a high court, the Public Service Com- 
mission and the people at large. To permit the franchise 
to be made a football in politics upon the eve of a city 
election is not only unfair to those to whom it is to be sub- 
mitted, but makes ludicrous every effort made by the re- 
ceivers in good faith to adjust the matter upon broad prin- 
ciples." 



Committee on Interurban Lines at New Orleans. — The 

Association of Commerce of New Orleans, La., has an- 
nounced the appointment of a special committee of seven to 
investigate the question of interurban development in its 
relation to New Orleans. 

Missouri Road to Install Block Signals. — J. R. Harrigan, 
general manager of the Kansas City, Clay County & St. 
Joseph Railway, Kansas City, Mo., appeared before the 
Missouri Public Utilities Commission recently to urge the 
commission to permit the company to issue securities 
of a par value of $125,000 to provide funds to install a block 
signal system on the road. 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Railway to Begin Opera- 
tions in January. — Officials of the Portland, Eugene & 
Eastern Railway, a subsidiary of the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany, have announced that the electrification of the line be- 
tween Portland and McMinnville will be completed in Janu- 
ary and that electric trains will then be placed in operation. 
McMinnville is located 30 miles north of Dallas, Ore., and 
ultimately the Portland, Eugene & Eastern Railway will 
electrify the entire line from Portland as far south as Eu- 
gene. 

Hearing on Signals Before Missouri Commission. — Signal 
officials of steam and electric roads operating in Missouri 
met at Jefferson City recently for the purpose of discussing 
methods of installing and operating signals for the pro- 
tection of life and property. The meeting was held at the 
call of the Missouri Public Utilities Commission, which is 
expected to issue orders covering this phase of the service 
shortly. Tentative orders were recently issued, but will 
not become permanent until an announcement to that effect 
is made. 

Progress with Electrification of London & Port Stanley 
Railway. — The city of London, Ont., has concluded an 
agreement with the Pere Marquette Railway by which that 
company will continue the arrangement whereby the Mich- 
igan Central Railroad enters London as a tenant of the 
Pere Marquette Railway until the electrification of the 
London & Port Stanley Railway is completed. The com- 
mission which has been appointed to take charge of the 
London & Port Stanley Railway is making every effort to 
get the work of electrification under way, and it is expected 
that the city will be ready to operate the road with elec- 
tricity by September, 1914. 

Installing Signals Between Seattle and Tacoma. — The 
material has all been ordered and some of the preliminary 
work has been done on the work of setting up the signals 
to be used in the Puget Sound Electric Railway Company's 
new block signal system between Seattle and Tacoma, 



Wash. The signals are to commence from the Tacoma end 
at Puyallup Avenue, in the East End of Tacoma, and will 
stop at the Meadows Race Course, in Seattle. The signals 
will cover the 28% miles of interurban line between the two 
cities. The signals are being furnished by the General 
Railway Signal Company, Rochester, N. Y. They are of 
the automatic three-position type and will be placed about 
IV2 miles apart. 

Open Subway Suggested for Philadelphia. — Plans for an 
open subway in the South Broad Street boulevard, below 
the Plaza, and to extend to League Island Park, have been 
submitted to the art jury by A. Merritt Taylor, transit 
director of Philadelphia. The plans are for an open sub- 
way which will cost approximately $950,000 less than a 
covered subway. Mr. Taylor urges the necessity of the 
immediate adoption of the suggestions as the contract has 
been awarded for the completion of the boulevard, and its 
construction under present specifications will interfere with 
the plans for the subway. Bridges will span the subway at 
street crossings, the embankments will be planted with 
shrubs and ornamental trees, and iron railings and balus- 
trades will guard its approach. 

Annual Report of Boston Transit Commission. — The 
nineteenth annual report of the Boston (Mass.) Transit 
Commission has been made public. It consists of the usual 
data as to the cost of subways built in Boston since the 
organization of the board in 1894, a discussion of recent 
progress in subway construction, engineering studies and 
reports. Under the supervision of the commission $22,213,- 
860 has been expended and of this $2,062,733 represents 
the cost of the Boylston Street subway to June 30, 1913. 
This line is reported as 75 per cent completed between the 
western portal and Arlington Street. The commission is 
to report to the next Legislature upon the choice of a 
terminal, Park Street and Post Office Square being under 
consideration. Steady progress has been made upon the 
extension of the Cambridge subway connection toward the 
South Station, the structure being now under construction 
as far east from Park Street as Arch Street. The Bowdoin 
Square extension of the East Boston tunnel is also well 
along. Many engineering data are included in the report 
of Edmund S. Davis, chief engineer. This report is incor- 
porated in the volume, together with various appendices 
containing compilations of legislation, bids and other mat- 
ter related to the commission's activities. 



PROGRAMS OF ASSOCIATION MEETINGS 



Southwestern Electrical & Gas Association 



Through a mistake in printing the circular of Nov. 17, an- 
nouncing the place and date of the 1914 convention of the 
Southwestern Electrical & Gas Association, the dates were 
given as May 22, 23, 24 and 25. This was an error. The 
convention will be held at Galveston, Tex., on May 20, 21, 
22 and 23, 1914. 



American Wood Preservers' Association 



The tenth annual convention of the American Wood 
Preservers' Association will be held at the St. Charles 
Hotel, New Orleans, La., Jan. 20, 21 and 22, 1914. The ses- 
sion on the morning of Jan. 20 will be given over to the 
address of welcome, the presentation of the president's 
address and the report of the secretary-treasurer. At the 
session on the afternoon of Jan. 20 the report of the stand- 
ing committee on preservatives will be presented by the 
chairman, E. F. Bateman, and the entire session will be 
devoted to the subject of preservatives. At the morning 
session on Jan. 21 the subject "Wood Block Pavement" will 
be considered, while in the afternoon the subject "Ties, 
Timbers, Piling and Cross Arms" will be considered. Plant 
operation and miscellaneous subjects will be considered at 
the forenoon session on Jan. 22. G. B. Shipley, chairman, 
will present at this session the report of the standing com- 
mittee on plant operation and Lambert T. Ericson, assistant 
superintendent of the Port Reading creosoting plant, will 
read a paper "Mechanical Handling of Railroad Cross Ties 
and Timbers at Timber Preservation Plants." 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



97 



Financial and Corporate 



ANNUAL REPORT 



Stock and Money Markets 



British Columbia Electric Railway Company, Ltd. 



Jan. 7, 1914. 

Nearly all the important issues traded in on the New 
York Stock Exchange made gains to-day. Among the ex- 
ceptions were Union Pacific and Baltimore & Ohio, there 
being considerable uncertainty as to the effect of the dis- 
tribution of Baltimore & Ohio stock by the Union Pacific. 
In the last half of the forenoon price movements were nar- 
row and without much importance. There was a generally 
firm tone to the trading during the last hour. Rates in the 
money market to-day were: Call, 2@3 per cent; sixty days 
to six months, 4 1 /s>@4% per cent. 

In the Philadelphia market local utility issues were the 
strongest features at the opening. Union Traction ad- 
vanced to 45%. 

Specialties were the feature of the stock market in Chi- 
cago to-day. The volume of business was fair, but prices 
were irregular. 

Except for a drop of .a point in American Telephone, the 
losses were confined to small fractions in Boston. 

The market in Baltimore was strong to-day and trading 
was fairly active. The sales of stock totaled 468 shares 
and the sales of bonds $59,700, par value. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 
compared with last week follow: 

Dec. 30 Jan. 7 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (com.) 9(1 90 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (pref.) 12? 127 

American Cities Company (com.) 36 36 

American Cities Company (pref.) 61 60 % 

American Light & Traction Company (com.) . . 335 337 

American Light & Traction Company (pref.) . . 106 106 

American Railways Company 38 38 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (com.).... 42 38V> 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (pref.) 83 83 

Boston Elevated Railway 85% 87% 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (com.).. 7 7 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (pref.).. 58 *58 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (com.) *6% *6% 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (pref.) 36% 36% 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 87% 88 

Capital Traction Company, Washington Ill 112% 

Chicago City Railway 160 160 

Chicago Elevated Railways (com.) 25 25 

Chicago Elevated Railways (pref.) 75 75 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 90 91 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf., 2 28 27% 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 7 6 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4 1% 2 

Cincinnati Street Railway 102 102 

Cleveland Railway 103% 104% 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (com. ) *5% 5 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (pref.) 30 26 

Columbus Railway & Light Company 18 IS 

Columbus Railway (com.) 59% 47 

Columbus Railway (pref.) 88 76 

Denver & Northern Railwav *80 70 

Detroit United Railwavs 80 a80 

General Electric Company 138% 140% 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (com.). 120 120 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (pref.) . 84 84 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (com.)... 14% 15 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (pref.).. 60 61 

International Traction Company (com.) *30 30 

International Traction Company (pref.) *90 90 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (com.) *20 15 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (pref.) *30 30 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (com.) *6 *6 

Lake Shore Electric Railwav (1st pref. ) *92 - *92 

Lake Shore Electric Railwav (2d pref.) *24 *24 

Manhattan Railway 125 125 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (com.) 13 11 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (pref.) 63% 64 

Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co. (pref.)... *95 - 95 

Norfolk Railway & Light Company *24% 24% 

North American Company 6? 67 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Co. (com.) ... 58 60 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Co. (pref.) ... 101 101 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (com.) 40% 39 

Philadelphia Companv, Pittsburgh (pref. ) 40 40 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 18% 18% 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company.. 53 48 

Public Service Corporation 107 109 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 41% 43% 

Toledo Traction, Light & Power Co. (com.) ... 20 20 

Toledo Traction, Light & Power Co. (pref.) ... 80 80 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Min'apolis (com.) 106 104% 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (com.) . . . *11% 11% 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (1st pref.) *80 SO 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (2d pref.) 14 14 

United Rys. & Electric Company (Baltimore) . . 25 25 

United Rys. Inv. Company (com.) 21% 20 

United Rys. Inv. Company (pref.) 39 39 

"Virginia Railway & Power Company (com.).. 50 50 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (pref.).. 98 95 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (com.).. 85% 85% 

Washington Rv. & Electric Company (pref.).. 87 87 

West End Street Railway, Boston (com.).... 69 69 

West End Street Railway, Boston (pref.).... 90 87 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company 65% 66 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. (1st pref.)... 116% 116% 

* Last sale, a Asked. 



The revenue and expenditure statement of the British 
Columbia Electric Railway Company, Ltd., for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1913, is as follows: 

Gross income £542,489 

Registration fees, etc 421 

Total income £542,910 

Renewals, .maintenance £140,654 

Directors' fees and percentage in accordance with arti- 
cles of association 8,733 

Office rent and salaries, printing and stationery, adver- 
tising, general, legal, traveling, audit and agency 

expenses 8,900 

Trustees' fees 831 

Capital amortization fund 2,361 

Total £161,486 

Net income £381,424 

Interest : 

On 4% per cent first mortgage debentures £10,039 

On 4% per cent (Vancouver Power) debentures 4,625 

On 4% per cent perpetual consolidated debenture stock 110,518 

Total £125,182 

Surplus for period t £256,242 

Brought forward from last year 7,732 

Surplus as per balance sheet £263,974 

Michael Urwin, secretary of the company, in his annual 
report to the stockholders in London on Dec. 19, 1913, said 
in part: 

"For the twelve months to June 30, 1913, the gross re- 
ceipts show an increase of $1,035,869, or over 17 per cent, 
and the net earnings, including income from investments 
and subsidiary companies, show an increase of $77,552, or 
4 per cent, over the preceding year, but the surplus over the 
amount required to pay interest and dividends has fallen 
from £67,670 to £28,242. 

"There has been added to the reserve fund £67,544, repre- 
senting the premiums or amount by which the price paid 
into the company's treasury exceeded the par value of 
£1,320,000 new share capital issued during the year, less 
expenses thereon, and after deducting the expenses and dis- 
count on an issue of £750,000 4% per cent debenture stock 
issued in January last. The reserve fund will now amount 
to £553,000. 

"The growth of the company is indicated by an increase 
of 72.07 miles of single track in operation during the year 
and an increase of 148 in the total number of cars of all 
kinds. The number of passengers carried during the year 
was 71,973,822, an increase for the year of 9,819,656. The 
number of lamps in use at June 30, 1913, was 920,916, an 
increase for the year of 185,490. 

"The dam and other works at Lake Coquitlam, which 
have been under construction for three years, were com- 
pleted in July last. The company now has an available 
reserve of over 57,000,000 kw-hr. of electrical energy. The 
new power house at Lake Buntzen has been completed, and 
the first of the three additional units to be installed therein 
is now in operation. A satisfactory contract has been 
entered into with the Western Canada Power Company, 
under which the company agrees to purchase a gradually 
increasing amount of power during the next twenty years. 
The extension of the Jordan River hydroelectric power in- 
stallation has been proceeded with during the year that has 
just closed. 

To secure the necessary water storage to supply the addi - 
tional units a permanent reinforced concrete dam of the 
Ambursen type has been completed. By the completion of 
this dam the total maximum available water storage is in- 
creased to 927,900,000 cu. ft., equivalent to a reserve of 
approximately 14,500,000 kw-hr. of electrical energy. The 
installation of the auxiliary steam plant at Brentwood Bay, 
12 miles from Victoria, has been completed and has a 
present capacity of 6000 hp. In June last the new Saanich 
suburban line was formally opened for traffic. This line, 
approximately 23 miles in length, runs through the center 
of the Saanich peninsula and opens a very fertile tract of 
country which up to the present time has always been 
without satisfactory railway connection with the city of 
Victoria." 



98 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



Corporate Financing During 1913 



In an article published in the Jan. 2 issue of the Wall 
Street Journal it is stated that a careful revision of the 
figures of corporate financing in the United States during 
the past two years discloses the fact that the year 1913 
was not $90,000,000 behind 1912 in the total of new issues 
sold. The aggregate originally shown for 1912 included 
some issues — notably $170,000,000 Interborough Rapid 
Transit bonds — which were underwritten in that year but 
none of which was actually sold until 1913. Revision of the 
1912 figures to eliminate all securities not marketed during 
that year brings the total down to $1,779,482,520, which 
compares with an amount of approximately $1,690,282,000 
in 1913. 

In view of the unsettled conditions that prevailed in the 
investment market in the past year, this total of $90,000,000 
below 1912 is remarkable. To do that much financing in a 
year like 1913, however, short-term notes had to be used 
to a much greater extent than in previous years. Over 
$200,000,000 fewer bonds were sold last year than in 1912 
and nearly $300,000,000 less than in 1911; while $123,000,- 
000 more notes were disposed of than in 1912 and 
$236,000,000 more than in 1911. Last year $194,000,000 less 
stock was sold than in 1911. The following table shows the 
change from bonds to notes in the past two years and also 
the decline in the use of stocks as a corporate financing 
medium: 



1913 1912 1911 

Stocks $423,481,210 $431,524,720 $617,787,450 

Bonds 650,417,600 855,127,280 948,586,000 

Notes 616,383,500 492,830,520 379,659,000 



Total $1,690,282,310 $1,779,482,520 $1,946,032,450 



The increase in note issues in 1913 was largely due to the 
fact that railroads financed nearly half of their require- 
ments by that method. The following figures show the 
changes in the forms of securities used by the different 
groups of companies: 



Railroads 

1913 1912 

Stocks $234,157,600 $130,100,000 

Bonds 303,777,600 323,329,000 

Notes 420,701,000 279,389,000 

Public Utilities 

Stocks 68,218,850 100,236,720 

Bonds 280,595,000 358,427,280 

Notes 104,732,500 159,469,520 

Industrials 

Stocks 121,109,760 201,1S8,000 

Bonds 66,045,000 173,371,000 

Notes 90,950,000 53,972,000 



Total $1,690,282,310 $1,799,482,520 



Railroads secured more than half the money on new 
security issues in 1913, in comparison with less than half 
the preceding year. The division of new securities among 
the different classes of companies during the past two years 
was as follows: 

Railroad issues, $958,636,200 in 1913 and $732,818,000 in 
1912; public utility issues, $453,546,350 in 1913 and $618,- 
123,520 in 1912; industrial issues, $278,099,760 in 1913 and 
$428,531,000 in 1912. 

The important public utility issues in the electric railway 
field durng 1913 were as follows: 

(1) Bonds. — Interstate Railways, $3,832,000; South Caro- 
lina Light, Power & Railways, $3,000,000; Toledo Traction, 
Light & Power Company, $5,822,000; Chicago Railways, 
$8,000,000; Los Angeles Railway, $3,000,000; New York 
State Railways, $2,748,000; Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company, $4,500,000; New Orleans Railway & Light 
Company, $4,000,000; Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 
$50,000,000, and Pacific Gas & Electric Company, $5,000 000. 

(2) Stocks. — Boston Elevated Railway, $4,000,000; Cleve- 
land Electric Railway, $3,600,000; United Light & Railways 
Company, $2,000,000; National Properties Company, 
$1,649,000; Public Service Company of Northern Illinois, 
$2,000,000; Central Arkansas Railway & Light Company, 
$1,500,000, and Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, 
$2,640,000. 

(3) Notes. — Massachusetts Electric Companies, $3,100,- 
000; Cities Service Companies, $5,090,000; Middle West 
Utilities Company, $3,500,000; Public Service Company of 
Northern Illinois, $2,500,000; Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Rail- 
way & Utilities Company, $3,500,000, and Interborough- 
Metropolitan Company, $1,500,000. 



J. P. Morgan & Company Resign from Directorates 



Announcements have been made of the resignations of 
members of the firm of J. P. Morgan & Company from the 
directorates of a number of organizations in which the firm 
has been interested. J. P. Morgan retires as a director 
from eighteen companies, including the New York Central 
& Hudson River Railroad, the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad, the New York, Westchester & Boston 
Railway, the Millbrook Company and the Rhode Island 
Company. The other members of the firm, Charles Steele, 
H. P. Davison, W. H. Porter and Thomas W. Lamont, have 
also given up some of their directorships. In the statement 
given out to the press Mr. Morgan says: "An apparent 
change in public sentiment in regard to directorships seems 
now to warrant us in seeking to resign from some of these 
connections. Indeed, it may be, in view of change of senti- 
ment upon this subject, that we shall be in a better position 
to serve such properties and their security holders if we 
are not directors. We have already resigned from several 
companies and we expect from time to time to withdraw 
from other boards upon which we feel there is no special 
obligation to remain." 



Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — A semi-annual 
dividend of 3 per cent was paid on Dec. 31 on the $20,517,- 
200 of common stock of the Bay State Street Railway, 
practically all of which is owned by the Massachusetts 
Electric Companies. This dividend compares with 2% per 
cent on June 30, 1913, 3 per cent on Dec. 31 and 2 per cent 
on June 26, 1912, and 3 per cent on Dec. 30, 1911. 

Bristol & Plainville Tramway, Bristol, Conn. — New offi- 
cers have been elected as follows for the Bristol & Plain- 
ville Tramway, control of which has passed to Richter & 
Company, Hartford, Conn., as noted in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of Dec. 6, 1913, page 1208: Charles H. Ten- 
ney, chairman of the board; A. B. Tenney, president; D. 
Edgar Manson, vice-president; Morris L. Tiffany, secretary 
and treasurer; Charles H. Tenney, Springfield; A. B. Ten- 
ney, Boston; John T. Trumbull, Plainville; Rolin J. Plumb, 
Terry ville; Robert P. Briggs, Waterbury; Noble E. Pierce, 
Bristol, and W. H. Putnam and Ferdinand Richter, Hart- 
ford, directors. 

California Railway & Power Company, San Francisco. 
Cal. — The Bankers' Trust Company, agent, has drawn by 
lot for redemption 1000 shares of the prior preference stock 
of the California Railway & Power Company. Notices will 
be mailed to stockholders owning shares so drawn for 
redemption. 

Cape Girardeau-Jackson Interurban Railway, Cape 
Girardeau, Mo. — The Cape Girardeau-Jackson Interurban 
Railway has asked the Public Service Commission of Mis- 
souri for permission to dispose of the line in Cape Girardeau 
to the Light & Development Company, St. Louis, the trans- 
action involving a transfer of $300,000 of stock. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway. — The directors of the Cleve- 
land Railway have authorized a 10 per cent increase in 
the capital stock, or $2,164,000. The matter is now to go 
before the stockholders and the State Utilities Commission 
for approval. Stockholders are to be permitted to sub- 
scribe for the new stock at the rate of one share for ten 
now held. They will have the privilege of paying half the 
subscription on April 1 and half on July 1, or all on April 1. 
The right to subscribe goes to holders of record of March 1. 
The money to be obtained from the stock is to be used for 
improvements that have been approved by the city au- 
thorities. 

Columbus Railway & Light Company, Columbus, Ohio. — 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders of the Columbus 
Railway & Light Company, on Jan. 5, 1914, owners of 
practically 75 per cent of the stock voted to dispose of 
the operating contracts and assets to the new Columbus 
Railway, Power & Light Company. This step cancels the 
lease between the Columbus Railway & Light Company 
and the Columbus Traction Company. The lease of the 
Columbus Railway property is also assigned to the new 
corporation, as well as that of the Columbus Edison Com- 
pany. The stockholders of the Columbus Railway & Light 
Company are to receive $3,000,000 of the common stock of 
the new company after the payment of an assessment of 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



99 



20 per cent on the present $5,000,000 of stock outstanding. 
The refusal of the stockholders of the Columbus Light, 
Heat & Power Company to allow the cancellation of the 
lease will necessitate the continuance of the old company 
in existence. The plans for the consolidation of the com- 
panies were reviewed in the Electric Railway Journal 
of Dec. 27, 1913, page 1352. 

East St. Louis & Suburban Company, East St. Louis, 111. 
— Francis Brothers & Company, St. Louis, are offering at 
95 and interest to yield over 7 per cent a small lot of the 
new convertible 6 per cent gold bonds of the East St. Louis 
& Suburban Company, dated Jan. 1, 1914, due Jan. 1, 1919, 
par $1000, $500 and $100. These bonds are convertible at 
any time prior to July 1, 1918, into an equal amount of 6 
per cent cumulative preferred stock, with 33 1/3 per cent 
in common stock in addition. 

Erie & Central Pennsylvania Railway, Titusville, Pa. — 
On Dec. 8 the property of the Erie & Central Pennsylvania 
Railway was sold at foreclosure sale at the instance of the 
Franklin Trust Company, trustee, to W. N. Bonynge, New 
York, for $56,000. A new company, known as the Titus- 
ville & Cambridge Railway, with a capital stock of $1,000,- 
000 and no bond issue, has been organized to take over 
the railway, which has at present about 1 mile constructed. 
It is reported that it is the intention of the new owners to 
complete the line under construction between Titusville 
and Cambridge Springs. The original plan calls for an 
electric railway line to connect Erie with Titusville by 
means of Cambridge Springs and to continue southward 
to Oil City and Punxsutawney. 

Goldsboro (N. C.) Traction Company. — The Goldsboro 
Traction Company has been sold at foreclosure sale by 
R. W. Winston, Jr., to the Mercantile Trust & Deposit 
Company, Baltimore. Since this foreclosure sale the rail- 
way property has been re-sold by the Mercantile Trust & 
Deposit Company to interests who intend to take it over 
and run it, but at the present time no definite information 
is available in regard to this second sale. 

Hershey (Pa.) Transit Company. — The Lebanon & 
Campbellstown Street Railway and the Hummelstown & 
Campbellstown Street Railway have merged into the 
Hershey Transit Company; capital, $75,000. The directors 
are M. S. Hershey, president, Hershey; W. H. Lebkicker, 
Lancaster; S. C. Stecher, Hummelstown, and J. B. Lei- 
theiser and John E. Snyder, Hershey. 

Idaho Railway, Light & Power Company, Boise, Idaho. — 
Judge Dietrich in the United District Court at Boise on 
Dec. 23, upon application by the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company as creditor to the extent of about 
$40,000, placed the property of the Idaho Railway, Light & 
Power Company in the hands of General Manager O. G. F. 
Markhus as receiver. The receiver will take direct charge 
of all the company's power properties, which include the 
Swan Falls power plant and the transmission lines, and the 
distributing plants at Nampa, Caldwell, Middletown, Star 
and Eagle. The. company's traction properties, including 
the local street-car system and the interurban lines between 
Boise, Nampa and Caldwell, will be operated through the 
Idaho Traction Company as lessee. Thus the traction prop- 
erties are not directly affected by the receivership, although 
it is stated that they may be included later. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. — 
The full allotment of Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany first mortgage 5 per cent bonds, amounting to $78,- 
000,000 for the first year, have been taken by J. P. Morgan 
& Company, the head of a syndicate which is to under- 
write the $170,000,000 of bonds necessary to provide funds 
to complete the subway and elevated construction and im- 
provement program in New York. Of the total bonds sold 
by the company about $16,000,000 were utilized in paying 
off $15,000,000 of notes; about $35,000,000 to retire $33,000,- 
000 of old bonds, and the balance for actual construction 
work. During each of the next two years the firm agrees 
to take $30,000,000 of the bonds and in the fourth year 
$32,000,000, which will absorb the entire $170,000,000. 

Ithaca (N. Y.) Street Railway. — The foreclosure sale of 
the Ithaca Street Railway, which, as noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Oct. 25, 1913, was set for Dec. 2, 1913, 
has been postponed until Jan. 13, 1914. The sale of the 



New York, Auburn & Lansing Railroad, in accordance with 
a reorganization plan submitted to the Columbia & Knick- 
erbocker Trust Company, was to have taken place at the 
same time as the foreclosure sale of the Ithaca Street Rail- 
way, but the exact date of sale of the former road has not 
been set. 

Joliet & Southern Traction Company, Joliet, 111. — The sale 
of the property of the Joliet & Southern Traction Com- 
pany, set for Jan. 28, as noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Dec. 20, 1913, will take place instead on Feb. 11 
at Geneva, the county seat of Kane County. Several dates 
of sale have been mentioned, but this date has been set by 
the court itself. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. — Application has been made by The 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company to the Wis- 
consin Railroad Commission for permission to issue $3,500,- 
000 of 4% per cent refunding and extension mortgage 
twenty-five-year bonds. These bonds are to be deposited as 
additional security under the general and refunding mort- 
gage 5's of 1911, as from time to time the general and 
refunding bonds may be issued, the collateral bonds being 
issuable at the rate of only $1,000,000 yearly. 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, New Haven, 
Conn. — In connection with the recent conferences between 
Attorney-General McReynolds and Howard Elliott, chair- 
man of the board of directors of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, for a readjustment of the New York. 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad without litigation, the 
railroad on Jan. 6 filed with the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission a petition that it be allowed to continue the opera- 
tion of its present steamship lines. The Interstate Com- 
merce Commission is drawn into the New Haven readjust- 
ment because under the Panama Canal act it has jurisdic- 
tion to determine whether a joint rail and water service 
"is of advantage to the convenience and commerce of the 
people." The New Haven petition recites that its rail and 
water service throughout New England is of public benefit. 
It is understood that the main point of difference between 
the Department of Justice and the railroad is over owner- 
ship of the electric railways now controlled by the New 
Haven railroad. It is said that the Department of Justice 
may pass up to the Interstate Commerce Commission the 
two correlated questions of the New Haven's ownership and 
control of the steamship lines and the electric railways. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. 
— With the view of providing for floating debt incurred 
for improvements, the Northern Ohio Traction & Light 
Company recently sold to Borton & Borton, Cleveland, an 
additional $210,000 of 6 per cent cumulative preferred 
stock, subject to the approval of the Ohio Public Utilities 
Commission. This leaves available of the original $3,000,- 
000 issue only $150,000, which is held for double tracking. 
It is announced that the shareholders will vote on Jan. 
24 on increasing the authorized limit of the preferred 
shares to $5,000,000 for the purpose of financing further 
additions, extensions, etc., from time to time required. It 
will be provided that no additional preferred stock shall be 
sold except when the annual net earnings applicable to 
dividends are equal to three times the preferred dividends 
on the preferred outstanding and that about to be issued. 
At the meeting on Jan. 24 the stockholders will also be 
asked to approve the action of the directors in providing 
payment of the federal income tax on the various bond 
issues of the company. The official circular also states 
that the stockholders will vote on acquiring the title to 
the property and rights of the Northern Ohio Power Com- 
pany, which owns a power plant at Cuyahoga Falls. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha, Neb. — 
The Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway on May 1 will 
redeem the $1,846,000 of outstanding bonds of the Omaha 
Street Railway by an issue of $2,000,000 of first consolidated 
5's due Jan. 1, 1928. This new issue has been purchased 
by A. B. Leach & Company, New York, N. Y., and is being 
offered at 97 and interest. 

Pekin & Petersburg Interurban Railway, Pekin, 111. — The 
property of the Pekin & Petersburg Interurban Railway 
has been sold by the master in chancery to Walter E. Lautz, 
representing the bondholders. 



100 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I. — According to 
the report of the Rhode Island Company for the year ended 
June 30, 1913, filed with the State Board of Public Utilities, 
the company paid into the treasury of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad for the year ended June 30, 
1913, dividends of 6 per cent, amounting to $581,130 on the 
$9,685,500 of outstanding stock. The dividend record of 
the company follows: June 30, 1909, 5 per cent; 1910 and 
1911, 6 per cent; in 1912, 3 per cent. The surplus of the 
company for the year ended June 30, 1913, was $88,920, 
while the accumulated surplus at the close of the year was 
$1,129,528. 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways, Oakland, Cal. 

— On Dec. 12 the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rail- 
ways paid the six months' interest at the rate of 7 per 
cent per annum on $2,500,000 of 6 per cent ten months' 
gold notes of the Oakland Railways due June 12, 1913. The 
San Francisco Chronicle states: "Although the notes bear 
only 6 per cent the interest was paid at the rate of 7 per 
cent in consideration of the forbearance of the holders, 
who did not press the collection of the principal at ma- 
turity." 

Sheboygan Railway & Electric Company, Sheboygan, 
Wis. — The stock control of the Sheboygan Railway & Elec- 
tric Company was recently transferred to local capitalists 
headed by Peter Reiss and John Reiss. Ernest Gonzen- 
bach, president and general manager, and W. O. Morgan, 
vice-president, have resigned, and Peter Reiss has been 
elected president of the company. 

Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass. — Stone & Webster have 
issued a sixteen-page pamphlet describing the securities of 
the following companies managed by the Stone & Webster 
Management Association, which they offer and recommend 
at this time, subject to previous sale and change in price: 
Connecticut Power Company, Dallas Electric Company, 
Eastern Texas Electric Company, Galveston-Houston Elec- 
tric Company, Mississippi River Power Company, Northern 
Texas Electric Company, Public Service Investment Com- 
pany, Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Rail- 
way & Light Securities Company, Sierra Pacific Electric 
Company and Tampa Electric Company. The circular is 
introduced with a complete list of the properties under the 
management of the Stone & Webster organization. 

West End Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — A bill in equity 
was filed in the United States District Court in Boston on 
Dec. 31 by Amy Curtis, of Pau, France, as the owner of 
thirty-five shares of preferred and fifty shares of com- 
mon stock of the West End Street Railway, against 
that company and the Boston Elevated Railway, with the 
view of preventing the sale of the former to the latter 
under an Act of the Legislature in 1911. The suit makes 
numerous allegations against the validity of this legisla- 
tion. It is further charged that the legislative act, sanc- 
tioning the merger of the Boston Elevated Railway with 
the West End Street Railway on expiration of its lease 
in 1922, is illegal, unconstitutional and void. Following a 
formal vote last year approving the merger, a suit was 
brought by a bondholder. The decision was adverse to 
the complainant. 



Dividends Declared 



Athens Railway & Electric Company, Athens, Ga., quar- 
terly, W± per cent, preferred. 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad, Wheaton, 111., quar- 
terly, 1% per cent, preferred; quarterly, three-quarters of 
1 per cent, common. 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., 3 per cent, 
common. 

London (Can.) Street Railway, 3 per cent. 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway Company, Chi- 
cago, 111., quarterly, lV^ per cent, preferred; 1 2/10 per 
cent, common. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha, Neb., 
quarterly, 1M per cent, common and preferred. 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Company, Ottumwa, la., quar- 
terly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Scioto Valley Traction Company, Columbus, Ohio, quar- 
terly, l^A per cent, first preferred and preferred. 

South Side Elevated Railroad, Chicago, 111., quarterly, 1% 
per cent. 



Western Ohio Railway, Lima, Ohio, quarterly, 1% per 
cent, first preferred; quarterly, 1% per cent, second pre- 
ferred. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 



BERKSHIRE STREET RAILWAY, PITTSFIELD, MASS. 

Gross Operating Net Fixed Net 

Period Earnings Expenses Earnings Charges Surplus 

lm., Nov., '13 $76,365 *$73,271 $3,094 $15,344 t$12,250 

1 12 72,621 *72,217 408 11,723 tll,315 

5 " " '13 465,957 *379,174 86,255 75,358 10,897 

5 " " '12 443,058 *385,418 57,640 62,537 f4,897 

CONNECTICUT COMPANY, NEW HAVEN, CONN, 
lm., Nov., '13 $645,252 *$550,349 $94,903 $88,371 $6,532 
1 " " '12 608,315 *442,332 165,983 86,498 79,485 
5 " " '13 3,760,009 *2, 640, 578 1,119,430 448,779 670,651 
5 " " '12 3,476,6S9 *2, 287, 038 1,189,650 432,903 756,747 



GRAND RAPIDS (MICH.) RAILWAY 



lm., Nov., '13 
1 12 

12" " '13 
12 12 



$100,791 
100,776 
1,279,595 
1,235,219 



•65,421 
*58,883 
"790,569 
*694,788 



$35,370 
41,893 
489,026 
540,431 



$11,787 $23,583 

14,363 27,530 

168,463 320,563 

175,530 364,901 



LEHIGH VALLEY TRANSIT COMPANY, ALLENTOWN, PA. 

$71,339 $62,598 

45,282 85,767 

578,144 446,573 

502,255 374,442 



lm., Nov., '13 
1 12 

12" " '13 
12 12 



$191,199 *$57,262 $133,937 

184,852 *53,803 131,049 

1,764,998 *740,281 1,024,717 

1,526,777 *650,079 S76.697 



LEWISTON, AUGUSTA & WATERVILLE STREET RAILWAY, 
LEWISTON, MAINE 



lm., Nov., '13 
1 12 

12 " " '13 

12" " '12 



$51,794 
47,844 
672,493 
615,746 



$34,835 
31,211 
422,884 
387,669 



$16,959 
16,633 
249,609 
228,077 



$15,338 $1,621 

14,400 2,233 

178,637 70,972 

173,121 54,956 



MONONGAHELA VALLEY TRACTION COMPANY, FAIRMONT, 

W. VA. 



lm., Nov., 

1 " 
12 " 
12" 



'13 
'12 
'13 
'12 



$83,639 
70,715 
872,471 
776,165 



$32,295 
25,995 
312,446 
306,335 



$51,345 
44,720 
560,025 
469,831 



$25,782 $25,563 

24,768 19,952 

271,874 288,151 

236,324 233,507 



NEW ORLEANS RAILWAY & LIGHT COMPANY, NEW 
ORLEANS, LA. 

lm.,Oct, '13 $594,640 $304,425 $290,215 $207,436 $82,779 

1" " '12 569,524 282,800 286,724 188,720 98,00^ 

10" " '13 5,677,294 2,681,247 2,681,247 2,030,350 650, S9< 

10 12 5,448,504 2,841,839 2,606,665 1,855,450 751,215 

NEW YORK (N. Y.) RAILWAYS 

lm.,Oct, '13 $1,302,080 $761,366 $540,714 $367,787 $172,927 

1 " " '12 1,293,180 761,732 531,348 .371,702 159,546 

4 1 3 4,961,204 2,972,060 1,989,144 1,483,913 505,231 

4 12 4,878,954 2,901,104 1,977,850 1,498,850 479,000 

NEW YORK & STAMFORD RAILWAY, PORT CHESTER, N. Y. 
lm., Nov., '13 $24,344 *$16,926 $7,419 $7,626 t$207 
1 12 24,729 *25,530 802 7,105 t7,907 

5" " '13 1 85,514 *131,835 53,679 38,367 15, 31? 

5 " " '12 181,103 *150,493 30,611 34,917 f4,306 

NEW YORK, WESTCHESTER & BOSTON RAILWAY, 
NEW YORK. N. Y. 
1m., Nov., '13 $36,658 *$54,336 $17,679 $9,576 f$27,255 

1 12 28,605 *43.214 14,609 13,992 f28,601 

5 13 186,918 *248,301 61.383 46,664 1108,047 

5" " '12 121,110 *234,686 113,575 59,958 U73,533 

PADUCAH TRACTION & LIGHT COMPANY, PADUCAH, KY. 
lm., Oct., '13 $26,434 *$17,047 $9,388 $7,593 $1,795 



1 

12 
12 



'12 
'13 
'12 



°4,6^3 
293.81 2 
283,399 



*1 6,389 
*194,748 
*188,299 



8,253 
99.064 
95,100 



7,438 815 
89,270 9,794 
85,857 9,243 



REPUBLIC RAILWAY & LTGHT COMPANY, YOUNGSTOWN, 

OHIO 

lm., Nov., '13 $251,260 *$151, 014 $100,246 $43,517 $56,729 
1 " " '12 233,971 *133.957 100,015 43,662 56.353 
12" " '13 2,979,608 *1,817,448 1,162,161 536,967 625,134 
12" " '12 2,638,427 *1,578,557 1,059,871 529,417 530,454 

RHODE ISLAND COMPANY, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 
lm., Nov., '13 $413,312 *$319,898 $93,415 $109,223 t$![>.808 



'12 410.844 *?S0.875 129,968 
'13 2.470.001. *1, 693, 502 776,499 
'12 2,416,9S0 *1, 491, 550 925,429 



102,056 27.912 
530,879 245,620 
510,279 415,150 



ST. JOSEPH RAILWAY, LIGHT, HEAT & POWER COMPANY. 
ST. JOSEPH, MO. 



lm., Nov., 'IS $110,092 *$59,878 $50,214 

1 12 100,787 *54,495 46,292 

1 2 13 1,245.949 *709.251 536,698 

12" " '12 1,170,366 *667,616 502,750 



$20,231 $29,983 

19,710 26,582 

240.881 295.817 

236,058 266,692 



TWIN CTTY RAPID TRANSTT COMPANY, MINNEAPOLIS, 

MINN. 

lm., Nov., '13 $751,113 $374,947 $376,166 $148,325 $227,841 
1 " " '12 700,676 347.885 352,791 153,575 199.216 
11" " '13 8,085,035 4.086,321 3,998,715 1,619,764 2,378,951 
11 " " '12 7,485.814 3,796,657 3,689,156 1,581,366 2,107,790 



*Tncludes taxes. 
fDeficit. 



January 10, 1914.] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



101 



Traflic an d Tran sportation 

Hearing on Brockton & Plymouth Fares and Service 

The Massachusetts Public Service Commission recently 
gave a hearing at its offices in Boston upon fares and serv- 
ice conditions on the Brockton & Plymouth Street Railway, 
the petitioners being represented by H. B. Davis, a citizen 
of Plymouth, and the company by Thomas Hunt, of Gaston, 
Snow & Saltonstall, Boston. The petitioner requested the 
restoration of a more frequent car service between the 
Hotel Pilgrim, and Kingston carhouse and requested the 
board to examine the financial condition of the road with 
special reference to the continuance of the existing 6-cent 
fare unit. 

Howard F. Eaton, local manager of the company, stated 
that under the present schedule cars are operated on two- 
hour intervals between the Hotel Pilgrim and Cliff Street, 
Plymouth, the previous service being rendered on a half- 
hourly basis. The petitioners object to the reduction in 
service, although under the present schedule hourly cars 
are operated as far from the center of Plymouth as Cliff 
Street, which is 0.8 mile from the Hotel Pilgrim. The wit- 
ness stated that the territory between Cliff Street and the 
hotel is practically unoccupied during the winter, with the 
exception of possibly half a dozen houses adjacent to the 
track. Under the new schedule running time between the 
hotel and the Kingston carhouse has been reduced from 
58 to 45 minutes, the distance being 8 miles. The new 
schedule calls for five cars, the old timetable demanding 
six. The inauguration of the new schedule saves the road 
about $11 per day in platform expenses. Chairman McLeod 
stated at this point that no great amount of evidence is 
necessary to convince the board that the change in schedule 
as effected is not desirable, and that the giving of service 
every two hours cannot be regarded as the rendering of 
service under modern conditions in a community like Ply- 
mouth, unless the company can show that absolute compul- 
sion or financial conditions have rendered that kind of 
service necessary. 

A. S. Pratt, of Boston, district manager for the Stone & 
Webster Management Association, then took the stand. He 
stated that the changes in the schedule were made for 
economical reasons and that the estimated saving in five 
months' operation is $2,789. Between Plymouth and Kings- 
ton the time has been cut about eight minutes. Traffic 
counts showed an average of 3.4 passengers on the trips 
which were eliminated. Mr. Pratt stated that the company 
pays Stone & Webster about $5,500 per year for its man- 
agement. The capitalization of the road consists of $260,- 
000 net of bonds outstanding, $110,000 of preferred stock 
and $295,000 in common stock. The preferred, stock was 
issued through the prestige of Stone & Webster to assist 
the company in caring for a floating debt of about $150,000. 
The company has never paid a dividend upon its common 
stock, and it has been unable to meet proper depreciation 
charges by about $100,000. 

The company's operating costs rose as follows between 
the years ended Sept. 30, 1909, and Sept. 30, 1913: ratio of 
total expenses to gross earnings, 70 to 72.6 per cent; ratio 
of maintenance cost to gross earnings, 16.3 to 18.5 per cent; 
total expenses per car mile, 18.2 cents to 18.9 cents; wages 
of platform per car hour, 45.4 cents to 52.3 cents; wages 
of platform men and car-service expenses per car mile, 
4.79 cents to 5.40 cents; maintenance of rolling stock per 
car mile, 2.21 cents to 2.72 cents. The average revenue per 
passenger mile is about 1.5 cents. A comparison of the 
road's receipts for five years under a 5-cent fare unit and 
for the same period under a 6-cent fare showed average 
yearly earnings of $103,340 under the former and $111,583 
under the latter. During the summer months of the last 
period about half the passengers obtained a 5-cent fare by 
the purchase of park tickets. Mr. Pratt stated that the 
money saved by the new schedule is to be devoted to the 
purchase of new trucks and to re-wiring of cars at about 
$100 each. The road earns $5,400 a mile, and to be reason- 
ably prosperous it should earn at least $6,400. The witness 
described in detail the managerial methods of Stone & 
Webster, emphasizing the benefits of centralized operation 
and incidentally pointing out that the average saving to 



companies under Stone & Webster management through 
centralized purchasing upon future delivery contracts in 
force Dec. 2 was 16.6 per cent over and above what the 
companies would have been obliged to pay if they were not 
able to participate in these contracts. At the close of the 
hearing Chairman McLeod stated that the board would 
probably require some modification in the present schedules 
leading toward a more frequent service. 

The Public Service Commission has issued orders refusing 
to require the Bay State Street Railway to grant transfer 
privileges resulting in a 5-cent fare between all parts of 
Brockton and Whitman or to establish a 5-cent fare between 
Lynnfield and Central Square, Lynn. In the former case 
the board points out that the territory receives electric 
railway service at as low rates as any other portion of the 
State where similar conditions obtain, and in the latter de- 
cision the commission states that it appears that the com- 
pany is obliged to operate the line at a loss on account of 
sparse traffic and that the institution of a 5-cent fare would 
result in a maximum ride of 12.24 miles at that rate. 



Baltimore Company Adopts Pension System 



On the recommendation of William A. House, president, 
the United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., 
has adopted a pension plan for the benefit of its em- 
ployees. The entire expense of the plan is to be borne by 
the company. All employees other than those on a salary 
are entitled to the pensions, subject to the following 
provisions: 

"Those who have attained the age of seventy years, 
whether incapacitated or not. 

"Any employee sixty-five to sixty-nine years of age who 
has become incapacitated. 

"Any employee who has not reached the age of sixty-five, 
but who has been in continuous service for at least thirty 
years and who has become incapacitated, may be retired 
with the amount of pension as fixed in paragraphs 'c' or 'd' 
below. 

"Any employee after twenty years of continuous service, 
if physically or mentally disabled in the company's service." 

Pension allowances are divided into four groups as 
follows: 

"(a) If in continuous service twenty years and less than 
twenty-five years, 30 per cent of the average monthly wage 
received during the ten years immediately preceding re- 
tirement. 

"(b) If in continuous service twenty-five years and less 
than thirty years, 35 per cent of the average monthly wage 
received during the ten years immediately preceding 
retirement. 

"(c) If in continuous service thirty years and less than 
thirty-five years, 40 per cent of the average monthly wage 
received during the ten years immediately preceding re- 
tirement. 

"(d) If in continuous service thirty-five years or more, 
50 per cent of the average monthly wage received during 
the ten years immediately preceding retirement." 



Texas Traction Company's Christmas Letter to Employees 



J. F. Strickland, president of the Texas Traction Com- 
pany and Southern Traction Company, Dallas, Tex., in con- 
tinuance of his policy of esprit de corps, sent each of his 
employees the following Christmas letter, handsomely 
bound: 

"During the past year we have not only operated the 
Texas Traction Company but we have completed a line to 
serve our neighbors in the South. 

"The increased patronage extended to us over the Texas 
Traction Company's lines, and the manner in which we have 
been received in the South, assures us that we have the co- 
operation of those who become our patrons. We have con- 
structed these railways for the purpose of serving our 
neighbors, and we want to serve them better than they have 
been served before. We want to give first consideration 
to their safety, and after considering 'safety first,' we 
want our patrons to be our guests. As our system in- 
creases in size and a greater number of people place them- 
selves in our care, the organization becomes more de- 
pendent upon us. 



102 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



"I believe in the fellowship of men. When one of our 
men extends an extra amount of consideration to the aged, 
the infirm, or the woman with children and bundles beyond 
her ability to manage, I do not believe that he is doing it 
because he is paid for it, but because he is a man and ready 
to assist in carrying the burdens of others. 

"When Texas was young the driver of the stagecoach 
knew his patrons, could call them by their first names and 
give them the best he had because he knew they were 'his 
folks.' Under present conditions it is not possible for us 
to know all our patrons so intimately, but they are 'our 
folks,' and the human service which money cannot buy is 
the service which causes our patrons to feel that they have 
received something which makes them glad that they have 
met us. 

"A few days ago I overheard a gentleman remark that 
our trainmen were a very superior lot of men who treated 
the passengers as though they were members of their own 
families. I did not know the gentleman, so could not grasp 
him by the hand and thank him for his remark; but I felt 
that I had received my Christmas present, for the train- 
men are the part of our family through which our guests, 
the public, receive the impressions on which they base their 
opinions regarding our entire family. 

"Gentlemen, I cannot meet each of you personally to 
extend a Christmas greeting and godspeed for the New 
Year, so I am taking this means of grasping your hand 
and thanking you for your loyal co-operation during the 
past year. May Christmas Day bring added happiness to 
you, and may the new year continue to add happiness and 
prosperity for you and yours." 



New Year's Greeting to New York Employees 



T. P. Shonts, president of the Interborough Rapid Tran- 
sit Company and the New York Railways, New York, N. 
Y., addressed the following communication to the em- 
ployees of these companies on Jan. 1, 1914: 

"Were it possible I should like to shake hands with each 
employee of the New York Railways on this the first day 
of the new year and extend to each, on behalf of directors, 
fellow officials and myself, not only our hearty congratu- 
lations and best wishes for the incoming year but our sin- 
cere appreciation of loyalty and co-operation in the opera- 
tion of these properties during the past year; but as it is 
impossible to deliver this greeting in person, I wish to 
convey the same sentiments by means of this message to 
each fellow employee. 

"Along with these sentiments there is one request which 
I would make of all employees, and that is that during 
1914 they keep constantly in mind that one of the most im- 
portant policies of the company is clearly and fully ex- 
pressed in the words 'safety first.' 

"The transportation business as an occupation is and al- 
ways will be more or less hazardous, and I desire to remind 
each employee that he owes to himself, to his family, to 
his fellow employees and to the public the duty of doing at 
all times all that he can to make his employment and the 
operation of cars and trains as safe as possible. If this 
thought is kept constantly in mind, it is certain to result 
in greater safety to all." 



Christmas Entertainment and Profit Sharing in Washington 



More than 2000 children of the employees of the Wash- 
ington Railway & Electric Company, Washington, D. C, 
gathered at the National Theater on Dec. 30 to participate 
in the thirteenth annual Christmas entertainment given by 
the company. There were doll babies for the girls, sleighs 
and skates for the boys, games for both boys and girls. 
Every child received a present. However, the part of the 
show which attracted most attention was the baby contest, 
a new feature of the Christmas entertainment. Ninety 
babies were entered. The children were carried to the 
theater in special cars, and tickets were furnished them for 
their return, it being impracticable to run specials for the 
return trip, owing to the heavy traffic in the late afternoon. 
Clarence P. King, president of the company, opened the 
festivities with a short address. 

The sum of $30,081 was paid out on Jan. 2 by the com- 
pany to its employees, the payment being the men's share 



under the company's profit-sharing plan of the profits for 
1913* Employees to the number of 830 participated in the 
profit-sharing, the list including conductors, motormen, 
depot clerks, starters and other classes of employees. The 
checks, each representing one man's share of the 1913 
profits, were accompanied by a personal letter from Mr. 
King. The profit-sharing plan was originated by Mr. King 
and was put in operation a year ago, when the sum of 
$19,123 was distributed among the employees. In explain- 
ing the profit-sharing plan Mr. King said: "The profit- 
sharing plan was founded on the experience of the year 
1911, when 26 per cent of the car earnings (less 4 per cent 
District of Columbia tax) was paid out for trainmen's 
wages, accidents and damages, the company agreeing that 
should the 26 per cent amount to more than the said wages, 
accidents and damages for 1912 the surplus should con- 
stitute a profit-sharing fund and be distributed in cash at 
the end of the year. Under this plan each one-year man 
received Jan. 2, 1913, a check for $28.72. To-day it gives 
to the same man $42.53." 



Through Service Between Buffalo and Rochester. — 

Through service between Buffalo and Rochester is to be 
established on Jan. 12, 1914, according to announcement by 
the International Railway, Buffalo, N. Y. A traffic agree- 
ment has been made between the International Railway 
and the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway. 

New Ruling in Regard to Dogs on Detroit Cars. — Because 
of annoyances to which passengers have been subjected the 
Detroit (Mich.) United Railway has announced that after 
Feb. 1 no dogs except lapdogs will be permitted on limited 
cars, and dogs will be permitted only on the rear platforms 
of local cars. 

Sunday Operation Authorized in London. — A by-law to 
authorize the operation of street cars in London, Ont., on 
Sundays was carried on Jan. 1 by more than two to one, 
despite the vigorous opposition of the Lord's Day Alliance 
and other religious bodies. The by-law will be ratified by 
the Council and the service will probably be inaugurated 
by the London Street Railway on the first Sunday in 
February. 

Poem About Last Cable in Kansas City. — /The Metropoli- 
tan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., is distributing copies 
of the poem, "Tribute to the Twelfth Street Cable Line," 
written by Walter P. Neff following the closing of the 
cable in Kansas City on Oct. 12. The poem was printed in 
the Kansas City Daily Drovers' Telegram and several thou- 
sand copies were reproduced by the officers of the Metro- 
politan Street Railway. 

Warning Lights in Toronto. — The Toronto (Ont.) Rail- 
way has installed red and green lights at all intersections 
on its street railway system. The approaching car faces 
the green light. On through lines there are two of these 
lights. They tend to prevent the over-running of switches 
and indicate the corners to automobile drivers. The civic 
authorities have followed this up by painting the lower 
part of the globes of all the street lamps blue, thus giving 
a signal to all the automobile drivers that they are nearing 
a corner. 

Safety Primer for Kansas Schools. — A safety primer for 
use in the public schools of Kansas probably will be adopted 
by the state textbook commission. It will include all of 
the warnings issued by electric and steam roads regarding 
the proper way to get on and off cars, danger of crossing 
the street behind a car and other points which have been 
embraced in the "safety first" movement of the past few 
years. The primers will be furnished free of charge to 
the children, according to present plans, and will be used 
in the lower grades chiefly. 

Change in Fare at East St. Louis. — A circular issued bj 
the East St. Louis & Suburban Company, East St. Louis, 
111., announces that the collection points between Collins- 
ville and Edwardsville will be School House, Bucks and 
Cottonwood. This will increase the fare from Maryville 
to Edwardsville 5 cents. The circular explains that present 
zones for collection are in violation to the public utility 
act in that there is a discrimination in favor of pas- 
sengers riding from Maryville to Edwardsville. The dis- 
tance from the Y at Collinsville to Maryville is 3.91 miles; 
from Maryville to Court House in Edwardsville, 6.79 miles. 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



103 



Detroit Accident Record for Year. — Announcement is 
made by the Detroit (Mich.) United Railway that of some 
310,000,000 passengers carried last year on its city and 
interurban lines only two passengers lost their lives in col- 
lisions. Of forty-one so-called "street car" deaths in Detroit 
twenty-five were directly due to lack of care on the part of 
the victims themselves. Of the remaining sixteen fatal- 
ities, the report says, many of them cannot be listed as 
"unavoidable" because the exercise of precautions would 
have avoided them. The company is pointing to the number 
of avoidable accidents as a lesson to the public in the 
present "safety first" campaign. 

Illinois Utilities Commission Enforces Anti-Pass Law. — 
The Public Utilities Commission of Illinois has interpreted 
a clause in the new public utilities law relating to issuing 
free transportation to the effect that it was intended that 
only police and firemen in uniform should be permitted to 
ride free and then only within the corporate limits of the 
city. In conformance with this interpretation the Chicago 
Elevated Railways served notice on the city of Chicago that 
the city employees' tickets must be redeemed at 5 cents 
instead of 4 cents per ticket as formerly has been the rule. 
The surface railways and the Illinois Central Railroad also 
served similar notice on the city that they propose to con- 
form to the commission's interpretation of the anti-pass 
law. 

Portland's Progress. — W. T. Buchanan, of the Portland 
Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, Ore., con- 
tributed an interesting article, "Portland's City Transporta- 
tion and Electrical Energy," to the Portland Spectator 
recently. In concluding the article Mr. Buchanan said: 
"Portland stands well to the forefront in its transportation 
facilities and in its supply of electrical energy. It is listed 
among the cities of the country where these two conditions 
for the operation of business are involved as standing well 
up in the front ranks, and all doubt as to Portland's ability 
to handle passenger traffic or the necessary power to run 
the factory has been wiped out through the foresight of 
the owners of the Portland Railway, Light & Power Com- 
pany." 

Transporting Letter Carriers in Seattle. — Following a 
conference recently between Postmaster Edgar Battle and 
officials of the Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Com- 
pany, Seattle, Wash., an agreement was reached whereby 
the order of the company requiring all employees of the 
post office to pay car fare will not be enforced until March 1. 
Under the old system the government paid for transporta- 
tion at the rate of $50 annually for carriers on duty whose 
territory was more than 1 mile from the central office. Be- 
lieving it to be impossible to make a flat rate in the future 
whereby under a $50 pro rata all post office employees 
could ride indiscriminately, the company notified the gov- 
ernment some time ago that a change in the system must 
be made. 

Handling Convention Crowd in Kansas City. — The Met- 
ropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., received many 
compliments for the way in which it handled the recent 
Student Volunteer Convention. About 5000 college men, 
most of whom were unacquainted with the car routes, at- 
tended the convention. The company issued instructions 
to car crews to exercise special courtesy and stationed a 
number of guides at various points in the city. The guides 
were provided with cards, upon which they wrote informa- 
tion for the students in regard to transfers, the correct 
cars to use, etc. The information bureaus were main- 
tained during the entire week of the convention. Many 
of the students were from foreign countries. Many Cana- 
dian dimes were offered to the company, while one stu- 
dent proffered Chinese money. 

Accidents in New York. — According to the report of the 
National Highways Protective Society twenty-five persons 
were killed by automobiles in New York City in December. 
This makes a total of 302 killed by automobiles in New 
York City in 1913, of which number 149 were children. In 
1912 the number killed was 221, of whom 103 were children. 
The number of automobile fatalities in December was five 
more than in the corresponding month of 1912, but thirteen 
less than November, 1913. Six persons were killed in De- 
cember by the electric railways in New York City as against 
thirteen a year ago, making a total of 106 such fatalities as 



compared with 134 for 1912. In the State of New York, 
outside of this city, in December, nine persons were killed 
by automobiles, ten by electric railways and three by 
wagons. This makes a total for the year of 150 deaths by 
automobiles on the highways, seventy-nine by electric rail- 
way and thirty-two by wagons, as compared with 127 by 
automobiles, seventy-nine by electric railways and twenty- 
eight by wagons for 1912. 

Municipal Railway Superintendent on Discipline. — The 
treatment of employees as men eager to "make good," 
quick to respond to sympathy and with a keen sense of 
justice was the keynote of an address on "The Welfare of 
Employees," by S. Doughty, superintendent of the Regina 
(Sask.) Municipal Railway, before the Engineering Society 
of Regina. Mr. Doughty said that the highest efficiency 
was possible only when the employee took a personal inter- 
est in his work. This could be obtained when the employer 
showed his men that he considered their welfare as well 
as the profits of the business. He cited the recreation 
room opened in Regina about a year ago and called atten- 
tion to the care which the management directed toward 
the welfare of the men. Although a car mileage of 691,281 
had been made, the amount paid out by the company in 
damages was only $84. Mr. Doughty recommended the 
adoption of the merit system and the rule that no man 
should be discharged without a thorough investigation of 
all the phases of the complaint against him. 

Route Guide in Philadelphia.— The Philadelphia (Pa.) 
Rapid Transit Company has issued a route guide to its 
street car lines. The guide is in the form of a booklet 2% 
in. wide by 4 in. high, and contains 104 pages. The booklet 
is introduced with the statement that it is issued by the 
company for free distribution to the public, a list of the 
places being given where the guide can be obtained. The 
index affords, perhaps, the best idea of the scope of the sub- 
jects which the publication covers. The subjects follow: 
bureau of information, car sign system, chartered car rates, 
fare limits — suburban lines, index to routes, house-num- 
bering plan, how to obtain copies of this guide book, how 
to reach points of interest, lost articles, pairing of streets, 
rates of fare, telephone numbers, Willow Grove Park. The 
routes in Philadelphia are all numbered and the destina- 
tion of cars is indicated by signs giving the route number 
displayed on the cars. This is probably the most elaborate 
example in the United States of a route number guide pub- 
lished by an electric railway. 

Buttons and Service Marks in Kansas City. — The Metro- 
politan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., issued an order 
recently eliminating brass buttons on uniforms. The order 
affects all of the 1800 carmen employed. The change, it 
was announced, was for the benefit of employees. Some 
of the conductors and motormen could afford only one suit 
of clothes or had their service hours so arranged that they 
could not change to citizen's clothes between runs. The 
brass buttons will be replaced with the ordinary black 
ones, and the men will not be conspicuous when attired 
in their uniforms off duty. Each employee heretofore has 
been decorated with ten buttons, which were the property 
of the company. In addition the order embraces the use 
of stars. Heretofore employees have received one star 
for every five years of service. In the future employees 
who have served more than five years and less than ten 
will be decorated with one star. When ten years is reached 
the star will be replaced by a gold button, which bears the 
number of years served. The button is somewhat like a 
lodge pin, is attached to the lapel of the coat and can be 
removed easily. 

Safety Exhibit in Brooklyn. — At the monthly meeting of 
the Brooklyn committee of public safety, held on Jan. 3, 
1913, it was announced that T. S. Williams, president of 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, had offered a special 
contribution of $1,000 to serve as a basis for the organiza- 
tion of a safety exhibit in Brooklyn. The primary impulse 
toward the proposed Brooklyn exhibition was the interest 
shown by the public in the exhibit of the Brooklyn com- 
mittee of public safety and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company at the recent International Exposition of Safety 
and Sanitation devices at the Grand Central Palace, Man- 
hattan, referred to in the Electric Railway Journal of 
Dec. 27, 1913, page 1321. This initial Brooklyn safety ex- 



104 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



hibition will not be competitive in the sense that awards, 
diplomas or medals will be given to the different exhibitors, 
but will be arranged for the purpose of giving the people 
of Brooklyn, and especially the school children, a clearer 
idea of the work of the committee of public safety, and 
furthermore to afford the industrial interests of Brooklyn 
an opportunity to show to the public the work they are 
doing in their own plants to protect the lives and limbs of 
their own workers. 

Decreased Accidents in Detroit. — Under the caption 
"Decreased Accidents," Electric. Railway Service, which is 
published in the interest of the Detroit (Mich.) United 
Railway, says in part in the issue for Jan. 2, 1914: "It 
is very clear to the operating department of the Detroit 
United Railway that the near-side stop by street cars is one 
of the best moves ever made in the interests of 'safety 
first.' Police Commissioner Gillespie, who advocated the 
measure, and the Common Council that passed it deserve 
much credit. The near-side stop has effected a marked 
decrease in the number of accidents and particularly 
in the number of severe accidents. One marked improve- 
ment as a result of the near-side stop has been to make 
automobile drivers more careful. They are expecting to 
meet people coming from cross streets to catch the cars 
and hence are not crossing the streets with the old time 
speed when approaching street cars. And the beauty of 
the near-side stop is that it is in harmony with the opera- 
tion of the traffic squad, which must continue to grow as 
the city grows. You obey the traffic signal and stop before 
you cross — not afterward. The near-side stop is a big 
factor in the 'safety first' of everybody." 

Miraculous Escape of Child Struck by Car. — One of the 
local papers at Chickasha, Okla., describes in part as fol- 
lows the miraculous escape without injury on Dec. 28, 1913, 
of a three-year-old boy who ran in front of a car of the 
Chickasha (Okla.) Street Railway: "The car struck the 
baby and he went down in front between the rails. He 
was rolled over and over beneath the car, but luckily al- 
ways between the rails. He was picked up, lying on his 
left side with his head almost touching the east rail. His 
knees were doubled up in front of him, his arms folded 
and his entire posture was much as if he were asleep in 
his own bed at home. The child was taken into a neigh- 
boring house, where a hasty examination was made. Later 
he was taken home, where physicians attended him. Noth- 
ing but a scalp wound and a spot on the back of the head 
where a small section of the skin had been rubbed off could 
be found. The little fellow passed a comfortable night 
and no complications are expected." W. H. Wadsworth, 
superintendent of the Chickasha Street Railway, says that 
the car which struck the child was equipped with a Dia- 
mond single truck and GE-1000 motors. The greatest 
clearance possible as measured by Mr. Wadsworth was 
5% in. On Dec. 31 the child was apparently none the 
worse for his experience. 

Helping the Farmer Market His Produce. — Believing that 
the development of interurban traffic involves careful and 
painstaking study of peculiar trade conditions which may 
affect the business, the Louisville & Interurban Railroad, 
Louisville, Ky., has been carrying on a campaign for busi- 
ness from the truck gardeners in the surrounding territory 
with interesting results. R. H. Wyatt, general freight and 
passenger agent of the company, found that Jefferson 
County growers, whose production of onions, potatoes and 
cabbage is one of the largest in the United States, in- 
sisted on hauling their goods to Louisville and delivering 
them in person to the commission houses, getting their 
money before turning over the produce. Personal investi- 
gation bv the officers of the interurban company demon- 
strated that the farmer lost much valuable time in hauling 
and developed the fact that the farmers distrust the com- 
mission men and refuse to ship the goods on consignment. 
Mr. Wyatt has suggested the organization of an association 
of truck growers and the establishment by the association 
of its own commission house in Louisville, where an officer 
of the organization would handle the produce. The farmers 
are preparing to carry the idea out. Mr. Wyatt believes 
that when this is done the work which the company has 
been carrying on will be evidenced in a large increase in 
inbound traffic over the Louisville & Interurban Railroad. 



Personal Mention 



Mr. A. B. Tenney has been elected president of the 
Bristol & Plainville Tramway, Bristol, Conn., to succeed 
Mr. Miles Lewis Peck. 

Mr. B. F. Wood, formerly an assistant engineer of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, has been appointed chief engineer 
of the United Gas & Electric Engineering Corporation, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. C. H. Tenney, of C. H. Tenney & Company, Boston, 
Mass., has been elected chairman of the board of directors 
of the Bristol & Plainville Tramway, Bristol, Conn., a 
newly created position with the company. 

Mr. H. H. Vreeland, who was president of the Metropoli- 
tan Street Railway, New York, N. Y., which has been suc- 
ceeded by the New York Railways, has been elected 
chairman of the board of the Royal Typewriter Company. 

Mr. Orville F. Berry, who was chairman of the Illinois 
Railroad & Warehouse Commission, which has been suc- 
ceeded by the Illinois Public Utilities Commission, has 
been appointed a special examiner with the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. 

Mr. D. A. Hegarty has resigned as manager of the rail- 
way and electrical departments of the New Orleans Rail- 
way & Light Company, New Orleans, La. Mr. Hegarty has 
been connected with the company since July, 1911. Before 
that he was vice-president, general manager, treasurer and 
director of the Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, 
Little Rock, Ark. Mr. Hegarty has been connected with 
electric railway work since the pioneer days and for a num- 
ber of years was stationed in New York as manager of the 
Railways Company General. 

Mr. Thomas M. Jenkins, former general manager of the 
East St. Louis & Suburban Railway, East St. Louis, 111., has 
been appointed general manager of the St. Louis & O'Fallon 
Coal Company, which was acquired recently by the Busch 
interests. Mr. Jenkins will serve as general manager of 
the mines and also will supervise the transportation of 
coal to St. Louis on the St. Louis & O'Fallon Railroad and 
the Manufacturers' Railway, St. Louis. Mr. Jenkins was 
also formerly connected with the Albany (N. Y.) Railway, 
now the United Traction Company, and was general man- 
ager of the Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Railway, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, and vice-president and general manager of the 
Danville Light, Power & Traction Company, Danville, Ky. 

Mr. Ernest Gonzenbach has resigned as president and 
general manager of the Sheboygan Railway & Electric 
Company, Sheboygan, Wis., following the sale of the con- 
trolling interest in the company to local interests in She- 
boygan. Mr. Gonzenbach intends for the present to devote 
himself to the further development of a fruit and dairy 
farm on which he has lived for several years and on which 
he has been raising fine fruits and pure-bred dairy stock. 
He took charge of the property at Sheboygan on Jan. 1, 
1905, as general manager. Later on he was elected treas- 
urer of the company and subsequently vice-president, 
treasurer and general manager. He was finally elected 
president and general manager. He has been completely 
responsible for the management and operation of the com- 
pany since that time. Mr. Gonzenbach was pleasantly 
surprised on New Year's Day by a call from a committee 
of employees who presented him with a solid silver table 
service. Mr. Gonzenbach acknowledged this gift in a card 
of appreciation which he addressed to each of the em- 
ployees, stating that the success which he attained with 
the property was in great part due to the loyalty of the 
men who served under him. Mr. Gonzenbach is Swiss by 
birth and education, but came to this country immediately 
after leaving school. After an electrical experience in 
power house work in Chicago he completed the Thomson- 
Houston expert course at Lynn, Mass. In 1895, as elec- 
trical engineer in St. Johnsbury, Vt., he constructed sev- 
eral electric light and transmission plants in that vicinity. 
In 1898 he entered the employ of the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric & Manufacturing Company, and in 1900 became elec- 
trical engineer of the Albany & Hudson Railroad, one of 
the early third-rail roads. Subseauently he accepted a 
similar position with the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Rail- 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



105 




road, then under construction, after which he was engaged 
for two years as consulting engineer, principally in the 
construction of the Youngstown & Southern Railway. In 
1909 Mr. Gonzenbach was elected president of the Wis- 
consin Electrical Association. 

Mr. Slaughter W. Huff, who, as announced in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Jan. 3, 1914, will be elected 
vice-president of the Brooklyn (N. Y. Rapid Transit 
Company and other com- 
panies in the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit System to 
succeed Mr. J. F. Calder- 
wood, was born in Virginia 
and was graduated from 
the electrical engineering 
course at Cornell Univer- 
sity. He entered the elec- 
tric railway field when it 
was practically in its in- 
fancy. His first experi- 
ence was obtained in the 
shops of the Union Rail- 
way, Richmond, Vai, at the 
time that Mr. Frank 
Sprague turned over his 
work to the local company. 
Subsequently Mr. Huff be- s - w - Huff 

came general manager of the Raleigh (N. C.) Street Rail- 
way. He has been associated in various capacities with the 
Baxter Electric Railway & Power Company, Baltimore; 
United Railway & Electric Company, Baltimore; United 
Railroads of San Francisco and the Virginia Passenger & 
Power Company, Richmond, Va. He resigned as general 
manager of the last-named company in 1908 to become 
president of the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad, the 
controlling interest in the stock of which is now to be taken 
over by the Coney Island & Gravesend Railway, a subsidi- 
ary of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. As president 
of the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad Mr. Huff had 
charge of a property with some 50 miles of track, reaching 
the principal points of Brooklyn and doing a large business 
to Coney Island in the summer. He became identified with 
the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad following a change 
in ownership and during his connection with the property 
the system has been very largely reconstructed and mod- 
ernized. The property with which Mr. Huff now becomes 
connected constitutes a system of about 600 miles of sur- 
face single track and 71% miles of elevated single track, 
while the extensive subway system under the dual plan 
now under construction will add very considerably to this 
mileage. 

OBITUARY 

George Hendrie, the general manager of the first street 
railway to be built in Detroit, Mich., is dead. Mr. Hendrie 
was connected with street railway development in that city 
from 1864 to 1891. 

W. E. Davidson, secretary of the Pearson Mexican cor- 
porations having head offices in Toronto, Ont., which in- 
clude the Mexican Light & Power Company, Mexican 
Tramways and the Mexican Northwestern Railway, died 
on Dec. 25 on a steamer in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Bernard Corrigan, who was president of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., from 1902 to 1911, died 
of heart disease in that city on Jan. 6, after a few hours' 
illness. Mr. Corrigan was born in Canada in 1847 and 
settled in Kansas City in 1868 with his two brothers. The 
Corrigans entered the contracting field, and in 1875 Bernard 
Corrigan and one of the brothers acquired the old mule car 
system of Kansas City with the exception of the Westport 
line. This was owned by the late Nehemiah Holmes, father 
of Mr. Walter Holmes and Mr. Conway F. Holmes. In 1886 
Mr. Corrigan and his brothers equipped the line which they 
had taken over with the cable and later sold the property 
to the Metropolitan Street Railway. The brothers then 
turned their attention to steam railroad construction work. 
Mr. Corrigan again re-entered the railway field in 1902, 
when he was elected president of the Kansas City Railway 
& Light Company, which holds all of the stock of the Met- 
ropolitan Street Railway and the Kansas City Electric 
Light Company. 



Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 
ported 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 
*San Francisco Peninsula Railway, San Francisco, Cal. — 

Application for a charter has been made by this company 
in California to build a 100-mile electric railway, some of 
it double-track, from San Francisco to Monterey via Wat- 
sonville. 

''Illinois County Railroad, Centralia, 111. — Application for 
a charter has been made by this company in Illinois to build 
an electric or steam interurban railway to connect Irving- 
ton, Salem, Centralia, Central City, Junction City, Sandoval 
and Odin. Capital stock, $300,000. Incorporators: G. E. 
Ellis, R. A. Warner, E. E. Fyke, H. M. Warner and F. L. 
Pfeiffer, all of Centralia. 

'Rochester & Hillsboro Railroad, Taylorville, 111. — Appli- 
cation for a charter has been made by this company to 
build an electric railway from Springfield to Hillsboro 
with a branch from Rochester to Taylorville. Capital stock, 
$100,000. Incorporators: Frank M. McGowan, Nathaniel 
J. Hamilton, A. Barker, M. D. Barker and Jesse H. Thomas, 
all of Springfield. 

Madisonville-Nortonville Light, Power & Traction Com- 
pany, Madisonville, Ky. — Incorporated in Delaware to build 
a 12-mile electric railway between Madisonville, Earling- 
ton, Mortons Gap, Barnsley and Nortonville in Kentucky. 
James Breathitt, Jr., Hopkinsville, is interested. [E. R. J., 
Jan. 3, '13.] 

^Northwestern Electric Railway. Columbia, S. C. — Incor- 
porated in South Carolina to build an electric railway be- 
tween Easley, S. C, and Augusta, Ga. Capital stock, $100,- 
000. 

Fort Worth & Denton Interurban Railway, Fort Worth, 
Tex. — Chartered in Texas to build an electric railway be- 
tween Fort Worth and Denton. Capital stock, $500,000. 
Incorporators: E. E. Baldridge, N. Harding, George T. 
Reynolds and B. O. Smith, all of Fort Worth. [E. R. J., 
Dec. 20, '13.] 

FRANCHISES 

Dixon, Cal. — The Sacramento Valley West Side Electric 
Railway has received a fifty-year franchise from the Coun- 
cil on First Street in Dixon. This 160-mile line will extend 
through the west side of the Sacramento Valley. C. L. 
Donohoe, Willows, president. [E. R. J., Jan. 3, '14.] 

Dixon, Cal. — The Northern Electric Railway, Chico, has 
received a fifty-year franchise from the Council on First 
Street, Dixon, provided the State Railroad Commission will 
allow the crossing of the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks 
in the north part of Dixon to be made at grade. 

East St. Louis, 111.— The East St. Louis Railway has 
received a twenty-year franchise from the Council on 
Natalie Avenue and Twenty-fifth Street to Jones Park in 
East St. Louis. 

Galesburg, 111. — The Rock Island Southern Railroad has 
received a franchise from the Council on South Kellogg 
Street from Berrien Street to Main Street in Galesburg. 

Nowata, Kan. — The Union Traction Company has asked 
the Council for a franchise in Nowata. 

Topeka, Kan. — The Topeka Railway has asked the Coun- 
cil for a franchise to extend its line from Washburn Col- 
lege to Seabrook. 

Madiscnville, Ky. — The Madisonville-Nortonville Light, 
Power & Traction Company has asked the Council for a 
franchise in Madisonville. James Breathitt, Jr., Hopkins- 
ville, is interested. [E. R. J., Jan. 3, '13.] 

West Monroe, La. — The North Louisiana Electric Rail- 
way has received a franchise from the Council in West 
Monroe. Negotiations are under way between this com- 
pany and the City Council to have this railway enter 
Shreveport via the new bridge. This 120-mile line will 
connect Shreveport and Monroe via Homer, Minden, Rus- 
ton and West Monroe. A. B. Blevins, Shreveport, presi- 
dent. [E. R. J., Dec. 27, 13.] 



106 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



Cape Girardeau, Mo. — The Cape Girardeau-Jackson In- 
terurban Railway has asked the Public Service Commission 
for permission to build an interurban line between Cape 
Girardeau and Jackson, a distance of 5% miles. 

Middletown, Ohio. — The Dayton, Middletown & Cincinnati 
Railway has' received a franchise from the Council in Mid- 
dletown. E. H. McKnight, general manager. [E. R. J., 
Nov. 22, '13.] 

Gait, Ont. — A by-law will be submitted on Jan. 15 author- 
izing the renewal of the franchise of the Gait, Preston & 
Hespeler Railway for twenty-five years with power to make 
certain extensions and improvements of its lines in Gait. 

Portland, Ore. — George F. Heusner, Portland, who re- 
cently received a franchise to build an electric railway from 
Kenton to the West Side business district of Portland, has 
signed the acceptance of the franchise, which compels him 
to begin work within sixty days. [E. R. J., Dec. 6, '13.] 

Oswego, Ore. — The Portland, Eugene & Eastern Rail- 
way has received a franchise from the Council in Oswego. 

Bentleyville, Pa. — The Monongahela, Ellsworth & Wash- 
ington Street Railway has received from the Council an 
extension of time on its franchise to complete its line in 
Bentleyville. James Bryant, Pittsburgh, engineer. [E. R. J., 
Sept. 6, '13.] 

Chattanooga, Tenn. — The Chattanooga Traction Com- 
pany has received a franchise from the Council in Chatta- 
nooga. 

Tacoma, Wash.— Following the defeat of the $87,000 
bond issue at a recent election, the City Council has intro- 
duced an ordinance for its first reading which announces 
an intention to build a tideflats electric line by the creation 
of a $35,000 fund. It has not yet been decided whether the 
line will be operated by the city or by the Puget Sound 
Electric Railway. The intention of the Council is to build 
this line at once. 

TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, 
Ark. — During the year it is planned to build about 1% miles 
of new track in Little Rock. 

Clear Lake Railroad, Lakeport, Cal. — During the year 
23% miles of new track will be built. 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways, Oakland, Cal. 
— Final arrangements have been made by this company 
and the City Council for the extension on Washington 
Street to San Pablo Avenue in front of the new city hall 
in Oakland. The city will call for bids for the construction 
of the track and the traction company will supply the neces- 
sary connections at the terminals. When completed the 
tracks will be leased to the company. 

San Diego, (Cal.) Electric Railway. — A 2% -mile double- 
track line will be laid through City Park during 1914. 

Sacramento Valley West Side Electric Railway, Willows, 
Cal. — Permission has been asked by this company to begin 
the construction of its line between Rio Vista and Red 
Bluff at a point in Solano County where the Oakland, 
Antioch & Eastern Railway crosses the proposed line and 
to build north from there through Dixon and Davis to 
Woodland, 31 miles. C. L. Donohoe, Willows, president. 
[E. R. J., Dec. 20, '13.] 

Tampa (Fla.) Electric Company. — From 1 to 3 miles of 
new track will be laid in Tampa during this year. 

Idaho Falls (Idaho) Electric Railway. — This company has 
received a certificate of public convenience and necessity 
from the Public Utilities Commission at Boise to build 34 
miles of interurban lines out of Idaho Falls in two direc- 
tions in the vicinity of Idaho Falls. James L. Milner, Idaho 
Falls, president. [E. R. J., Dec. 20, '13.] 

Alton, Granite & St. Louis Traction Company, Alton, 
111. — A 1-mile extension of the city line in Alton will be 
built during the year. 

Peoria, Galesburg & Western Railroad, Galesburg, 111. — 
This company has filed with the recorder of Knox County 
a mortgage for $1,500,000 in favor of the Fort Dearborn 
Trust & Savings Bank, of Chicago, to secure a bond issue 
for the construction of the line to connect Peoria and 
Galesburg. William T. Irwin, Peoria, is interested. 
[E. R. J., May 31, '13.] 



Iowa City (la.) Electric Railway. — From 1% to 2 miles 
of new track will be built in Iowa City during 1914. 

Independence, Neodesha & Topeka Traction Company, 
Independence, Kan. — Work has been begun on the construc- 
tion of a 17-mile section of this line between Independence 
and Neodesha. Robert P. Woods, Kansas City, engineer. 
[E. R. J., Nov. 15, '13.] 

"Kansas City, Kan. — E. G. Havens and G. C. Broudt, 
Kansas City, plan to build an electric railway between 
Kansas City and Topeka, via Lawrence. Most of the right- 
of-way has been donated. The present plans for the route 
are to parallel the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 
from Kansas City to Lawrence, where it will cross the 
Kansas River and run parallel with the Union Pacific Rail- 
road tracks to Topeka. 

Kansas Central Traction Company, Topeka, Kan. — Right- 
of-way has been secured and work has been begun on this 
(i0-mile line to connect Coffeyville and Columbia via Edna, 
Altamont, Oswego, Hallowell and Sherwin. Philip Strack, 
Parsons, president. [E. R. J., Dec. 27, '13.] 

Topeka (Kan.) Railway. — The West Eighth Street line 
extending to Summit Street, the city limits of Topeka, has 
been placed in operation. The line will soon be extended to 
Gage Park. 

*New Orleans & Mobile Interurban Railway, New Or- 
leans, La. — Plans are being considered to build an electric 
railway to connect New Orleans and Mobile via Bayou, 
St. Louis, Pass Christian and Gulfport. 

*Quebec Railway, Presque Isle, Maine. — This company 
has received permission from the Railroad Commissioners to 
build a 100-mile electric railway through Aroostook County 
from Washburn westward to Wade and Portage Lake, 
thence to the Province of Quebec across the Allagash at the 
foot of Long Lake on a bridge 25 ft. high. From the Alla- 
gash it is to extend northwest to the St. John River and at 
Township 12, Range 15, it will cross on a 40-ft. trestle. 
Preliminary arrangements are being made and it is planned 
to begin construction in the spring. No names are yet 
given of those interested in the project. 

Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Railway, Detroit, 
Mich. — About 3 miles of new track will be laid during the 
year. 

Electric Short Line Railroad, Minneapolis, Minn. — The 

15-mile section of the line between Minneapolis and Long 
Lake has been completed and during the month the bridge 
over the Great Northern tracks at Long Lake will be com- 
pleted and then 27 miles of new track will be placed in 
operation. 

Minneapolis & Northern Railway, Minneapolis, Minn. — 

About 15 miles of new track will be laid during 1914 be- 
tween Minneapolis and St. Joseph. 

Missouri & Kansas Interurban Railway, Kansas City, Mo. 
— The proposed extension of this company's line from 
Olathe to Ottawa will be built by a company to be incor- 
porated as the Southwestern Electric Railway, according 
to present plans. W. B. Strang will apply for a charter 
for the new company in the near future. 

United Railways, St. Louis, Mo. — This company is asked 
to consider plans to extend its Taylor line north to Broad- 
way and its Grand Avenue line north to Broadway in St. 
Louis. 

Springfield & Western Railroad, Springfield, Mo. — Pre- 
liminary surveys have been made from Mount Vernon west 
to Joplin via Stotts City, Clarkson, Sarcoxie and Duenweg. 
The total distance, including a 9-mile branch from Jenkins 
Creek to Carthage, is 54 miles. 

*Billings, Mont. — ^Surveys for a 68-mile electric railway 
to the mouth of the Big Horn Canyon have been made by 
the Big Horn Canyon Power & Irrigation Company in 
preparation for building a large dam. 

Jamestown & Buffalo Street Railway, Buffalo, N. Y. — 
Surveys have been completed and part of the right-of-way 
secured to build this line to connect Falconer, Lavant, Po- 
land, Kennedy, Ellington, Clear Creek, Leon, South Dayton, 
Fair Plain, Wesley, Persia, Gowanda, Collins, Lawtons, 
North Collins, Eden Center, Eden Valley, Water Valley, 
Hamburg and Buffalo. Among those interested are J. B. 
Anderson, Ellington; R. G. Crandall, Kennedy; F. E. Bard 



January 10, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



107 



and Clarence G. Mead, Gowanda, and Frank N. Rowe, 
South Dayton. [E. R. J., Nov. 29, '13.] 

New York State Railways, Rochester, N. Y. — Among the 
improvements planned by this company during the year 
will be to double-track the Euclid Avenue section of the 
Dudley-East Genesee line and to relay 8 miles of track. 

Cape Breton Electric Company, Sydney, N. S. — Plans are 
being considered to extend this line into New Waterford. 

Dayton, Middletown & Cincinnati Railway, Middletown, 
Ohio. — Surveys have been completed by this company for its 
line to connect Dayton and Cincinnati via Middletown. 
E. H. McKnight, Middletown, general manager. [E. R. J., 
Nov. 22, '13.] 

Toledo Railway & Light Company, Toledo, Ohio. — During 
1914 about 10 miles of track will be relaid in Toledo. 

Ottawa & Morrisburg Electric Railway, Ottawa, Ont. — 
Work has been postponed until the spring on this line to 
connect Ottawa and Morrisburg. J. G. Kilt, Citizens' Build- 
ing, Ottawa, president. [E. R. J., Sept. 13, '13.] 

*Penetanguishene, Ont. — The City Council of Penetan- 
guishene is considering plans to build an electric railway 
to connect with the Canadian Pacific Railroad at Port Mc- 
Nicoll and has asked the Hydro-Electric Power Commis- 
sion for plans and specifications. 

Forest Hill Electric Railway, Toronto, Ont. — Plans are 
being made to begin work on this line in the spring. The 
first section to be constructed will be from the city limits 
of Toronto along Forest Hill Road to Eglinton Avenue 
and along Eglinton Avenue west. [E. R. J., Nov. 8, '13.] 

Wayne County Traction Company, Honesdale, Pa. — The 
directors of this company have voted to extend this line 
from the city limits of Honesdale to Tanner's Falls, a dis- 
tance of 6 miles. 

Shippensburg, Newburg & Western Railway, Shippens- 
burg, Pa. — Levi Weast has been appointed receiver for this 
company. An appraisement of the company's property will 
soon be made and it will be sold at public auction. This 
was a projected 13-mile line to connect Shippensburg, Mid- 
dlespring, Newburg, McKenney and Roxbury. [E. R. J., 
Sept. 27, '13.] 

Sioux Falls (S. D.) Traction System.— During 1914 this 
company will build 1 mile of new track in Sioux Falls. 
Maryville-Knoxville Interurban Railway, Knoxville, Tenn. 

— The contract to build 12 miles of this railway between 
Knoxville and Maryville has been awarded to R. B. Oliver, 
Knoxville. Work will be begun at once. Morton Butler, 
Chicago, 111., president. [E. R. J., Dec. 20, '13.] 

Tennessee & Kentucky Railroad, Nashville, Tenn. — An 
application for a charter amendment has been made by 
this company to permit a change in the proposed route. 
The company was recently incorporated to build an electric 
line to Russellville, Ky., via Goodlettsville, Tenn., and now 
it is proposed to make Franklin, Ky., the terminus in place 
of Russellville. [E. R. J., Aug. 30, '13.] 

Nashville Railway & Light Company, Nashville, Tenn. — 
This company has amended its charter so as to extend sev- 
eral of its lines in Nashville. 

Texas Traction Company, Dallas, Tex. — Plans are being 
made to double-track and extend some of the lines in Deni- 
son. 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway. — Improvements which 
will entail an expenditure of $500,000 will be made by this 
company in the near future on its lines in El Paso. 

*Meridian, Tex. — The Meridian Chamber of Commerce 
and the Young Men's Business League of Waco are con- 
sidering plans to build an interurban electric railway be- 
tween Waco and Cleburne via China Springs, Valley Mills, 
Clifton, Meridian, Walnut Springs and Glenrose, a distance 
of 25 miles. Meridian proposes to provide right-of-way 
and a cash bonus. J. J. Powers, Waco, is interested. 

Utah Light & Railway Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. — 
The 13-mile extension between Salt Lake City and Center- 
ville has been placed in operation. 

Chippewa Valley Railway, Light & Power Company, Eau 
Claire, Wis. — During 1914 about 4 miles of new track will 
De laid between Eau Claire and Altoona. 



Wisconsin Southern Railway, Fond du Lac, Wis. — .This 
company will build 23 miles of new track during the year. 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 

Pacific Great Eastern Railway, Victoria, B. C. — Follow- 
ing the inauguration of the electric railway service in the 
north shore section of this company's lines on Jan. 1, the 
company has distributed material to build five new pas- 
senger stations which will be established along the line. 

Rock Island Southern Railroad, Monmouth, 111. — Plans 
are being made to build a new passenger station on Main 
Street in Galesburg. 

Louisville & Interurban Railroad, Louisville, Ky. — This 
company has completed the construction of additional tracks 
at its freight terminals at Brook Street and Green Street 
in Louisville, giving it a capacity of twenty additional cars. 
It has also secured a permit to build a shed to cover the 
additional trackage and has acquired adjoining land for the 
purpose of constructing a new freight-handling station to 
be used exclusively for handling in-bound freight. 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Railway. — This 
company is asked to consider plans to build a new depot at 
Lincoln Square in West Boylston. 

Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company, 
Youngstown, Ohio. — Plans are being made to build a new 
carhouse in West Federal Street on the site of the present 
building owned by the company in Lowellville. Additional 
land has been acquired and the entire lot will be used for 
the new structure. 

Oregon Electric Railway, Portland, Ore. — Arrangements 
have been completed to begin construction at once on a new 
passenger station in Independence. 

Seattle (Wash.) Electric Company. — A temporary depot 
will be built by this company on Third Street between 
Stewart Street and Virginia Street in Seattle. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — Plans are 
under way to build a new substation near the corner of 
First Street and E Street in San Bernardino. The cost is 
estimated to be about $15,000. 

Morris County Traction Company, Morristown, N. J. — 
This company plans to build soon a new power plant in 
Morristown. The cost is estimated to be about $250,000. 

Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company, 
Youngstown, Ohio. — This company is placing orders for a 
boiler room extension and other minor improvements in 
its Lowellville power plant. The company expects to pur- 
chase three 600-hp boilers, stokers, coal bunkers and mis- 
cellaneous boiler room equipment, also transformers and 
motor set. 

Gait, Preston & Hespeler Railway, Ltd., Gait, Ont.— 

New transformers and a new rotary converter which will 
approximately double the present power capacity are being 
installed at the company's power plant in Gait. 

Cleburne (Tex.) Street Railway. — Plans are being con- 
sidered to build a new power plant in Cleburne. 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway. — Plans are being made 
to build additions to the power plant in El Paso. 

Salt Lake & Utah Railway, Salt Lake City, Utah.— This 
company has placed an order with the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric & Manufacturing Company for six 250-kw, 750-volt d. c, 
three-phase, sixty-cycle, 1200-r. p. m., a. c. self-starting 
rotaries mounted on a common bedplate for operation in 
series at 1500 volts d. c; six 150-kva, 44,000 to rotary vol- 
tage, single-phase, sixty-cycle 0. I. S. C. transformers 
with triple secondaries, to operate any two or three rotaries 
at one time, and two switchboards for the above consisting 
of seven panels each. 

Utah Light & Railway Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. — 
The new substation at Centerville has been placed in 
operation. 

Manitowoc & Northern Traction Company, Manitowoc, 
Wis. — Plans are being considered to increase the equip- 
ment at this company's power house at Little Manitowoc in 
the spring. A new 110-ft. smokestack is being built at this 
power plant. 



108 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 2. 



Manufactures and Supplies 

ROLLING STOCK 
Louisville (Ky.) Railway expects to build additional cen- 
ter-entrance trail cars this year. 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Railroad, Scranton, Pa., 

expects to purchase fifteen 100,000-lb. capacity self-clean- 
ing coal cars. 

Central Illinois Public Service Company, Mattcon, 111., 

expects to purchase one double-truck, single-end interur- 
ban passenger car. 

Portland (Me.) Railroad, noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Nov. 29 as having ordered ten passenger cars 
from the Wason Manufacturing Company, has specified the 
following details for this equipment: 

Seating capacity 44 Couplers Brill radial 

Bolster centers, length, Curtain fixtures .... National 

18 ft. 8 in. Curtain material . . Pantasote 
Length of body .. .30 ft. 8 in. Destination signs .... Hunter 
Length over vestibule, Fenders or wheelgaurds, 

41 ft. 8 in. Brill 

Width over sills. .8 ft. % in. Gongs Dedenda 

Width over posts at belt, Hand brakes Peacock 

8 ft. 1% in. Journal boxes Brill 

Height, sill to trolley Motors G. E. 

base 9 ft. 5 in. Push button signal. . .Consol. 

Height from top of rail to Registers . . . Sterling-Meaker 

sills 31% in. Roofs arched 

Body composite Sanders Kilbourn 

Interior mahogany Sash fixtures tandem 

Underframe metal Seats, style. .. .Brill Winner 

Air brakes G. E. Seating material rattan 

Bolsters, body, Side Bearings Brill 

wrought iron and steel Springs Brill 

Brakeshoe Brill Step treads Am. Mason 

Bumpers, Trucks Brill 51-E-l 

Hedley anti-climber Ventilators Globe 

Car trimmings bronze Wheels Griffin F. C. S. 

Center bearings Brill 

TRADE NOTES 

John A. Roebling's Sons Company, Trenton, N. J., has 

issued a New Year's circular letter to commemorate its 
seventy-fifth anniversary. 

Philadelphia Toboggan Company, Germantown, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., has issued a catalog describing its various types 
of carrousels, for use in amusement parks reached by elec- 
tric railways. 

Perry Ventilator Corporation, New Bedford, Mass., has 

received an order to equip with ventilators fifty of the new 
cars which are being built for the Montreal Tramways by 
the Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company. 

American Abrasive Metal Company, New York, N. Y., 
at the first International Exposition of Safety and Sani- 
tation held recently in New York, was awarded a gold 
medal diploma for its Feralun safety treads for anti-slip 
surfaces. 

Steel City Electric Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has ap- 
pointed the George A. Schardt Company, Empire Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., as its sales representative in the territory 
comprising Pennsylvania west of Altoona and the State 
of West Virginia. 

R. D. Nuttall Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has appointed 
W. A. Allen, formerly with the Carnegie Steel Company, as 
commercial engineer. This company reports that a promi- 
nent road operating in the hills of western Pennsylvania 
has in service one of its untreated normal cast-steel gears 
that has made 583,000 miles and is said to be good for at 
least 100,000 miles more. 

International Engineering Corporation, Ltd., of Toronto, 
has been organized with main offices at 49 Exchange 
Place, New York, N. Y. The officers of this new organi- 
zation are: President, J. W. Burke; vice-president, T. C. 
Gillespie; secretary, H. P. Du Bois; treasurer, H. M. Lloyd. 
Contracts have already been taken for the extension and 
electrification of the Quito (Ecuador) Tramways. 

Lord Manufacturing Company, Brooklyn, N. Y., an- 



nounces the resignation of W. R. Garton, its vice-president 
and general manager. Mr. Garton has been active in the 
electrical field for many years. He began in the construc- 
tion and operation of telephone, electric light and railway 
properties and has given much time to the supply and 
manufacturing business. His temporary address will be 
851 East Nineteenth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 

Ohmer Fare Register Company, Dayton, Ohio, has issued 
a folder entitled "The Management of Men" in connection 
with its fare registers. 

B. G. Marshall has issued a reprint from the Architect 
and Engineer entitled "What Makes Iron Rust," which 
points out the chemical conditions in impurities of iron and 
steel products which tend to invite electrolysis and conse- 
quent corrosion. 

H. M. Byllesby & Company, New York, N. Y., engineers, 
have issued a card describing the extent of their engineer- 
ing interests. This company is retained permanently in a 
consulting and supervising capacity by thirty-five electric, 
gas, street railway, telephone and water works properties 
operating throughout the United States. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has issued Circular No. 1104, describing 
its complete line of portable meters. Another catalog, 
issued in conjunction with the Baldwin Locomotive Com- 
pany, describes the construction details of electric mine 
locomotives, including controllers, circuit-breakers, trol- 
leys and gathering reels. These mine locomotives are 
manufactured in four different types, as follows: traction 
wheel gathering locomotives, tandem, three-motor gear and 
side-rod locomotives. 



Illinois Appoints Public Service Commission 



The five members of the new State Public Service Util- 
ities Commission of Illinois have been appointed by Gover- 
nor Dunne. James E. Quan, of Chicago, the chairman, is 
a personal friend of the Governor and has been engaged in 
the wholesale grocery business. His present appointment 
is his first public office. He is a Democrat. Richard Yates, 
of Springfield, lawyer, is fifty-three years old and was 
Governor of Illinois from 1901 to 1905. He is a Republican. 
Frank H. Funk, of Bloomington, was formerly State Sen- 
ator. He was the Progressive party candidate for Governor 
in 1912. Walter A. Shaw, of Chicago, is a civil engineer 
and a member of the Western Society of Engineers and the 
American Waterworks Association. He has been a member 
of the Rivers and Lakes Commission of the State and has 
been president of the American Engineering & Construction 
Company of Chicago. Mr. Shaw obtained his college de- 
gree as civil engineer from Valparaiso University. He has 
done engineering work in connection with sewerage in 
Chicago and Louisville. He is a Democrat. Owen P. Thomp- 
son, of Jacksonville, is a lawyer and resigned as presiding 
justice of the Fourth Appellate District of the State to 
accept appointment as a member of the board. He is a 
Democrat. 

The commission will have headquarters in Springfield, 
but will also have an office in Chicago and will divide its 
time between the two cities. The first complaint received 
was from the city of Springfield, which seeks a reduction 
in the gas rate from $1 to 80 cents per 1000 cu. ft. 



No Bids Received to Construct Chicago's Municipal Subway 



Proposals to construct, equip and operate rapid transit 
subways in the city of Chicago were advertised to be re- 
ceived up to Jan. 5, 1914. On the date the bids were to be 
opened none had been received. In fact, the only communi- 
cation on the subject obtained by the Harbor and Subway 
Commission was an offer to bid on the municipal subways 
by an English construction company. This failure of the 
subway system recommended by Mayor Harrison to attract 
private capital gave new impetus to the movement for a 
limited subway for the use of surface lines as recommended 
by Bion J. Arnold. 



Electric Railway Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



Vol. XLIII 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 17, 1914 



No. 3 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

James H. McGraw, President. C. E. Whittlesey, Secy, and Treas. 
239 West 39th Street, New York. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. .Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London 

Terms of Subscription 

For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from 
time to time in New York City or elsewhere : United States, Cuba 
and Mexico, $3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other 
countries, $6.00 per year. Single copies, 10 cents. Foreign sub- 
scriptions may be sent to our European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in ad- 
vance, giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indi- 
cates the month at the end of which subscription expires. 

Copyright, 1914, by McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 8000 copies are 
printed. 



PLANS FOR THE Plans for the midyear conference 
MIDYEAR of the American Electric Railway 

MEETING Association are well toward com- 

pletion and promise good results for member companies 
and the industry as a whole. Some friends of the asso- 
ciation regard the midyear conference as the most ef- 
fective of its functions. If not entitled to that rank, 
it is at least an invaluable extension of the work which 
strengthens and emphasizes the accomplishments of the 
annual meetings. The committee has selected subjects 
of leading importance that have not been worn thread- 
bare by long-continued discussion and yet are of prac- 
tical as well as of economic concern. The association 
is greatly to be congratulated on the acceptance of its 
invitation to speak by a State commissioner who has 
been so active in the development of regulative policies 
as has Mr. Erickson of Wisconsin. The companies 
have not brought themselves immediately or easily to 
accept regulation. They have much to learn from com- 
missioners in regard to the policies and laws which 
must be enforced. The commissioners also have some- 
thing to learn from the companies in regard to the real 
problems which hamper their operations and growth 
in these days. But the companies and the commis- 
sioners need to co-operate if the public is to receive the 
service to which it is entitled. 



A STUDY IN 

ELECTROLYSIS 

ELIMINATION 



The report of the test on a sys- 
tem of insulated negative feeders 
which is published elsewhere is a 
worthy sequel to the remarkably clear discussion on 
methods of mitigating electrolysis presented in our issue 
of Jan. 3. The authors, Messrs. Rosa, McCollum and 
Logan, are eminently qualified for an expression of 



opinion in the matter not only through professional ex- 
perience but because they are in the unique position 
of having no axe to grind notwithstanding the wall of 
conflicting interests which has in the past usually ob- 
scured the essential features of the problem. In con- 
sequence their championship in general of the insulated 
negative feeder system must be viewed with respect, 
and, indeed, the results of their test show beyond doubt 
that, under the conditions existing at the substation in 
question, this system is infinitely superior to any yet 
proposed. It may be that at old substations or power 
plants where considerable uninsulated copper already 
exists, possibly in unknown locations, the insulated 
feeder system might not show such advantages. How- 
ever, where a new substation is being built it seems 
certain that the latter system may be made prac- 
tically to eliminate electrolysis damage at a cost which 
is, at least, not prohibitive. Apparently, its one objec- 
tionable feature, that of having a considerable differ- 
ence in pote / i*trratSietween the negative bus and the 
track outsi/de^»f the station, involves no real difficulties 
aside froq(i- ( fhe fmt tnai\it is rather a startling novelty. 



MR. SA 
CRITIC1 
COMMI 




;Sague, of the New York Pub- 
Jervice Commission, Second 
"ict, made a constructive crit- 
icism of tegklati^g 1 commissions at the meeting at the 
Stevens Ins\wi*e of Technology which is reported else- 
where in thisTs*t*er Mr. Sague thinks that there are 
far too many laws, too many orders and too little patient 
study of corporations. He attributes the lack of success 
which has often attended the work of commissions to 
failure to develop along these lines and to a tendency 
to substitute court methods for informed study and in- 
vestigation. Mr. Sague is competent to pass this criti- 
cism. He was appointed to the commission by Governor 
Hughes in 1907. He entered office when the country 
was watching with keen interest to see what New York 
would accomplish under its strong law and the guidance 
of its reform Governor. The commission developed 
until it was one of the strongest in the country, though 
the appointments of subsequent Governors deprived it 
of this standing. Its work has been effective in many 
ways, and some of its greatest accomplishments have 
been carried out in informal hearing or negotiation, 
not loudly advertised. Mr. Sague's well-founded criti- 
cisms are just as appropriate for the entire legislative 
situation as for regulating commissions. Laws and 
orders have come down in a flood. Almost all the com- 
missions and legislatures swelled the volume. It is a 
fair conclusion to say that if there had been fewer laws 
and orders there would have been a more salutary treat- 



110 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 3. 



merit of corporation affairs and troubles. The present 
need of the corporations is that business may have time 
to rest and grow strong. A long spell of relief from 
laws and orders will help to restore normal conditions. 

PHILANTHROPIC DONATIONS BY RECEIVERS 

An interesting illustration of the breadth of view 
that may be adopted by a federal court in dealing with 
the expenditure of a public utility under receivership 
is shown by the recent action of Judge Hook in the 
United States Circuit Court at Kansas City. Upon the 
petition of sixty-four taxpayers and patrons of the 
street railway system in Kansas City he authorized 
the receivers of the old Metropolitan Street Railway 
to make a contribution, not to exceed $1,000, for the 
Seventh International Student Volunteer Convention. 
Charitable contributions by public utility corporations 
have heretofore been permitted under even the most 
stringent commission laws when they represented the 
exercise of benevolence for services rendered to the 
community as a whole. The value of such expenditures 
is undeniable from the standpoint of the public weal 
and the increased popularity accruing to the donating 
corporation, and when the company is under the con- 
trol of the stockholders they, through the board of 
directors, are in general free to make outlays for 
charity and will receive legal sanction for so doing if 
the donations are really for the public benefit and do 
not involve any particular discriminations. When a 
public utility corporation has been taken out of the 
hands of the stockholders, however, and placed under 
receivership for the bondholders, the situation is 
changed. The property now is in the hands of the 
court and the receivers for operation and management, 
but it does not belong to them ; it is held in trust for 
specific purposes for which they are accountable to 
the bondholders. For this reason the discretion in 
regard to philanthropic expenditures which is recog- 
nized in the case of managing officers chosen by the 
owners of a corporation is, we believe, rightfully limited 
in the case of receivers holding trust funds or operat- 
ing a property in trust. No matter how much a phil- 
anthropic enterprise may meet with their personal 
sympathy and approval, they have no legal or moral 
right to dispense the property of others in support of 
it for purely charitable reasons. Of course, in the 
case of a great emergency or calamity, when it is rea- 
sonably certain that the entire body of bondholders 
would approve a disposition of a portion of their prop- 
erty for charitable purposes, an exception might be 
allowed. 

When this question of charity, however, is viewed 
by the receiver from a business viewpoint, paradoxical 
as that may seem, a different condition arises. For 
instance, the petitioners mentioned above showed that 
the convention in Kansas City would mean an influx 
of about 8000 delegates and an increase of approxi- 
mately $20,000 in street railway receipts from non- 
resident patrons. In view of this the expenditure of 
$1,000 was viewed by the court as one consistent with 
sound business policy. It may be repugnant to some 



thus to commercialize this contribution to the Student 
Volunteer movement, but this one fact must be remem- 
bered : Receivers are not free agents. They are author- 
ized to conserve the assets of a property, liquidate the 
liabilities and use all legitimate means to advance the 
business of the road, and only when a philanthropic 
expenditure will aid in so doing are they justified in 
expending any funds intrusted to them. Whether the 
receivers shall trust to their own business judgment 
to settle this point, or whether, as in this recent case, 
it shall be put up to the court, is another question, 
but inasmuch as the court must finally review and pass 
on the accounting of the receivers, it is not unwise 
policy to settle the question of business expediency 
before the expenditure is actually made. 

PLANNING SHOP AREAS 

When a company wishes to enlarge its car mainte- 
nance facilities or to create an entirely new layout it 
is customary to study the practices of other railways, 
more especially by comparing the areas used for specific 
purposes. Unless, however, the conditions at each in- 
stallation are fully understood, this method may lead to 
very erroneous conclusions. For instance, since most 
large city systems are consolidations, the shops taken 
over are rarely best adapted for the conditions created 
by the merger. Two, three or even four buildings may 
be on hand, all designed as self-contained shops. The 
consolidation usually means the abandonment of some 
buildings and the reconstruction of others, but even 
then the net result is likely to differ greatly from what 
it would be if the whole car maintenance system could 
be laid out anew. Another very important variation in 
shop areas arises from differences in maintenance 
policy. Where the carhouses are in charge of the trans- 
portation department there is a natural tendency to 
keep the cars in service longer than the mechanical 
department considers desirable, particularly when there 
is a heavy demand for cars. Again, the older car- 
houses were not generally equipped for anything but 
ordinary inspection and lubrication, but many car- 
houses of recent years embody one bay for a variety of 
replacement work. A crane or even a jib hoist in such 
a bay permits the interchange of wheel sets, the ex- 
change of motors, etc. Hence on a system with such 
carhouses the truck and other overhauling sections of 
the main shop are much smaller than if the car stations 
were merely inspection centers. 

One great advantage of the maintenance carhouse 
policy is that the main shops may be placed in some 
most favorable layout far from the center of the town 
because dead mileage is negligible when every car comes 
in but once every 50,000 miles. Since the areas re- 
quired for each branch of car maintenance may vary 
so greatly, it would possibly prove better to calculate 
car shop requirements by first determining appropri- 
ate inspection and overhaul mileages for each class of 
equipment, based on the practices of the best systems 
as modified by home environment. Then, for any given 
number of cars, it should be easy to determine, for in- 
stance, how large the paint shop must be to bring the 



January 17, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



111 



cars in for the normal period of ten to fourteen days. 
Further, the area of this particular shop would be in- 
fluenced also by the adoption of some time-saving 
process like electric drying. On the same principle, 
truck shop areas could be reduced to a minimum by 
such means as car-transporting cranes and a large 
reserve stock of trucks and electrical equipment. In 
the shop of one company with such reserves, overhauled 
cars never stay in for more than twenty-four hours 
except for painting or special damage to car body. 
Finally, it should be observed that where intermittent 
manufacturing is carried on the amount of space set 
aside for such work is often too large to make manu- 
facture an attractive proposition unless cheapness of 
land is a big factor in keeping down the overhead 
charges. The foregoing points are only a few of those 
which affect the question of shop area, but they will 
suffice to show that the space requirements should be 
studied along scientific lines rather than to follow heed- 
lessly the practice of others. 

ECONOMIES IN PERMANENT WATERWAYS 

In the early days of electric interurban railway con- 
struction, and, in fact, on a few of the electric lines 
built at the present time, openings for waterways 
under the track, as well as highway and other overhead 
crossings, are provided with temporary structures. 
This probably was a wise policy in the past inasmuch 
as the earning power of projected lines was a ques- 
tionable quantity. To-day, however, the construction 
of electric interurban railways has reached a point 
where it is possible to predetermine with a certain 
degree of accuracy the probable earnings of a line 
built between any two points. With figures of this 
kind it is possible also to determine how much may be 
spent for track and roadway without affecting the 
property as a paying investment. No doubt, this abil- 
ity to anticipate probable revenue partly accounts for 
the more permanent character of construction used on 
most of the interurban roads built within the past few 
years. On the other hand, these predetermined limits 
on other lines also explain the cheaper type of con- 
struction employed by them. In either event, how- 
ever, after a property has been in operation sufficiently 
long to show that it is a permanency, no economical 
reason can be offered satisfactorily to explain the con- 
tinuance of temporary structures in the track after 
those originally installed have reached the end of their 
physical life. Nevertheless, many electric roads are 
making little or no effort to replace these structures 
with permanent ones. The only reason which can be 
advanced is that they have been so busily engaged in 
increasing efficiency in other departments that they 
have not taken time to analyze carefully the savings 
possible in the replacement of temporary structures 
with permanent ones. 

By temporary structures we mean wooden trestles 
and bridges of various types, the life of which ap- 
proximates seven to ten years. At the close of this 
physical life period a company must either replace 



all the timber in the structure or a large portion of it. 
The cost of rebuilding under traffic is high; in fact, 
careful checks show that it is about twice the first 
cost of a structure. If a considerable section of an 
electric road was constructed during any one year, so 
that the periods for the time renewals in a consider- 
able part of the temporary structures fall at about 
the same time or during the same year, the task of 
maintaining the structures in operating condition un- 
til the renewals can be made is almost impossible. 
That is to say, it will be found almost impracticable 
to employ a force of men sufficient in size to make all 
the renewals at the time they are required and dan- 
gerous conditions may arise before temporary repairs 
can be made. 

On the other hand, if the temporary structures were 
replaced gradually with concrete arches or steel and 
concrete arches, their maintenance would be practi- 
cally eliminated, and in time all structures would be 
replaced with permanent ones without unduly reduc- 
ing the net during any one year. At the same time 
the new permanent structures would provide clear 
waterways which would not gorge with drift and float- 
ing ice during flood periods, and the cost of clearing 
these passageways would be released for further per- 
manent improvements. 

No doubt, the temporary structure serves its pur- 
pose in more ways than in keeping down the first cost 
when there is an element of doubt as to a road's earn- 
ing power, because it permits a more careful 
study of waterway requirements. If it were not pos- 
sible for the construction engineer to compare any 
waterway with another structure spanning the same 
watercourse near by, its size would be more or less 
of a guess as to what was required plus a large factor 
of safety. But a study of the quantity of water flow- 
ing through these temporary openings during a period 
of several years should permit a careful analysis of 
requirements, and certainly during the physical life 
period the maximum stream flow condition is apt to 
arise. 

Other factors affecting the life of temporary struc- 
tures include fire hazard, which results not only in 
the loss of the structure but in serious interruptions 
to traffic as well. A few electric interurban roads 
built within the past two or three years have adopted 
creosoted timber for trestles in place of the ordinary 
seasoned timber, and there is no doubt that a longer 
life will be obtained from structures built in this 
manner. Increased fire hazard enters as a factor in 
the employment of this type of material in waterways, 
however, and it does not appear to be seriously con- 
sidered. In the hot summer months during a first 
few years of service of a creosoted timber structure 
the volatile quality of the creosote oil makes it highly 
inflammable. In the end, too, the creosoted timber 
trestle is only temporary and must be replaced. While 
first cost is a consideration in all betterments, ulti- 
mate economy in operation will never be attained if 
it is permitted to control all operating expenditures. 



112 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 3. 



The 1913 Motor Cars of the Chicago Railways 

A Description of Some of the Principal Features Entering Into the Construction of These New Arched-Roof, Light- 
Weight, Low-Step, Double-End Cars, Which Are Now Being Delivered for Service 



The first of the 200 low-step, double-end, arched-roof 
motor cars are now being added to the rolling stock, 
of the Chicago Railways Company. A description of 
the general arrangement and some of the design details 
was contained in the issue of the Electric Railway 
JOURNAL for Aug. 9, 1913, on page 230, but other inter- 
esting features have been added to these new cars dur- 
ing the process of construction which should be of 
general interest. A careful check of all the weights of 
material entering into the construction of the new two- 
motor car shows that a reduction in weight of more 
than 10,000 lb. has been made over the 1911 arched-roof 
four-motor car. This was done despite the fact that 
the new cars are 3 ft. 5 in. longer than the 1911 type, 
being 48 ft. 5 in. as against 45 ft. over-all length. 



justment for sagging in the vestibule. Bolts are used 
in attaching the knee braces to the underside of the 
side girders so they may be readily adjusted in case 
the vestibules do sag, it being necessary to loosen the 
bolts and insert shims. 

BODY CONSTRUCTION 

Careful consideration was given to the design of the 
body to obtain wide aisles and wide seats, particularly 
at the passengers' hip line. The aisle width in the fin- 
ished car is 25 in. between end seat plates, but further 
effective aisle width was obtained by offsetting the seat 
backs 2 in. While quite a study was being made to ob- 
tain the wide aisle, the mechanical department did not 
lose sight of wide, comfortable seats. These are 36V2 
in. over all, and this length was obtained by making 




New Chicago Railways Car — General Side View 



During the construction of these cars in the Chicago 
Railways' shops, every item entering into them was 
carefully weighed and the results from an average of 
ten cars appear on page 114. 

The underframes for the 100 cars built by the rail- 
way company, the fifty built by the Southern Car Com- 
pany and the fifty built by the American Car Company 
were furnished by the American Bridge Company's Chi- 
cago plant. The designing of these underframes was 
made as simple as practicable, consistent with the de- 
sired strength, to reduce the cost of fabrication to a 
minimum. As noted in the previous description, the 
underframe is of the side-girder type, with the girder 
plates forming the outside sheathing of the car body. 
One feature of the design in the underframing differing 
from former cars is the method of fastening the knee 
braces to the side girders. These braces are formed 
of reinforced channels swung from the bulkhead cross- 
sills and bolted to the bottom of the side girders. In 
the former designs the knee braces were riveted to the 
inside of the side girders. This threw the rivets in 
shear and at the same time did not readily permit ad- 



the sides of the car as compact as possible, especially 
to permit of a wide car at the seated passengers' hip 
line. To accomplish this the inside finish is set back 
of the post line, thus reducing the thickness of the sides 
of the car body to 1 7/16 in. and at the same time adding 
effective width to the seats. While the over-all thick- 
ness in the sides is of a minimum dimension, this did 
not hinder it being arranged for complete ventilation. 
Openings at the side sills and posts permit free circula- 
tion of air around these members to the window sill, 
thus removing conditions conducive to early destruction 
of the members by decay. This arrangement made it 
necessary to weatherproof ventilated areas in the car 
sides with heavy felt paper. 

The car floor construction is also quite unusual, but 
this is another result of the careful study of the weight 
question. The car floor is built of a single thickness of 
%-in. matched flooring under the seats, and that in 
the aisle is doubled in thickness by wooden floor mats. 
The single floor is insulated with a heavy two-ply felt 
paper, cleated up with light wooden strips. Over this 
paper a heavy coat of paint has been applied to increase 



January 17, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



113 



its waterproof qualities and provide extra insulation. 

Other construction features in the car body include 
a careful study of the installation of the auxiliary 
equipment on the underside of the car floor. The loca- 
tion of each item was selected after a careful estimate 
of the moments so that the complete installation would 
balance around the longitudinal and transverse axes of 
the body. The small deflecting gutter over the entrance 
and exit doors was formed by setting a strip of poplar 
in a heavy coat of white lead on top of the canvas roof- 
ing. Usually this gutter is formed of metal set on the 



mum is obtained. This was especially true of the Chi- 
cago Railways cars which have a total height at the 
center of the car floor of 37 in. above the rail. The 
height of the first step above the rail is 13 in. and that 
to the platform is 11 in. A lO'A-in. riser at the 
threshold plate and a 2!2-in. ramp from the bulkhead 
to a point in the floor over the bolsters, a distance of 
5 ft., makes up this total height. The slight pitch of 
the ramp is scarcely noticeable to passengers entering 
or leaving the car. To obtain this over-all dimension, 
it was also necessary for the mechanical department to 




New Chicago Railways Car — Side View of Framing on Temporary Shop Trucks 




New Chicago Railways Car — Interior, Showing Air Ducts New Chicago Railways Car — Interior of Completed Car 



canvas. The wooden strip, however, has been found 
just as effective and much cheaper. 

During the period these cars were under construc- 
tion in the Chicago Railways' shops it was desirable 
that the bodies should be made portable, and at the 
same time the weight had to be kept down to a point 
where it was possible to move them by hand. To meet 
this requirement, the bodies were mounted upon tem- 
porary trucks composed of old wheels mounted in a 
wooden frame. 

Low steps in double-end cars require a very careful 
study of every item affecting their height if the mini- 



avail itself of the minimum over-all dimensions in the 
design of the trucks, motors and bolsters. By the use 
of a 32-in. driving wheel instead of a 34-in. wheel which 
has been standard on the Chicago Railways, an addi- 
tional reduction of 1 in. in height was obtained. 

The trucks are of the Brill 39-E type designed with 
an improved brake rigging and a new feature in the 
arrangement of the springs. Small coil springs, which 
are set between the half elliptic and the spring plank, 
materially add to ease in riding. With the light loads, 
the small coil spring is in action, but as the load in- 
creases it is compressed into a pocket casting, which in 



114 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLIII, No. 3. 



turn transmits the total load to the half elliptic. These 
trucks are also equipped with McCord journal boxes 
cast with hardened wear pieces in the sides of the box. 
Renewal wear pieces are riveted to the sides of the 
journal box yokes in the truck side frames. 

A new type of Westinghouse field control, 534 Y-l 
motor was purchased for these two-motor cars. It has 
a less over-all height than the older types and conse- 
quently provides better clearance between the motor 
housing and the rail. The minimum clearance point, 
however, is at the gear case which is 3 1 ;- in. above the 
top of the rail. This motor was adopted not only be- 
cause it gave proper clearance but as a result of a care- 
ful study of its adaptability to the service requirements. 
Before it was definitely selected sample motors from 
each of the manufacturers were installed on regular 
cars to determine just how they would meet actual op- 
erating conditions. From the data obtained in these 
tests the mechanical department was able to determine 
the exact requirements necessary to make the new two- 
motor equipment meet the same service conditions 
as the former four-motor equipment. 

The field-control feature enabled the motor designers 
to meet all the requirements, as it permits high speed 




New Chicago Railways Car — Rear Platform 

on the last controller points, which under Chicago op- 
erating conditions reaches a maximum of 25 m.p.h. 
The gear ratio used in conjunction with these motors is 
15-69 three-pitch. The motor equipment was tested 
not only for ordinary service conditions but was tried 
on the heavy grades approaching the tunnels under the 
Chicago River. These grades vary from 9 to 11 per 
cent, and tests of the two-motor equipment for starting 
and stopping on these heavy grades demonstrated that 
it was adequate from a tractive standpoint. 

SAFETY APPLIANCES 
Another interesting feature in the construction of 
these new cars is the practical application of safety- 
first principles in their design. A number of new de- 
partures in the design of the air-brake equipment were 
included to accomplish this end. They are the National 
Brake & Electric Company's A-6 type, a new design 
with an 18-cu. ft. capacity compressor, and other fea- 
tures in line with modern light-weight car construction. 
One of the innovations used in connection with this air- 
brake equipment is an emergency valve which makes 
it possible for the motorman to get an emergency ap- 
plication at the brake valve, the air being taken di- 
rectly from the reservoir. At the same time the brakes 



are applied sand is automatically deposited through 
air sanders. In addition to these conductors' valves 
are placed in each vestibule so that an emergency air 
application may be made by him if necessary. 

A number of safety appliances were also incorporated 
in the foundation brake apparatus under the car body. 
One of these includes the pull-rods and the tie-rods, 
which have been boxed over at their connections to the 
brake levers. In case the pin connections break, the 
air-brake apparatus is left operative, as the loop or 



Table Showing Weight Analysis of 1913 Closed Motor Cars 
of Chicago Railways Company ; Figures Represent 
Averages for Ten Cars 
Steel Underframe : Pounds Per Cent 

Body portion 3,360 9.5 

Platform portion 1,290 3.6 

Total 4,650 13.1 

Car Body : 

Floor sills and flooring 1,169 3.3 

Side frames, including coiner posts, 
top plates, window guards, cur- 
tains, etc 2,034 5.8 

Bulkhead structures 501 1.4 

Bulkhead doors, including tracks, 

rollers, etc 239 0.7 

Roof, trolley boards, head lining, etc. 1,230 3.5 

Total 5,173 14.7 

Vestibules : 

Platform sills, crown pieces and 

flooring 727 2.1 

Posts, framing and dashers 1,209 3.4 

Hoods 284 0.8 

Doors, door and step operating 

mechanism, steps and platform 

seats 946 2.7 

Total 3,166 9.0 

Car Apparatus and Fittings : 

Body seats . . . : 1,634 4.6 

Hand brakes, including rigging.... 359 1.1 

Destination signs and boxes 110 0.3 

Ventilating motor, fan, ducts and 

louvers 243 0.7 

Drawbars, hooks, drawhead, etc... 153 0.4 

Register mechanism 71 0.2 

Fenders and fender gates 276 0.8 

Heaters, buzzers, trolley bases. 

poles, lights, wiring, etc 1,139 3.2 

Conduit 216 0.6 

Miscellaneous (trolley catchers, 

bells, ropes, gongs, etc.) 79 0.2 

Total 4,280 12.1 

Electrical Equipment : 

Motor wiring 148 0.4 

Conduit 271 0.8 

Controllers and resistances 776 2.2 

Motors (two), including pinions... 4,825 13.6 

Gear cases 185 0.5 

Total 6,205 17.5 

Air-brake equipment, including foun- 
dation brake rigging and piping... 1,712 4.8 

Total 1.712 4.8 

Trucks : 

Truck frames, axles, wheels and 

boxes 9,316 26.4 

Gears 475 1.3 

Guards 46 0.1 

Miscellaneous parts 335 1.0 

Total 10,172 28.8 

Grand total 35,358 35.35S 100 100 

SUMMARY 

Total car body 17,269 48.9 

Electrical equipment 6,020 17.0 

Air-brake equipment 1,712 4.8 

Trucks 10,357 29.3 

Total weight 35,358 100 



boxed-over end of the rod holds it in position. In order 
to fix the position of the pull-rods and tie-rods on the 
brake levers, however, bolts are inserted in the lever 
on each side of the point of connection. These are so 
spaced as not to interfere with the normal operation of 
these rods and levers, but in case of a pin connection 
failure the rods are held approximately in their proper 
position on the levers. As a precaution against a broken 
pull-rod, stops have been placed on the foundation brake 
lever carrier, against which the released lever catches, 
thus permitting the unbroken pull-rod to be operative. 
Along this same line the fuse boxes which are installed 
on each side of the car under the sills have "Safety 
First" stenciled in white on the covers. This is to 



January 17, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



115 



remind the motorman that he must be sure of the 
position of his circuit-breaker or trolley before renew- 
ing the fuse. 

Following the standard Chicago practice, a single 
sliding door is provided on the exit side of the front 
platform, unlike former designs, but it is connected to 
the step, which raises when the door is in the closed 
position. Another departure from former standards 
was brought about by the careful study of weights and 
their reduction. The sliding door does not recede into 
a pocket, but the partition forming it has been removed 
and the exposed door slides along the side of the vesti- 
bule. A two-piece folding door is provided on the 
opposite side of the platform, and this opens and folds 
against the controller. It differs from the design used 
in the older types of cars, which were four-piece. The 
installation of a long slatted seat, so placed and con- 
nected that when the door is in the closed position the 
step is raised, also represents a departure. One end 
of this seat is hinged to the front of the vestibule, and 
when it is raised to clear the doors it actuates levers 
which lower the steps. 

The conductor and motorman's rail is about the 
same as those on the platforms of the older cars. It 
is shown in one of the illustrations. The center leg 




New Chicago Railways Car — Front Platform 



of the rail is equipped with a bayonet lock in the bot- 
tom casting. This locks the rail into the floor socket 
when it is in position and it may be unlocked by rais- 
ing a sleeve set on the leg just below the rail. The 
other two legs are made with partial flanges at the base 
so that they will hook into slots in the sides of the floor 
sockets when the rail is in position. In order to engage 
the locks, it is necessary to tilt the rail to insert the two 
outside legs, which when raised to a vertical position are 
held rigid by the bayonet lock on the center leg. The 
hand-brake staff is set close against the front of the 
vestibule, and the handle is designed so it can be fas- 
tened against the vestibule to give more platform space. 

The heating system is of the Consolidated Car Heat- 
ing Company's design with thermostatic regulators. 
Car-body heaters are installed under the seats and are 
regulated by the thermostat. Those provided in the 
end-sills in the vestibule are independently connected so 
that they are under the control of the conductor or 
motorman. In conjunction with the heating equipment 
a Cooke vacuum ventilating system has been installed. 
This is of the exhaust type with fresh air intakes 
through 4-in. x 8-in. fixed louvers in the side girders. 
These are made of pressed steel, and the air from them 
passes through sheet-metal ducts fastened on the under- 
side of the seat heaters. The exhaust fan motor in the 



ventilating system is installed on the ceiling of one of 
the vestibules just outside the bulkhead, and a duct 
leads from the fan to a fixed louver opening in the side 
of the vestibule roof. Vestibule ventilation is obtained 
through two utility exhaust ventilators installed in the 
roof. The exhaust fan has a capacity of 60,000 cu. ft. 
of air per hour, which is sufficient to change the air in 
the car body every two minutes. 

Each side of the car body contains eleven windows 
equipped with brass bottom sashes and arranged to 
raise into pockets provided at the top of the window 
opening. The top sash is built of wood and is continu- 
ous from end to end of the car body. The fact that it 
is continuous and is permanently attached to each post 
by screws materially increases the stiffness of the car 
sides. In order thoroughly to insulate these windows 
against extremely low outside temperatures, storm 
sashes are provided. Each side of the car is fitted with 
three sections of three windows each and one section 
of two windows. In the earlier car designs the storm 
sashes were of brass and one was provided at each win- 
dow. The new arrangement is much simpler, it being 
necessary to make four large units instead of eleven 
single sashes. It also aided in reducing the labor 
charge, as only eight joints were necessary as compared 
with twenty-two in single sashes. The new wooden 
storm sashes, which weigh 15.7 lb. per window as com- 
pared with 18.7 lb., thus represent a reduction in 
weight of 17 per cent. They are fastened to each post 
with four screws, three of which are used to hold the 
window guards. These screws are set into brass cast- 
ings fitted into pockets in each post. This manner of 
fastening these sashes makes them much tighter than 
the old metal sashes, which were attached by locks and 
clamps. 

The curtain rolls are exposed so that the curtains may 
be cleaned on both sides as they pass over the rolls. 
They are set into shallow recesses at the top of the 
window openings, and the curtain fixtures are covered 
with neat brass caps. Another simple innovation which 
aids materially in cleaning the cars was included in 
the manner of installing the Hunter illuminated signs. 
These sign boxes in the vestibules and at the center 
windows in the car sides are hinged at the top and fas- 
tened at the bottom with catches so that they may be 
released and swung away from the glass to permit 
cleaning. In the old cars the sign boxes were perma- 
nently installed so that it was possible to wash the 
glass only on the outside of the car. 

The mechanical department, in selecting the interior 
finish of the car body, endeavored to make it as light 
as practicable to increase the efficiency of artificial illu- 
mination. Accordingly, the headlining was finished in 
light buff, and the trim was finished in natural cherry. 
This improved the car illumination 50 per cent over the 
old pea-green headlining and stained-cherry finish. An 
actual test of the average illuminating qualities of the 
new as compared with the old car finish shows that 
the illumination at the aisle seat of the new car is 4.34 
ft.-candles and the old car 2.78 ft.-candles. Birch 
finish was used in the first twenty-five cars for test 
purposes. It was not only much cheaper than cherry 
but at the same time was just as satisfactory for in- 
terior finish. Owing to the tendency of birch to warp, 
however, it was necessary to use cherry for the door 
stiles and cross-bars. The panels in these were made 
of birch and the two woods blended almost perfectly. 

Among the special devices included in the construc- 
tion of these new arched-roof cars are Hale & Kilburn 
walk-over seats, agasote headlining, Rico sanitary hand 
straps, Curtain Supply Company's ring fixtures, U. S. 
ball-bearing trolley bases and Stucki anti-friction side 
bearings. 



116 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 3. 



An Electrolysis Test on a System of Insulated 
Negative Feeders in St. Louis 

As a Sequel to Their Discussion of the General Subject the Authors Present the Results of a Test on a Rail- 
way Installation for Electrolysis Mitigation Made by the Bureau of Standards Under Their Direction 

BY E. B. ROSA, BURTON M'COLLUM AND K. H. LOGAN 



In connection with the general investigations of elec- 
trolysis that have been carried out by the Bureau of 
Standards for the past two or three years a considerable 
amount of preliminary work was done during the sum- 
mer of 1912 in the city of St. Louis. As a result of this 
work an arrangement was made with the United Rail- 
ways of St. Louis for the carrying out of a test at one of 
the substations for the purpose of demonstrating the 
effectiveness of the insulated return feeder system, the 
work of installing the negative feeders being done by 
the United Railways Company. 

The purpose of the test was twofold — first, to demon- 
strate the effectiveness of the insulated return feeder 
system as a means of mitigating electrolysis troubles, 




Electric Ry. Journal 



Fig. 1 — Electrolysis Test — Original Arrangement of Unin- 
sulated Negative Feeders 

and, second, to determine the relative cost of securing 
good conditions from the standpoint of electrolysis as 
compared with the cost of securing the same conditions 
under the ordinary methods with uninsulated negative 
feeders. Therefore it was necessary to carry on the 
tests under two conditions, namely, to install a system of 
negative feeders complete, and in such a way that they 
could be converted into the insulated or uninsulated 
feeder systems at will. This could readily be accom- 
plished by simply tying the busbar to the tracks near 
the power house for the uninsulated system and remov- 
ing such ties and inserting suitable resistance taps for 
the insulated system. It is true that in both cases the 
feeders themselves were insulated from the tracks be- 
tween the point at which they were tied into the tracks 
and the busbar, but since the feeders were at the same 
potential as the tracks at both ends, the potential gradi- 
ents on the feeders were, of course, the same as the 



potential gradients of the tracks which they paralleled, 
and hence electrical conditions were the same as they 
would have been if the feeders had been substantially 
uninsulated and the relative electrolysis conditions and 
costs were identical. 

The station selected for this experimental investiga- 
tion was the new Ann Avenue substation located at the 
corner of Mississippi and Ann Avenues. The rated 
capacity of this station is 4000 kw at the present time, 
and the peak load (average for one hour) was at the 
time the tests were made about 7540 amp. The aver- 
age load for twenty-four hours was 3500 amp, giving a 
load factor of about 46 per cent. It will therefore be 
seen that conditions at this station as regards size and 




Electric Ry. Journal 



Fig. 2 — Electrolysis Test — Final Arrangement with Insu- 
lated Negative Feeders 

character of the load are fairly representative of aver- 
age conditions in a moderate-sized city substation. The 
track network in the district fed by the station is shown 
in Figs. 1 and 2. These show that only one single track 
passes immediately by the station and another single 
track passes along the street one block to the east. This 
is, therefore, an unfavorable location in respect to re- 
turning the current to the station, because the cross- 
section of rails approaching the station is unusually 
small. On this account a relatively large amount of cop- 
per would have had to be installed whether the insulated 
or uninsulated system was used, and therefore the cost 
per kilowatt capacity of returning current to this sta- 
tion would be expected to be considerably higher than 
the average. This fact makes the test of the system a 
more severe one from the economy standpoint, although 
it has no appreciable bearing on the effectiveness of the 
system in reducing electrolysis troubles. 



January 17, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



117 



At the time arrangements were made for the pro- 
posed tests a considerable amount of negative copper 
was already in place, and in designing the proposed in- 
sulated feeder system this copper was allowed to re- 
main. Extensions were made where necessary and the 
current distribution was adjusted by means of resist- 
ance taps. The area of the feeders is not therefore just 
as it would have been if a new insulated feeder system 
had been installed throughout, and this also tends to 
make the cost run somewhat higher than would other- 
wise have been the case. The original feeder layout de- 
signed by the engineers of the United Railways Com- 
pany for the negative return is shown in Fig. 1, and the 
system as finally completed for the insulated feeder lay- 
out is shown in Fig. 2. 

An examination of these shows that changes were 
made in three cases. In one case a feeder of 1,000,000- 
circ. mil cross-section had been designed to run from 
the negative bus eastward along Ann Avenue and tied 
to the tracks at both Eighteenth Street and Ann Ave- 
nue and Twelfth Street and Ann Avenue. The change 
made here was merely to remove the tie at Eighteenth 
Street and Ann Avenue and install a pair of No. 0000 
cables running directly from the tracks at Eighteenth 
Street and Ann Avenue to busbar, thus giving two sep- 
arate feeders to those two points instead of one com- 
mon feeder. The length of each of these No. 0000 
feeders was about 700 ft. A second change will be 
noted on Gravois Avenue, the original feeder layout 
contemplated running one feeder of 1,000,000 circ. mils 
to Victor and Gravois, and another to Jefferson and 
Gravois. The feeder at Jefferson and Gravois was al- 
lowed to remain as originally installed, but the feeder 
running to Victor and Gravois was cut loose from the 
tracks at this point and extended to California and 
Gravois, a distance of about 2300 ft. The third exten- 
sion was in one of the feeders running north on Mis- 
sissippi Avenue. The original plan contemplated run- 
ning two 1,000,000-circ. mil cables north on Mississippi 
Avenue to Geyer Avenue. One of these feeders was left 
at that point, but the other was cut loose from the tracks 
and extended north on Mississippi Avenue to Lafayette, 
and thence east along Lafayette to Grattan, a total dis- 
tance of about 2400 ft. The total weight of copper 
added in the three places was therefore about 15,090 
lb. 

The original plan called for the installation, in addi- 
tion to the above-mentioned feeders, of a 1,000,000-circ. 
mil cable running east on Ann Avenue to Ninth Street, 
a distance of 2800 ft., and two 1,000,000-circ. mil 
feeders running east from the power house along Ann 
Avenue to Broadway, a distance of 7400 ft. The total 
weight of copper under the original plan would there- 
fore have been 65,630 lb., all of it in 1,000,000-circ. mil 
cables, while in the system as actually completed there 
were 80,720 lb. of copper, all of which was of 1,000,000- 
circ. mil cross-section except the two short No. 0000 
feeders running to Eighteenth Street and Ann Avenue. 
The excess cost of the actual system over that of the 
original system was about $3,770, figuring the cost at 25 
cents per pound installed. All of the additional feeders 
were installed overhead, except the two No. 0000 cables, 
which were in fiber conduit. 

ELECTRICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In designing these extensions the object was to reduce 
the potential gradient in the rail return at all points of 
the system to an average value not exceeding 1 volt 
per 1000 ft. for one hour at peak load, which at 46 per 
cent load factor would correspond to an average of about 
0.46 volt per 1000 ft. during the twenty-four-hour 
period. In making the tests the system was first ar- 
ranged as an uninsulated feeder system by tying the 
tracks at Mississippi and Ann Avenues and Eighteenth 



Street and Ann Avenue as directly to the busbar as the 
connecting cables would permit, and a complete elec- 
trical survey was made to determine the electrical con- 
ditions existing in the negative return and pipe systems. 
These measurements include the following : 

(1) Rail gradient measurements. These for conven- 
ience comprise measurements, with a millivoltmeter, of 
the drop of potential on a fixed length of 4 ft. of rail, 
the measurements on all the rails on any particular 
street being taken at each point. 

(2) Current flow in pipes, including both gas and 
water mains. For this purpose excavations were made 
at a number of points, and rubber-covered leads were 
fastened to the pipes 4 ft. apart, the leads being brought 
underground to a service box located inside the curb. 
These points were for the most part located within v 2 
mile of the station. Measurements at these points per- 
mit the calculation of the actual value of the current 
flow in the pipes at those points. In addition to these, 
potential measurements were made between adjacent 
fire plugs at a number of outlying points considerably 
beyond the termini of the feeders. While these do not 
permit the calculation of the actual current flow in those 
localities, the measurements taken under the insulated 
and uninsulated systems gave values proportional to 
the current flow under the two conditions and thus af- 
ford means of determining the relative current flow in 
the two cases. 

(3) Potential difference measurements between pipes 
and rails. These measurements were taken throughout 
a large part of the area affected by the station, includ- 
ing a considerable portion of the region where the pipes 
were negative to rails, in order that any tendency of the 
insulated feeder system to extend the positive area 
could be determined. 

(4) Over-all potential measurements. These meas- 
urements were made between a point on the rails ad- 
joining the power house and a number of remote points 
near the extreme limits of the feeding districts. These 
measurements were made with the co-operation of the 
Kinloch Telephone Company, which connected the tele- 
phone wires to the points at which potential measure- 
ments were desired, so that all the measurements could 
be made at the telephone exchange. 

(5) Current in the various feeders. These data were 
taken in order to determine the correctness of the cur- 
rent distribution and the economy with which the cop- 
per was being worked in the different parts of the sys- 
tem. 

After all of the above measurements were completed 
the system was then converted into an insulated feeder 
system as mentioned above, and the same measurements 
repeated at the same points. In taking the electrical 
measurements at any one point the readings were 
taken every fifteen seconds for a period varying from 
five minutes to fifteen minutes according to local con- 
ditions, and the average of all these readings was taken 
as the reading at that particular time of day. Since 
readings at different points were necessarily taken at 
different hours of the day, when the station load dif- 
fered, the readings as observed are not directly com- 
parable, and in order to get a basis on which the read- 
ings under different conditions could be directly com- 
pared it was found most satisfactory to reduce all the 
readings to the average twenty-four-hour values. This 
was done by multiplying the average observed reading 
at any point by the ratio of the station load at that 
particular time of day to the twenty-four-hour average 
station load. It is this reduced twenty-four-hour aver- 
age value that is recorded in the tables in each instance. 
Careful study of a large amount of test data shows that 
this affords a very satisfactory basis of comparison. 

In converting to the insulated feeder system the dif- 



118 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 3. 



ferent extensions outlined in detail above were installed 
and the feeders were adjusted for approximately equal 
drop by the insertion of suitable resistances where 
necessary. The number and location of these resistance 
taps are shown in Fig. 2, which gives the final layout 
of insulated feeders. It will be seen here that there are 
three resistance taps at the substation in the cables run- 
ning to the tracks at Mississippi and Ann, Eighteenth 
and Ann and Twelfth and Ann Avenues. There is also 
a resistance in the feeder running north on Mississippi 
Avenue to Mississippi and Geyer, the resistance being 
at the outer end of the feeder. The feeder running 
north on Mississippi Avenue to Lafayette is connected 
to the tracks at Lafayette and Mississippi through a 
resistance tap designed to give about 4 volts drop at 
peak load. There is also a resistance tap at Ann Ave- 
nue and Ninth Street. This is not, however, in series 
with any feeder, but is connected between the feeder 
that is tied in at Ninth Street to the two feeders which 
run on to Broadway. It therefore affords a certain 
measure of paralleling between these two feeders. 

A comparison of the measurements taken under the 
insulated and uninsulated feeder systems shows clearly 
the relative danger from electrolysis under the two sys- 
tems. While the amount of copper in the feeder sys- 
tems under these two series of tests is not the same in 
each case, the difference was not great enough to pro- 
duce any marked change in electrolysis conditions under 
the uninsulated feeder system. This was shown in ad- 
vance by careful calculations and was borne out by ex- 
perimental data determined later, so that, although 
some copper was added for the insulated feeder system 
such copper, because of its outlying location, would 
have exerted practically no influence when used in con- 
nection with the insulated system. The relative results 
show substantially the changes due to conversion from 
an uninsulated to an insulated system with the same 
amount of copper. 

RAIL GRADIENTS 

In determining the rail gradients, measurements 
were taken on a fixed length of 4 ft. of rail. The points 
for measurement were selected so as to give the maxi- 
mum gradients that existed in each case. This meant 
that gradient measurements were taken on all sides of a 
point at which a negative cable was tapped to the tracks 
under both the insulated and uninsulated feeder system. 
It is obvious that at more remote points the gradient 
would tend to become less than the values recorded at 
these places, except under very special conditions, which 
did not exist in this installation. The location of the 
points at which potential gradient measurements were 
taken, and also the values obtained, are shown in Table 
I. By comparing the figures point by point in the col- 
umns showing average gradients under each system we 
get the effect produced by the change from uninsulated 
to insulated feeders. An examination of these columns 
shows that in many places the gradients have been 
greatly reduced, this being particularly true in the re- 
gion near the power house where the gradients were 
rather high under the uninsulated system. In one case 
only has there been an increase and this is at Broadway 
and Ann Avenue, where considerably more current was 
taken off under the uninsulated system than under the 
insulated system. It will be noted that there is but one 
point with a potential gradient greater than 1 volt per 
1000 ft. under the insulated feeder system, whereas the 
average of all points is but 0.47 volt. Since the sta- 
tion load factor is about 46 per cent, this means that 
the average potential gradient at peak load is almost 
exactly 1 volt, and most of the readings will not vary 
much from this mean value. Under the uninsulated 
feeder system, however, there are a considerable num- 
ber of readings which run above 1 volt average, the 



highest being 2.89 volts per 1000 ft., which corresponds 
to a peak load value of about 6.2 volts per 1000 ft. The 
average for all points under the uninsulated feeder sys- 
tem is 0.91 volt for the twenty-four-hour period, which 
corresponds to a mean value of 2 volts during peak load. 
These figures show that the installation of the insulated 



Table I — Rail Gradients 

Uninsulated Insulated 
Feeders Feeders 





a 


-4-T U 


a 






rectio 
Flow 


adien 
•Its, p. 
00 Ft. 


rectio 
Flow 


adien 

lltS, P' 

00 Ft. 


Location 


5o 




5o 


0>S 
















s 


0.47 








w 


0.15 


Lafayette west of Grattan 






w 


0.34 


Lafayette east of Mississippi 


W 


1.90 


w 


0.59 




E 


1.66 


E 


0.48 


Mississippi north of Lafayette 


S 


0.90 


S 


0.72 


Mississippi south of Lafayette 


s 


1.87 


S 


0.75 




s 


2.89 


s 


0.57 




w 


0.91 


w 


0.29 




E 


1.17 


w 


0.60 


Mississippi south of Ann 


N 


1.35 


N 


0.21 


Gravois south of Victor 


N 


1.77 


w 


0.17 


Victor east of Gravois 


E 


0.29 






Gravois west of Jefferson 


E 


1.69 


E 


0.03 


Jefferson north of Gravois 


E 


0.69 


S 


0.68 


Jefferson south of Gravois 


N 


0.72 


N 


0.22 


Gravois west of California 






E 


0.59 








S 


0.33 


California south of Gravois 






N 


0.15 


Broadway north of Ann 


S 


0.59 


S 


0.71 


Broadway south of Ann 


N 


0.35 


N 


0.90 


Ninth north of Ann 


S 


0.69 


S 


1.20 


Ninth south of Ann 


N 


1.43 


N 


0.39 


Twelfth north of Ann 


S 


0.33 


S 


0.25 




N 


0.80 


N 


0.30 


Eighteenth north of Ann 


S 


0.94 


S 


0.80 


Eighteenth south of Ann 


N 


0.75 


N 


0.43 


Average 




0.91 




0.47 



return feeder system has substantially fulfilled the con- 
ditions that it was designed to accomplish in the way 
of potential gradients, in that the mean value at peak 
load does not exceed the calculated value of 1 volt per 
1000 ft. 

While it is important that rail gradients should be 
kept low, this figure is only of indirect importance, 
since low gradients in general mean small leakage and 
consequently reduced current flow on the pipes. Of 
even greater importance, however, than low gradient is 
the direction of the gradient. Under the uninsulated 
feeder system this gradient is necessarily continuous 
from the outlying districts clear into the power house; 
whereas under the insulated feeder system the current 
can, if desired, be made to flow from all directions 
toward the points of tap of the insulated feeders to the 
rails, and since these points are distributed through a 
considerable portion of the feeding area, the direction 
of current flow in the rails can be frequently reversed, 
so that the gradient in any one direction will extend 
over only a comparatively short distance, and hence 
large differences of potential between different points in 
the earth cannot be set up. It will be evident, there- 
fore, that the improvement in electrolysis conditions 
caused by the installation of insulated feeders will, in 
general, be much greater than the ratio of reduction of 
the rail gradient. This is borne out in a very marked 
manner by the data given below. 

CURRENT FLOW IN PIPES 

One of the best criteria for determining the relative 
amount of damage from electrolysis under different con- 
ditions of track return is afforded by determining the 
relative current flow in the pipes. Since, as in the 
present case, where there were no metallic connections 
to pipes, all the current flow carried by the pipes must 
ultimately be discharged into the earth, the total 
amount of electrolysis will be approximately propor- 
tional to the current flow on the pipes. Table II shows 
the current flow as measured at a number of points 
under the insulated and uninsulated feeder systems. 
The currents in all cases were calculated from measure- 



January 17, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



119 



ments of millivolt drop on a 4-ft. length of pipe, the re- 
sistance of the pipe being determined from the size and 
kind of pipe and known constants as determined from 
numerous laboratory tests. This method of determin- 
ing current in the pipes, while not strictly accurate, be- 
cause of variations in the kind and weight of the pipes, 
has nevertheless been shown to be sufficiently accurate 
for most practical purposes when used with care. 

Referring to Table II, the first column, headed "Loca- 
tion," gives the points at which current measurements 
were made; the second column, headed "Size of Pipe," 

Table II — Current Flow in Gas and Water Pipes with Pipes 
Not Drained 



as in Table II. It will be seen by comparing these 
figures with those of Table II that there has in general 
been a marked increase in current flow in the pipes, and 
this is particularly true in the case of the uninsulated 
system. The sum of all the currents at different points 
of measurement is 847.4 amp for the uninsulated sys- 
tem and 86.1 amp under the insulated system, showing 
that under these conditions of tying in the current flow 
in the uninsulated system is on the average about ten 
times as great as is the case under the insulated feeder 
system. 



T/.HI.E III- 



-Currknt Plow in Gas and Water Pipes with Pipes 
Drained 



Vd If ft 

Location |.S u =£E g R S 

Russell west of Thirteenth 30 W 54.0 46.80 3.78 

Russell west ol' Mississippi 6 W 5.2 0.606 0.00 

Ann west of Twelfth 4 G 3.5 0.16 0.17 

Ann west of Eighteenth 6 W 5.2 3.24 1.86 

Ann east of Mississippi 4 G 3.5 6.93 2.16 

Ann east of McNair 6 W 5.2 2.35 0.05 

Ann east of McNair 4 G 3.5 0.175 0.035 

Gravois west of Eighteenth 6 W 5.2 11.80 1.63 

Gravois west of Shenandoah 4G 3.5 0.08 0.03 

Shenandoah west of Thirteenth. .. . 20 W 31.5 9.42 0.62 

Shenandoah east of McNair 20 W 31.5 43.10 12.50 

Lynch west of Indiana 6 G 5.2 0.15 0.11 

Eighteenth north of Shenandoah.. 6 W 5.2 6.97 3.62 

Eighteenth north of Victor 20 W 31.5 23.40 7.48 

Lemp north of Victor 6 G 5.2 0.11 0.05 

Mississippi south of Lafayette 6 G 5.2 0.06 0.03 

Mississippi south of Allen 20 W 31.5 1.40 1.70 

Mississippi south of Russell 20 W 31.5 56.40 19.30 

Mississippi south of Ann 20 W 31.5 19.60 3.06 

Salena north of Shenandoah 20 W 31.5 40.20 7.02 

Salena north of Victor 6W 5.2 2.74 0.26 

Total 275.7 48.41 

gives in inches the diameter of the pipe on which the 
current was measured, and in each case this figure is 
followed by the letter W or G, indicating whether the 
pipe was gas or water main. The third column, headed 
K, gives the factor by which the millivolt reading must 
be multiplied to give current flow in the pipe. In the 
fourth and fifth columns, under "Amps," the calculated 
current flow average for the twenty-four-hour period is 
given for the two systems. 

It will be seen from these figures that the total cur- 
rent flow at all observation points under the uninsulated 
feeder system was 275.7 amp, whereas the correspond- 
ing figure under the insulated feeder system was 48.4 
amp, which gives an average ratio of reduction at all 
points of 5.7 to 1. This represents the average reduc- 
tion in the rate of electrolytic corrosion throughout the 
system as indicated by these measurements. As an 
actual fact, in some localities, particularly near the 
power station, the reduction will be greater than this, 
whereas in the more remote districts it will be cor- 
respondingly less, but these figures may be taken as a 
fair indication of the general improvement that is ef- 
fected by the insulation of the feeders. 

While no attempt was made in the present investiga- 
tion to install a scientific pipe drainage system, it was 
deemed worth while to tie in the pipes temporarily at 
points near the station in order to determine the effect 
of such tying in on the general magnitude of current 
flow in the pipes, and particularly the relative increase 
of current produced by such tying in under the insu- 
lated and uninsulated feeder systems. For this purpose 
temporary ties between the pipes at Mississippi and 
Ann Avenues and the busbar were installed, and like- 
wise a direct tie between the pipes and tracks at 
Twelfth Street and Ann Avenue was installed. Meas- 
urements of current flow at the same places as shown 
in Table II were made with the pipes thus tied in and 
with the feeders insulated and uninsulated from the 
negative bus. 

The results of these measurements are shown in 
Table III. Here the columns have the same significance 



2 - <u - 

S& ^ft 

Location l| M gfj §|| 

tcfli RtJ pecs mW<! 

Russell west of Thirteenth 30 W 54.0 108.00 5.02 

Russell west of Mississippi 6 W 5.2 4.90 0.716 

Ann west of Twelfth 4 G 3.5 0.24 0.32 

Ann west of Eighteenth 6 W 5.2 5.04 3.15 

Ann east of Mississippi 4 G 3.5 9.20 6.20 

Ann east of McNair 6 W 5.2 4.79 0.05 

Ann east of McNair * G 3.5 0.346 0.35 

Gravois west of Eighteenth 6W 5.2 21.60 1.98 

Gravois west of Shenandoah 4 G 3.5 0.30 0.08 

Shenandoah west of Thirteenth. .. . 20 W 31.5 9.00 2.12 

Shenandoah east of McNair 20 W 31.5 83.00 20.60 

Lynch west of Indiana 6 G 5.2 0.11 0.11 

Eighteenth north of Shenandoah. . . 6W 5.2 9.26 3.37 

Eighteenth north of Victor 20 W 31.5 42.80 2.57 

Lemp north of Victor 6 G 5.2 0.10 0.05 

Mississippi south of Lafayette 6 G 5.2 0.11 0.05 

Mississippi south of Allen 20 W 31.5 8.17 1.20 

Mississippi south of Russell 20 W 31.5 301.00 22.20 

Mississippi south of Ann 20 W 31.5 105.40 6.94 

Salena north of Shenandoah 20 W 31.5 128.40 10.23 

Salena north of Victor 6 W 5.2 2.55 0.11 

Total 847.4.3 86.11 

It will also be observed by comparing the totals of 
Table II with those of Table III that the tying in of the 
pipes with the uninsulated feeder system causes an in- 
crease in the current flow in the ratio of about 3.7 to 1, 
whereas under the insulated feeder system the increase 
in current due to tying the pipes in is increased only 
in the ratio of 1.78 to 1. This shows that the tying in 
of the pipes has a much smaller tendency to increase the 
current flow in the case of insulated feeders than it has 
in the case of uninsulated feeders. The total current 
flow with the pipes tied in under the insulated feeder 
system is only 86.1 amp, whereas the current flow under 
the uninsulated system with the pipes not tied in is 
275.7 amp, which means that draining the pipes at these 
two points under the insulated feeder system results in 
only three-tenths as much current flowing in the pipes 
as the flow in the pipes without such drainage under the 
uninsulated feeder system. 

These various ratios are summarized in Table IV and 
show in a very striking manner the marked reduction in 
current flow that in every case accompanies the insu- 
lated feeder system. 

The figures of Table III show the current flow in the 
pipes in the region within approximately Vi-mile 
radius of the power station. It was deemed advisable 
also to determine the relative current flow under the 
different conditions at points more remote from the 
power house, and for this purpose, in order to avoid the 
labor of additional excavations, potential measure- 
ments were made between adjacent fire hydrants at 
suitable places, the relative potential differences under 
the insulated and uninsulated systems being taken as 
the relative current flow in the two cases. Under each 
feeder system also these measurements were taken 
with the pipes drained at the two points mentioned 
above near the station, and also with the pipes not 
drained, so as to show the tendency, if any existed, of 
pipe drainage to increase current flow in the pipes at 
very remote points. These data are given in Table V. 
In this table are shown the voltage drops between 
hydrants and under both the insulated and uninsulated 



120 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Januaky 17, 1914. 



feeder systems. Under each system are shown also the 
voltage drops with the pipes drained and not drained. 
Under pipe drainage the difference in voltage drop is 
more marked, the ratio of the sums of the voltage drops 
being here only 0.362. With the insulated feeder sys- 

Table IV — Summary op Current Plow in Pipes 

Total Current, 
Amp 

Uninsulated system, pipes drained 847. i3 

Uninsulated system, pipes undrained 275.70 

Insulated system, pipes drained 86.11 

Insulated system, pipes undrained 48.41 

Current-Flow Ratios 

Pipes Not Pipes 

Drained Drained 

Insulated feeders 48.41 _ n17fi 86.11 _ . 1(nfi 

Uninsulated feeders 275770 -°- llb 847.43 ' 

Insulated Uninsulated 
Feeders Feeders 

Pipes drained 86.11 _ 1 7g 811-43 _ 3 07 

Pipes undrained 48.41 — ' 275.70 — 

In sulated feeders, drained pipes 86.11 q 

Uninsulated feeders, undrained pipes 275.70 

terns the ratio of voltage drop or total current flow with 
the pipes drained is 1.22. With the uninsulated feeder 
system the ratio is 1.56, indicating that even in these 
more remote points the current flow shows a marked 
increase when the pipes are tied in, but that this in- 
crease is much less marked in the case of the insulated 
feeder system than it is in the case of the uninsulated 
feeder system. The last ratio given in the summary of 
Table V also shows that at these outlying points the 

Table V — Fotential Differences Between Fire Plugs 

Uninsulated Insulated 
Feeders Feeders 



On 

Mississippi 
Mississippi 
Gravois 
Ann 
Ann 

Shenandoah 
McNair 



-Location — 
From 

Kennett 
Allen 
Sidney 
Menard 
Jefferson 
Indiana 
Lynch 















•e 




■a 










0) 


ID 




W £ 






m C 


To 


Pipe 

Not 

Drai 


Pipe 
Drai 


Pipe 
Not 
Drai 


Pipe 
Drai 


Lafayette 


0.685 


0.908 


0.420 


0.588 


Geyer 


0.211 


0.425 


0.150 


0.137 


Victor 


0.646 


0.735 


0.229 


0.260 


Eleventh 


0.320 


0.624 


0.159 


0.208 


Indiana 


0.132 


0.308 


0.060 


0.023 


Missouri 


0.394 


0.648 


0.159 


0.219 


Sidney 


0.156 


0.335 


0.001 


0.007 




2.544 


3.983 


1.178 


1.442 



Potential Difference Ratios 
Pipes Not 
Drained 

"Wi th insulated feeders 1.178 ^ 

With uninsulated feeders 2.544 — 

Uninsulated 
Feeders 
3.983 

2^4 =1 - 66 



With pipes drained 



With pipes not drained 

Insulated feeders with drained pipes 



Pipes 
Drained 
1 44° 

3^3 = °- 362 

Insulated 
Feeders 
1 442 

— 1.224 

1.178 



Uninsulated feeders with undrained pipes 



1.442 
2.544 



I ,+= 0.566 



current flow in the pipes under the insulated feeder 
system combined with pipe drainage at the points near 
the power house is but little over half of the current 
flow without pipe drainage under uninsulated feeder 
systems. 

The results as presented, while they do not show 
conditions that would exist under an ideal pipe drain- 
age system, indicate, nevertheless, the tendencies which 
exist and demonstrate that conditions in regard to cur- 
rent flow in the pipes are invariably much better under 
the insulated feeder system than under the uninsulated 
system. 

One point of special interest in connection with the 
data on current flow in the pipes should be mentioned 
here. By reference to Tables II and III it will be noted 
that those points marked W in the second column, indi- 
cating water mains, show in general a much higher 
current flow than the points marked G, which indicate 
gas. mains. The reason for this is that the gas mains 
in this vicinity have a considerable number of cement 
joints, and this undoubtedly is responsible for the com- 
paratively low current flow. It is probable that those 



points which show almost no current flow are sections 
which contain cement joints, whereas those points that 
show small yet appreciable current flow are the older 
lead-jointed sections, since both kinds are known to 
exist in this territory. 

POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PIPES AND RAILS 

Another criterion for determining the relative dan- 
ger to pipes under different conditions is the potential 
differences between pipes and rails. Measurements 
were therefore made between fire hydrants and rails at 
a considerable number of points under both the insu- 
lated and uninsulated systems, and the results are 
given in Table VI. An examination of these data 
reveals that for the most part there has been a marked 
reduction in potential difference, particularly in the 
region near the power house where such potential dif- 
ferences wert originally high. In order to facilitate 
the interpretation of these data they have been di- 
vided into three groups with subheads A, B and C. The 
data for all points in which original potential differ- 
ences were greater than 1 volt are placed in group A; 

Table VI — Potential Difference Between Pipes and Rails 

Group A — Potentials Originally More than 1 Volt 

^Potential Difference—, 
Uninsulated Insulated 

Location System System 

Twelfth and Russell 1.80 0.70 

Eighteenth and Geyer 1.38 0.J9 

Eighteenth and Allen 2.02 0.67 

Eighteenth and Russell 3.00 0.24 

Eighteenth and Ann 2.15 0.08 

Eighteenth and Shenandoah 2.02 0.70 

Eighteenth and Victor 1.69 0.55 

Mississippi and Geyer 2.14 0.86 

Mississippi and Allen 3.45 0.37 

Mississippi and Russell 4.22 0.17 

Mississippi and Gravois 3.60 0.16 

Gravois and McNair 3.20 — 0.84 

Gravois and Victor 1.13 0.53 

McNair and Geyer 1.91 0.15 

Jefferson and Ann 1.47 — 0.14 

Average 2.35 0.22 

Group B — Potentials Originally Less than 1 Volt 

^Potential Difference-^, 

Uninsulated Insulated 

Location System System 

Ninth and Lafayette 0.62 0.02 

Twelfth and Shenandoah 0.56 0.59 

Grattan and Lafayette 0.25 0.30 

Eighteenth and Lafayette 0.38 0.05 

Eighteenth and Sidney 0.69 0.25 

Mississippi and Lafayette 0.62 0.37 

Lemp and Victor 0.71 0.35 

McNair and Victor 0.94 0.52 

Salena and Victor 0.71 0.40 

Jefferson and Lafayette 0.22 — -0.01 

Jefferson and Geyer 0.59 — 0.04 

Jefferson and Gravois 0.77 0.77 

Jefferson and Pestalozzi 0.39 0.32 

Average 0.573 0.30 

Group C — Potentials Originally Negative 

Potential Difference—, 

Uninsulated Insulated 

Location System System 

Broadway and Victor — 0.70 +0.48 

Broadway and Russell — 0.01 + 0.80 

Ninth and Russell —0.23 +0.80 

Ninth and Victor — 0..33 + 0.62 

Eleventh and Park —0.37 +0.33 

Grattan and Park —0.51 +0.35 

California and Geyer — 0.66 +0.29 

California and Gravois — 0.33 +0.84 

Average — 0.39 +0.35 

all those in which the pipes were positive but less than 
1 volt are placed in group B, and all those points in 
which the pipes were originally negative but have be- 
come somewhat positive under the insulated feeder 
system are placed in group C. 

On examination of group A, which includes the 
points of high original potential and therefore covers 
the area in which the original danger is greatest and 
the need for improvement most urgent, we find that 
there has been a very large reduction of potential dif- 
ferences between pipes and rails. In two cases, notably 
at Gravois and McNair and at Jefferson and Ann Ave- 
nues, where the pipes were originally strongly positive 
to rails, they have become very slightly negative, and in 
all the other points in this group a marked reduction is 
apparent. The average potential difference at all points 



January 17, 1914.] 

under the uninsulated system was 2.35 volts, whereas 
under the insulated feeder system this average was 
only 0.22 volt, giving a mean ratio of reduction of 
10.8 to 1. 

Referring to group B, where the original potential 
differences were less than 1 volt, we find there is still a 
very considerable reduction. The average for all of 
these points is 0.573 volt, whereas the average for the 
corresponding points under the insulated feeder sys- 
tem is 0.30 volt, giving a ratio of reduction of 1.91 to 1. 
Even here, in the intermediate region, where the dan- 
ger was comparatively small under the original con- 
ditions, there has still been a considerable improve- 
ment, the average value of 0.30 volt being so small as 
not to involve any considerable danger to the pipes. 

In group C we find that eight points which were 
originally negative have become more or less positive. 
This is to be expected in general because of the ten- 
dency to form positive areas in the region near the 
points where the negative feeders are tied to the track. 
At these eight points there existed originally a mean 
value of potential difference of — 0.39 volt, whereas 
under the insulated feeder system this has been con- 
verted into a mean value of + 0.35 volt. In the more 
remote districts the potential differences were negative 
under both insulated and uninsulated systems and are 
therefore of no consequence here. 

These data show that under the insulated feeder 
system the reduction of danger is greatest at those 
points where there is greatest need for improvement, 
and the foregoing figures indicate very clearly that in 
the present instance the potential differences have been 
reduced to so low a value as to make the pipes com- 
paratively safe. They also show that, while the installa- 
tion of a negative feeder system does tend to in- 
crease somewhat the area of the positive zone, this ten- 
dency is so slight as to lead to no serious consequences. 
One of the principal objections against the installation 
of insulated negative feeders that have been urged by 
some engineers has been that it creates a large number 
of positive areas covering a much greater territory 
than is the case with the ordinary uninsulated system. 
While it is, of course, true that there is a tendency for 
the insulated feeder system to extend the positive area, 
and this is clearly indicated by the foregoing data, 
these data nevertheless show that comparatively few 
new positive points have been created, and that where 
they have appeared the potential differences are so low 
as not to give rise to any serious corrosion of the pipes 
under ordinary conditions. The figures show conclu- 
sively that this objection to the insulated negative 
feeder system is not valid, at least in the present case, 
whereas the reduction of the potential differences in 
the regions where the conditions were originally bad is 
so great as completely to overshadow the effects of the 
slight tendency to broaden the positive zone. 

All of the foregoing potential difference measure- 
ments were taken between water pipes and rails be- 
cause of the greater convenience of making such meas- 
urements, since measurements could be taken between 
fire hydrants and tracks. In order to determine whether 
or not the potential differences between gas pipes and 
the tracks differed materially from the corresponding 
voltages between water pipes and rails, a considerable 
number of measurements were taken between water and 
gas mains at accessible places. These measurements 
are given in Table VII, which shows the generally low 
potential differences between water and gas mains. 

OVER-ALL POTENTIALS 

Still another important factor in determining the 
probability of current being taken up by the pipes is 
the maximum potential differences occurring between 
the tracks near the station and remote points in the 



121 



track network. Accordingly a considerable number of 
such measurements were taken under both the insu- 
lated and the uninsulated feeder system. These data 
are shown in Taoie Vlli. The figures are in accord 



Table VII — 1'otbntial Difference Between Water Mains and 
Gas Pipes 

Uninsulated Feeders, 

Location 24-Hour Average Voltage 

Eighteenth and Geyer 0.00 

Eighteenth and Allen 0.05 

Eighteenth and Russell 0.05 

Eighteenth and Shenandoah 0.27 

Eighteenth and Victor 0.17 

Lemp and Shenandoah 0.02 

Lerap and Victor 0.16 

Mississippi and Geyer 0.09 

Mississippi and Allen 0.16 

Mississippi and Russell 0.44 

Mississippi and Gravois 0.56 

Salena and Victor 0.21 

Gravois and Shenandoah — 0.12 

Gravois and Victor 0.22 

McNair and Geyer 0.02 

McNair and Allen 0.04 

McNair and Russell — 0.09 

McNair and Ann 0.06 

Missouri and Ann 0.07 

Average 0.138 



with all of the other data presented above, and they 
confirm the conclusion that a very marked improvement 
has accompanied the conversion of the system from 
uninsulated to insulated feeders. 

An examination of the preceding data on current flow 
in the pipes, potential differences between pipes and 
rails and over-all potential differences shows that under 
the insulated negative feeder system these values range 



Table VIII — Over-all Potential Differences 

Uninsulated Insulated 
Feeders Feeders 





Distance, 










Location 


Thousands 




Volts per 




Volts per 




of Feet 


Volts 


1000 ft. 


Volts 


1000 ft. 


Broadway and Chouteau. . 


. . 6.9 


11.5 


1.7 


2.7 


0.39 




. . 5.5 


11.0 


2.0 


3.0 


0.55 




. . 2.5 


11.3 


4.5 


0.3 


0.12 


Broadway and Arsenal 


4.6 


11.1 


2.4 


0.3 


0.07 




4.7 


10.1 


2.2 


1.6 


0.34 


Ninth and Victor 


. 2.9 


10.2 


3.5 - 


-0.2 


—0.07 




, . 3.7 


10.1 


2.7 


0.1 


0.03 


Twelfth and Chouteau . . , , 


5.1 


11.3 


2.2 


3.3 


0.65 




4.0 


9.3 


2.3 


2.6 


0.65 




2.0 


6.3 


3.2 - 


-0.1 


— 0.05 


Eighteenth and Chouteau. 


. . 4.6 


11.3 


2.5 


2.7 


0.59 




, . 3.4 


8.3 


2.4 


2.5 


0.74 




3.8 


6.9 


1.8 


0.7 


0.18 




4.1 


11.3 


2.8 


2.8 


0.68 




. 2.6 


11.0 


4.2 


0.8 


0.31 


Jefferson and Arsenal.... 


4.0 


8.1 


2.0 


0.5 


0.13 


Jefferson and Cherokee . . . 


, . 5.8 


10.2 


1.8 


0.0 


0.00 


California and Chouteau. , 


. . 5.9 


10.7 


1.8 


3.6 


0.61 


California and Shenandoah. 3.4 


10.0 


2.9 


1.2 


0.35 


California and Gravois. . 


. . 4.0 


10.3 


2.6 


0.8 


0.20 




4.6 


12.5 


2.7 


3.6 


0.58 


Grand and Arsenal 


. . 7.8 


15.3 


2.0 


5.1 


0.65 






10.4 


2.6 


1.7 


0.35 



from one-fifth to one-tenth of the corresponding values 
which prevail under the uninsulated feeder system. 
These ratios represent approximately the difference in 
electrolysis damage that would result in the two cases. 
The all-important conclusion to be drawn from the fore- 
going test is that, regardless of what local conditions 
may be as to the rate of corrosion, the rate of damage 
under the insulated feeder system will be reduced to a 
fraction of what it would be with substantially the same 
amount of copper used as uninsulated feeders in par- 
allel with the tracks. 

In case experience should show that an appreciable 
amount of electrolysis still occurred under the insulated 
feeder system as now installed we should not recom- 
mend pipe drainage in the present instance to take care 
of this residual trouble, primarily because of the large 
number of insulating joints in the gas mains. We think 
it would be much more effective to take care of any 
residual trouble that may exist by some slight exten- 
sion of the insulated negative feeder system. As for 
lead-covered cables, it is probable that a certain amount 
of drainage will always be necessary for their ade- 
quate protection, but a much smaller amount of cur- 
rent will need to be drawn from them under the insu- 
lated feeder system than under an uninsulated system. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



122 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLIII, No. 3. 



COSTS OF INSULATION 

In Table IX is given a detailed statement of the 
amount of copper in each of the insulated negative 
feeders as now installed, together with their location 
whether overhead or underground and the estimated 
cost of installation. In calculating this cost we have 
assumed that the cost of installing overhead feeders is 
uniformly $750 per 1000 ft. of 1,000,000-circ. mil cable, 
including the cost of copper and installation charges. 
For underground construction the figure of $1,400 per 
1000 ft. of 1,000,000-circ. mil cable has been used. 



Table IX — Approximate Cost op Insulated Feeders 
Ann Avenue Substation 
Size in 

1,000,000 Total 

Location on Length, Circ. Cost 

Feeder Terminal Feet Mil. Character Installed 

Lafayette and Grattan .. . 3600 1 Overhead $2,700 

Mississippi and Geyer... 1300 1 Overhead 975 

Gravois and Jefferson.... 2300 1 Overhead 1,725 

Gravois and California. . . 3900 1 Overhead 2,925 

Ann and Broadway 3900 2 Underground 10,920 

Ann and Ninth 2900 1 Underground 4,060 

Ann and Twelfth 1450 1 Underground 2,030 

Ann and Eighteenth 720 .42 Underground 590 

Total $25,920 

Rated capacity of station 4000 kw 

Cost per kilowatt $6.48 

These figures will, of course, vary somewhat according 
to conditions, but they represent fair average values. It 
will be seen from an examination of Table IX that the 
total cost of the negative feeders installed for this sta- 
tion is $25,920, the rated capacity of the station 4000 
kw, giving a cost of $6.48 per kilowatt of rated capac- 
ity as the cost for the negative feeder system. Based 
on the same unit cost, however, we find that the cost of 
the original uninsulated feeder system amounted to 
$22,150, so that the extra cost properly chargeable 
against the insulated feeder system in this case is the 
difference between these, or $3,770. In addition to the 
cost of copper we must also consider the value of the 
energy lost in the negative return. 

On an examination of the data given above on the 
over-all potential measurements in the negative return, 
we find that under the uninsulated negative feeder 
system the mean voltage drop on the negative side was 
12.2 volts, while under the insulated negative feeder 
system, with the present amount of copper, this nega- 
tive drop is increased to 18.9 volts. The net increase in 
negative drop has therefore been 6.7 volts. The twenty- 
four-hour average current for this station is 3500 amp, 
and multiplying this by the increase in voltage drop we 
find a net increase of power loss on the negative return 
of 23.4 kw. Multiplying this by 8760, the number of 
hours in a year, we get a total of 204,980 kw-hr. per 
year, which, at 1 cent per kw-hr., has a value of prac- 
tically $2,050. The excess cost of installing the insu- 
lated feeder system over the uninsulated system was 
found to be $3,770, and, figuring the annual cost, in- 
cluding interest, depreciation, taxes, etc., at 10 per cent, 
this amounts to $377, which added to the $2,050 rep- 
resenting the value of energy losses gives a total an- 
nual cost of $2,427 which is chargeable against the in- 
sulated system as it now stands. It should be em- 
phasized, however, that this increase in cost is not a 
necessary increase and results only from the plan that 
was followed of keeping the initial investment as low as 
possible until the experimental tests could be made. 

It should be pointed out that the amount of copper 
now in the feeder system is such as would give a maxi- 
mum economy for a station output of about 3000 kw, 
whereas the actual maximum output of the station is 
about 4500 kw, or 50 per cent in excess of that for maxi- 
mum economy. In order to get the most economical 
negative return system, therefore, we should increase 
the cross-section of the present feeders by approxi- 



mately 50 per cent on the average, and this would 
require a total increase in installation cost of approxi- 
mately 50 per cent, or $12,960, which added to the 
excess cost of the present system over the uninsulated 
system as given above — namely, $3,770 — gives a total 
increased installation cost properly chargeable to the 
insulated feeder system of $16,730, and 10 per cent 
annual charge on this gives an annual cost on the 
feeder installation of $1,673. At the same time, since 
the cross-section to the feeders would be increased 
about 50 per cen;, the drop in the negative return would 
be reduced to two-thirds of its present value of 18.9 
volts, giving a negative drop of 12.6 volts. This is sub- 
stantially the same as the drop under the uninsulated 
system, so that there would be no appreciable change in 
the energy losses. Consequently the above annual 
charge of $1,673 on the installation cost represents the 
only actual annual cost properly chargeable against the 
insulated feeder system. 

It will be seen that the addition of $12,960 worth 
of copper to the present insulated feeder system would 
save $2,050 per year in energy losses, or about 16 per 
cent on the investment. It is apparent, therefore, that 
it would be very desirable from an economic standpoint 
to make this increase in negative copper. In point of 
fact, it would probably be desirable to add even more 
than this amount of copper, since by so doing the sav- 
ing in energy loss would, up to a certain point, almost 
balance the increased annual cost of the installation 
and thus the total annual cost would be but slightly in- 
creased. At the same time a large reserve capacity 
for future growth would be had in the negative feeder 
system. 

It is also very instructive to make a comparison on 
the relative cost of the two systems based on identical 
voltage conditions in the track return. Under the insu- 
lated feeder system the average gradient in the tracks 
has been reduced to 0.46 volt per 1000 ft., and if this 
same condition is to prevail under the uninsulated 
feeder system it will be necessary to have the same cur- 
rent distribution in the track. Consequently we must 
run feeders to the same point and take off the same 
number of amperes from the tracks at each point, and 
since feeders will be in parallel with the tracks we must 
further give the feeders sufficient cross-section, so that 
they will carry this current back to the busbar with an 
average potential gradient not exceeding 0.46 volt. 
In order to determine the amount of copper required to 
produce the same conditions under an uninsulated sys- 
tem as we have under the insulated system, it is only 
necessary to determine the average current carried by 
each feeder under the present insulated system and to 
calculate the amount of copper that will be required in 
that feeder to carry the same current with an average 
gradient of 0.46 volt. Calculation of this sort has been 
made and the data are given in Table X. 

This shows that for the same voltage conditions it 
would require eleven and two-tenths times as much cop- 
per for the insulated feeder system as is required in the 
present uninsulated system. Since the cost of the 
present system is $25,920, the cost of the uninsulated 
system using the same unit cost would be eleven and 
two-tenths times as great, giving a total of $290,304, 
which is $264,384 in excess of the total cost of the 
present insulated feeder system, and, figuring as be- 
fore 10 per cent as the annual cost on the copper in- 
stalled, we get $26,438 per year as the excess annual 
charge on the investment in uninsulated feeders. If 
such a system were installed, however, it can be shown 
that it would reduce the potential drop in the negative 
return to about 3 volts. This would be a reduction of 
16 volts below that which prevails at the present time, 
which corresponds to an annual saving in energy of 



January 17, 1914.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



123 



490,560 kw-hr., worth $4,905 at 1 cent per kw-hr. De- 
ducting this from the annual charge of the copper, we 
get a net annual charge on the uninsulated feeder sys- 
tem of $21,533 in excess of the annual charge on the 
present system. 

Of course, it does not follow that if the uninsulated 
system were to be installed the location of the 
feeders would be just the same as here assumed, but the 

Table X — Relative Cost of Insulated and Uninsulated Feeders 
for the Same Voltage Conditions 



Feeder 



Lafayette, between Mississippi and Grattan 
Mississippi, between Ann and' Lafayette. . . 
Gravois, between Mississippi and Jefferson 
Gravois, between Mississippi and California 
Ann, between Mississippi and Broadway . . 

Ann, between Mississippi and Ninth 

Ann, between Mississippi and Twelfth. . . . 
Ann, between Mississippi and Eighteenth. 



lis 



£ u <*-* *j 
V o> OtJ ra 

? ft o § 

1.30 
2.30 
2.30 
3.90 

7. SO 
2.90 
1.45 
0.30 



O 

<o 

toe, 

Ss 
<j 

166 
512 
701 
448 
1200 
586 
162 
272 



Totals 



Ratio of copper required 





Uninsulated system _ 251.86 
insulated system 2 2.25 



it .8 

V r 

*J <D * <D — 

BOSS'S 

4.73 
25.90 
35.46 
38.43 
102.96 
37,40 
5.17 

I. 79 

251.86 

II. 2 



assumption is nevertheless approximately true, and the 
estimated costs are of the correct order of magnitude. 
They show the impossibility from an economic stand- 
point of securing with the uninsulated feeder system 
approximately the same voltage conditions as can be 
obtained with a system of insulated feeders. 

When the advantages from both the electrolysis and 
economic standpoints are fully weighed, it seems rather 
surprising that insulated feeder systems have not been 
more widely used in the past, and we are confident that 
when the advantages are fully appreciated such sys- 
tems will be adopted as the standard of practice, to 
the practical exclusion of uninsulated feeders, except in 
special cases where the load is so light that neither 
electrolysis conditions nor economic considerations re- 
quire additional conductivity over that furnished by 
the tracks themselves. 

In conclusion, the writers desire to express their ap- 
preciation of the co-operation extended to them by the 
officials of the United Railways Company, the Laclede 
Gas Company, the city Water Department, and both 
the Southwestern Telephone Company and the Kinloch 
Telephone Company, all of whom did everything pos- 
sible to assist us in our work. In particular we wish 



to commend the generous attitude of the officials of the 
United Railways Company, who willingly incurred con- 
siderable expense in connection with the installation of 
the feeder system in order that the experiments might 
be carried out under satisfactorv conditions. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY REPORTS OF BUREAU OF CENSUS 

Preliminary figures of the forthcoming quinquennial 
report on the electric railways of the District of Col- 
umbia, Delaware and Maryland have been given out 
by Director W. J. Harris of the Bureau of the Census, 
Department of Commerce. The statistics relate to the 
years ended Dec. 31, 1912, and June 30, 1902. The 
totals include electric-light plants operated in con- 
nection with electric railways and not separable there- 
from, but do not include reports of mixed steam and 
electric railroads or railways under construction dur- 
ing the census year which had not begun operations. 

The detailed figures as presented in the accompany- 
ing table for the District of Columbia show that dur- 
ing the decade 1902-1912 there were general gains in 
the industry. The decrease of the seven operating 
companies reported in 1912 from 1902 was one, or 
12.5 per cent. The track mileage was increased 42.29 
(32.3 per cent), and the number of revenue passengers 

Condensed Income Statement of Operating Companies for 
Delaware, District of Columbia, and Maryland 

Per cent, 
of increase, 
1912 1902 1902-1912 

Number of operating companies 25 21 19.0 

Grots income* $17,318,667 $8,393,872 106.3 

Operating expenses S, 718, 499 4,231,128 106.1 

Gross income less operating 

expenses 8,600,168 4,162,744 106.6 

Deductions from income